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    GLOSSARY TERMS

    F

    F
    Abbreviation for Fahrenheit.
    F-Head
    An engine design having the intake valves in the head and the exhaust valves in the block.
    F-Head Engine
    An engine with some of its valves in the head and some in the cylinder block, giving an F-shaped appearance.
    Fab Shop
    A shop that makes or fabricates parts.
    Fabric cord
    A cord-like material used for strength and reinforcement in belts and tires.
    Face Angle
    The angle of the valve face.
    Face Feed
    The application of a filler metal to a joint during brazing and soldering.
    Face Shield
    A clear-plastic shield that protects the entire face from outside elements.
    Factor
    The mathematical evaluation used by NHRA to estimate true horsepower and weight, and assign production cars to specific stock classes.
    Factory Experimental
    A type of drag-racing car developed by Dodge/Plymouth and Ford/Mercury in the 1960s using their largest engines in light vehicles, a forerunner of the pro-stock class.
    Factory Recall
    A vehicle manufacturer's effort to correct a defect discovered after the vehicle has been delivered to the customer, often several years later.
    Factory Specs
    Factory specifications; the manufacturer's dimensions, clearances, and tolerances.
    Factory Team
    A racing team sponsored and supported by a vehicle manufacturer.
    Factory Tool
    A tool designed by a vehicle manufacturer for a specific application.
    Fad Car
    A T-bucket with a bobbed pickup bed.
    Fad T
    A term used for fad car.
    Fade
    A term often used when referring to brake fade.
    Fadeaway Fenders
    A front-fender design that flowed back and blended into the front doors of the vehicle; a popular style of the 1940s.
    Fahrenheit (F)
    The English scale for the measure of temperature.
    Failure
    The total cessation of function of a system or device, such as coil failure.
    Failure Code
    A term used for trouble code.
    False Air
    Air in a fuel-injection system in excess of that required for combustion.
    False Guide
    A valve guide used to replace a worn integral-valve guide.
    Family Buggy
    The family car.
    A vehicle more than ten years old.
    Fan
    A device having two or more blades attached to the shaft of a motor.
    A device mounted in the heater/air-conditioner duct that causes air to pass over the heater core and evaporator.
    A device having four or more blades, mounted on the water pump, that causes air to pass through the radiator and condenser.
    The spray pattern of a paint spray gun.
    The incorrect technique of applying paint by waving a spray gun back and forth with the wrist.
    Fan Belt
    A flexible V-, or flat poly-groove-type drive belt that transfers power from the crankshaft pulley to the water pump and/or accessories, such as the alternator.
    Fan Blade
    In an engine cooling-system fan, four to six wings on the fan, usually spaced unevenly to reduce vibration and noise.
    Fan Clutch
    A device installed between the water-pump pulley and fan of an engine-driven fan that is sensitive to engine speed and underhood temperature.
    Fan Hub
    The mounting surface for the fan.
    Fan Shroud
    Plastic or metal housing inside which the fan rotates; on certain vehicles, this allows the fan to pull more air past radiator finned tubing and prevents air recirculation.
    Fanning
    The use of pressurized air through a spray gun to facilitate drying, a practice not recommended.
    Fanning the brakes
    A term used for brake fanning.
    FAQT
    An abbreviation for Federation of Automotive Qualified Technicians.
    Fast Flush
    The use of a special machine to clean the cooling system by circulating a cleaning solution.
    Fast Idle
    The higher speed, 1,100 to 1,500 rpm, at which an engine idles during warm-up, when first started.
    Fast Overdrive
    A planetary gear set operating with the planetary carrier as input, the sun gear as output, and the ring gear held.
    Fast Reverse
    A planetary gear set operating with the planetary carrier held; the ring gear is input, and the sun gear rotates in the opposite direction.
    Fast-Idle Cam
    A cam-shaped lever on the carburetor that provides fast-idle action when the engine is cold.
    Fast-Idle Screw
    A screw in the carburetor linkage to adjust fast-idle speed.
    Fast-Idle Solenoid
    An electro-mechanical device on the carburetor for adjustment of the fast-idle speed.
    Fastback
    An autobody style having a roof line that extends in a single, simple curve from the windshield to the rear bumper.
    Fat Fenders
    Bulbous fenders, as on vehicles in the 1930s and 1940s.
    Fatigue
    The tendency of a material to break under conditions of repeated stressing considerably below its tensile strength.
    Fatigue Failure
    Metal failure due to repeated stress so that the character of the metal is altered and it cracks. This is a condition that frequently causes engine bearing failure due to excessive engine idling or slow engine-idling speed.
    Fatigue Strength
    The measure of a material's resistance to fatigue.
    Faying Surface
    The mating surface of a member that is in contact or in close proximity with another member to which it is to be joined.
    Fe
    The chemical symbol for iron.
    Featheredge
    The technique of blending the repair of a damaged area into the undamaged area, maintaining the original surface texture and sheen.
    Feathering
    The technique of modulating the throttle lightly and smoothly for precise, controlled changes in engine speed.
    Featherweight Leaf Spring
    A fiber composite spring.
    Feature Car
    A vehicle displayed at a car show for appearance money and not trophy competition.
    Federal Version
    A car that meets the United States' exhaust emission standards, but not California's standards.
    Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA)
    An international association of national automobile clubs that sanction and regulate major international auto racing series, such as Formula One.
    Federation Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA)
    A division of FIA that sanctions and regulates major international auto racing series.
    Federation of Automotive Qualified Technicians (FAQT)
    A professional association that provides life, health, and disability insurance.
    Feed Holes
    The holes to supply coolant or oil to an engine.
    Feedback
    A principle of fuel-system design wherein a signal from an oxygen sensor in the exhaust system is used to give a computer the input it needs to properly regulate the carburetor or fuel-injection system in order to maintain a nearly perfect air/fuel ratio.
    A signal to a computer that reports on the position of a component, as an EGR valve.
    Feedback Carburetor
    A carburetor that controls the air/fuel mixture according to commands from the engine control computer, typically through the operation of a duty solenoid.
    Felt
    Natural felts are produced by compressed wool, hair, wool/hair, or synthetic fibers, yielding a wide range of densities and permeabilities of consistent density, pore size, and mesh geometry so that performance is reasonably predictable.
    Felt Dust Seal
    An engine seal made of felt, usually used on the front crankshaft pulley.
    A compressor-shaft seal made of felt, usually found between the seal face and armature of the clutch.
    Female
    The universal designation of a part into which a mating (male) part fits.
    Fender Cover
    A protective cover placed on the fender when a mechanic works on an engine, preventing damage to the finish.
    Fenderside
    A narrow-bed pickup truck.
    Ferguson Formula (FF)
    A four-wheel drive system developed in the 1960s, a forerunner of the AWD and 4WD systems in high-performance cars today.
    Ferrite
    An iron compound that has not been combined with carbon in pig iron or steel.
    Ferrous Metal
    A metal containing iron, such as steel.
    Ferrous Wheels
    Vehicle wheels made of iron or steel alloy.
    FF
    An abbreviation for:
    Ferguson Formula.
    Formula Ford.
    FI
    An abbreviation for fuel injection.
    FIA
    An abbreviation for Federation Internationale de l'Automobile.
    Fiber Optics
    A data-transmission medium made of tiny threads of glass or plastic that transmit huge amounts of data via light waves, at the speed of light.
    Fiber Timing Gears
    Camshaft timing gears made of fiber composition material that reduce gear noise.
    Fiber-Composite Leaf Spring
    Leaf springs made of fiberglass, laminated and bonded together by tough polyester resins; incredibly lightweight, they possess some unique ride-control characteristics.
    Fiber-Composite Spring
    A term used for fiber-composite leaf spring.
    Fiberglas
    The trade name for Owens Corning fiberglass-reinforced plastic.
    Fiberglass
    The generic spelling of Fiberglas.
    A product used to fabricate or mold durable lightweight parts and auto body panels.
    Fiberglass Spring
    A term used for fiber-composite spring.
    Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
    A plastic structure or panel that is reinforced with fiberglass.
    Field
    Electrical force in the space around electrically charged particles.
    The lines of force in a natural or man-made magnet between its north and south poles.
    Field Coil
    The coil, or winding, around the field magnets or pole pieces of a motor or generator. Also known as field winding.
    Field Density
    The density of the magnetic field, measured in the number of lines of force per unit area, dependent upon the strength of the field element, the number of turns of wire, and the size and characteristics of the pole piece.
    Field Relay
    A relay that connects the alternator to the battery when alternator voltage is greater than battery voltage and disconnects it when battery voltage is greater than alternator voltage.
    Field Terminal
    The electrical terminal connecting the field coil to the voltage regulator.
    Field Winding
    A term often used for field coil.
    Field-Frame Assembly
    The round, soft iron frame of a generator or motor into which the field coils are assembled.
    Fifth Wheel
    A coupling device mounted on a truck, and used to connect a semi-trailer. It acts as a hinge point to allow changes in direction of travel between the tractor and semi-trailer.
    Fifth-Wheel Height
    The distance from the ground to the top of the fifth wheel when it is level and parallel with the ground.
    The height from the tractor frame to the top of the fifth wheel, as applies to data given in fifth-wheel literature.
    Fifth-Wheel Hitch
    A hitch having a slotted wheel-shaped plate on a tow vehicle into which the kingpin of a fifth-wheel trailer locks to connect the trailer to the vehicle.
    Fifth-Wheel Top Plate
    The portion of the fifth-wheel assembly that contacts the trailer bolster plate and houses the locking mechanism that connects to the kingpin.
    File
    A hand tool with fine teeth for removing small amounts of material.
    A collection of records treated as a basic unit of storage.
    Filled
    The seams in a welded body panel that have been covered with lead, putty, or plastic.
    Filled Axle
    An I-beam axle with concave portions that are reinforced with metal gussets.
    Filler
    A material used to fill dents and repair damaged body parts.
    Filler Cap
    Manually removable lid or seal on the filler neck of a fuel tank, radiator, or other reservoir.
    Filler Metal
    The metal or alloy added for bonding in making a welded, brazed, or soldered joint.
    Filler-Neck Restrictor
    A restriction plate located in the inlet of the fuel tank to prevent leaded fuel from being put into the tanks of cars that require unleaded fuel.
    Fillet
    The radius connecting the journal to the crankshaft cheek.
    Fillet Weld
    A nearly triangular cross-section weld joining two surfaces at approximately right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint.
    Filter
    A system designed to remove solid particles.
    A device used with the drier, or as a separate unit, to remove foreign material from refrigerant.
    A device used to clean the air as it enters the engine.
    Filter Bypass
    A spring-loaded valve built into or next to most oil filters that allows oil to pass around the element if it becomes clogged.
    Filter Drier
    A device having a filter to remove foreign material and a desiccant to remove moisture from refrigerant.
    Filter Plate
    An optical material that protects the eyes against excessive ultraviolet, infrared, and visible radiation.
    Final Drive
    The pinion, ring, and differential gears that provide power to the drive wheels.
    Final Drive Ratio
    The ratio between the drive pinion and ring gear.
    Fins
    Thin metal strips in an evaporator, condenser, or radiator, found around the tubes to aid in heat transfer.
    Fire
    Cause to burn; a flame.
    Fire (class A)
    A fire resulting from the burning of wood, paper, textiles, and clothing.
    Fire (class B)
    A fire resulting from the burning of gasoline, greases, oils, and other flammable liquids.
    Fire (class C)
    A fire resulting from the burning of electrical equipment, motors, and switches.
    Fire (class D)
    A fire resulting from the burning of combustible metals, such as magnesium.
    Fire Bottle
    A term used for fire extinguisher.
    Fire Extinguisher
    A device used to put out fires with the use of chemicals.
    Fire Point
    The lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid will flash ignite at its surface, and continue to burn.
    Fire Suit
    An aluminized fire-resistant driving suit.
    Fire Wall
    The partition between the engine and passenger compartment.
    Firing Order
    The order in which the cylinders deliver power strokes.
    First Law of Motion
    A body in motion tends to remain in motion and a body at rest tends to remain at rest.
    First-Aid Box
    A kit made of various first-aid bandages, creams, and wraps for the emergency treating of minor injuries.
    FISA
    An abbreviation for Federation Internationale du Sport Automobile.
    Fish
    To pull wire or cable through a conduit, raceway, or other confined space.
    Fish Eye
    A crater-like opening in a newly painted surface, caused by water, oil, or a silicone-based material.
    Fish-Eye Mirror
    A wide-angle mirror providing a broader view than a standard mirror.
    Fishtail
    To lose traction with the rear wheels, allowing them to uncontrollably slither from side to side.
    Fit
    The range of tightness or looseness that results from the application of a specific combination of tolerances in mating parts.
    Fitting
    An accessory such as a locknut, bushing, or other part of a wiring system that is intended primarily to perform a mechanical, rather than an electrical function.
    A hose end that is designed to mate with a mechanical part.
    Five-Point Seat Belt
    A safety-belt system with two lap belts and two shoulder belts with a single buckle.
    Five-Six-Seven
    1955, 1956, and 1957 Chevrolets.
    Five-Window Coupe
    A coupe body having five windows; two in the doors, two in the rear quarter panels, and one in the rear.
    Fixed Caliper
    A disc-brake caliper that does not float or slide, rigidly mounted to the steering knuckle, spindle, or control arm, having one or two pistons on each side of the disc.
    Fixed Tappet
    A solid valve lifter or cam follower.
    Fixed-Caliper Disc Brake
    A brake system with the caliper attached to the mounting bracket and pads that adjust themselves to rotor position and thickness.
    Fixed-Orifice Tube
    A refrigerant metering device, used at the inlet of evaporators, to control the flow of liquid refrigerant allowed to enter the evaporator.
    Fixed-Orifice-Tube, Cycling-Clutch System
    An air-conditioning system having a fixed-orifice tube as a metering device and a thermostat-controlled cycling clutch as a means of temperature control.
    Fixed-Type Constant Velocity Joint
    A joint, found on the outer ends of the drive shafts of FWD vehicles, that cannot telescope or plunge to compensate for suspension travel.
    Flame Cutting
    Using a welding torch fitted with a cutting head to cut metal.
    Flame Front
    The leading edge of an air/fuel mixture during combustion.
    Flame Harden
    To heat-treat metal to increase its surface hardness and wear resistance.
    Flame Kernel
    The initial shape of a freshly ignited air/fuel mixture during the first few milliseconds of combustion.
    Flame Out
    An ignition failure while a vehicle is in motion.
    Flame Propagation
    The expansion of the air/fuel mixture in the chamber as combustion is completed.
    Flame Spraying
    A thermal spraying process in which an oxyfuel-gas flame is the source of heat for melting the surfacing material.
    Flame Suit
    An aluminized, fire-resistant, driving suit.
    Flame Travel
    Distance across the combustion chamber that the flame of the ignited mixture travels.
    Flange
    A projecting rim or edge of a part, usually narrow and of approximately constant width for stiffening or fastening.
    Flange Gasket
    A gasket that seals the mating surface of a flanged part and base surface.
    Flange Nut
    A fastener that incorporates a flange or washer thrust surface.
    Flange Weld
    A weld made on the edges of two or more joint members, at least one of which is flanged.
    Flanged Bearing
    A bearing having a flange to affix its position in a bore or on a shaft.
    A main bearing having a flange to control the end play of a crankshaft.
    Flanged Sleeve
    A cylinder sleeve having a flange at the top to allow it to be set at a specific depth in the block.
    Flank
    The flat part of a camshaft lobe.
    Flapper Valve
    A ball valve that operates with a vacuum, pressure Diaphragm, or motor.
    Flare
    A cone-shaped flange end applied to a piece of tubing to provide a means of fastening to a fitting.
    Flared
    Wheel wells emphasized with raised edges.
    Flash
    Material that is expelled from a flash weld prior to the upset portion of the welding cycle.
    Excess material found along the parting edges of a cast or forged part.
    A condition that occurs when the first coat of paint appears to be dull, prior to final drying.
    Flash Chrome
    Thin chrome plating on certain engine parts to provide good wear characteristics.
    Flash Gas
    Gas resulting from the instantaneous evaporation of refrigerant in a pressure-reducing device, such as an expansion valve.
    Flash Point
    The lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid produces sufficient vapor to flash near its surface, but without continuing to burn.
    Flash to Pass
    A steering-column-mounted dimmer switch having an additional feature that illuminates the high-beam headlights even with the headlight switch in the OFF or PARK position.
    Flashback
    A recession of the flame back into the mixing chamber of the oxyfuel gas torch or flame-spraying gun.
    Flashback Arrester
    A device to limit damage from a flashback by preventing propagation of the flame front beyond the location of the arrester.
    Flasher
    An automatic-reset, circuit-breaker-type switch used in directional signal and emergency signal circuits.
    Flat Four
    An opposed four-cylinder engine.
    Flat Motor
    A Ford flathead V–8. Also known as a flatty.
    Flat Out
    Full throttle.
    Flat Rate
    A method of charging for services based on the time normally required to perform a particular service.
    Flat Six
    An opposed six-cylinder engine.
    Flat Spot
    The momentary loss of power as engine speed is increased.
    Flat Tappet
    A mechanical valve lifter.
    Flat Tow
    To tow a vehicle on all four wheels.
    Flat Track
    A dirt oval track without banked turns.
    Flathead
    An engine having intake and exhaust valves in the block.
    Flatty
    A Ford flathead V–8. Also known as a flat motor.
    Fleet Service
    Service given to a fleet of vehicles owned by a particular company.
    Flex Drive Plate
    A disc-shaped, slightly flexible, steel part transferring power from the crankshaft to the torque converter.
    Flex Joint
    A flexible connection such as between the steering column and steering gear.
    Flexible Flyer
    A dragster chassis with a light, flexible structure.
    Flexible Hose
    A fluid or vapor hose having the ability to be routed around various components without creating a restriction or blockage.
    Flexible Radiator Hose
    A large-diameter universal hose connecting the radiator to the engine cooling system.
    Flexplate
    A lightweight flywheel with a starter ring gear around its outside diameter, used on engines equipped with an automatic transmission; also serves as the attachment point for the torque converter.
    Flip
    To overturn a vehicle.
    Flip Top
    A convertible with a retractable hardtop.
    Float
    Part that floats in the fuel bowl to assist in controlling the gasoline level in the carburetor by operating a float-needle valve.
    Float Bowl
    A section of the carburetor main body that acts as a fuel reservoir.
    The reservoir from which fuel is metered into the passing air.
    Float Chamber
    The fuel reservoir at the bottom of a carburetor.
    Float Circuit
    A circuit that maintains the correct fuel level in the carburetor float bowl.
    Float Level
    The float position when the needle valve is against its seat, cutting off the fuel supply.
    Float System
    The system that controls fuel into the carburetor and the fuel level in the float bowl.
    Floater
    A term used for full-floating axle.
    Floating Axle
    A term used for full- or semi-floating axle.
    Floating Caliper
    A disc-brake caliper that has piston(s) on only one side of the disc. The caliper bore moves away from the rotor in order to press the pad on the other side against the disc when the brakes are applied.
    Floating Drum
    A brake drum that is not secured to a hub.
    Floating Piston
    A piston having a floating piston pin.
    Floating Piston pin
    A piston pin that rotates freely within the bore in the connecting rod.
    Floating-Caliper Disc Brakes
    A brake system in which only one of the two pads are energized and move the caliper so that it is caught between both pads.
    Flog
    To abuse a vehicle by pushing it too hard.
    Flood
    A condition whereby more fuel is in the combustion chamber than can be ignited.
    Flooded
    A condition whereby the air/fuel mixture in a cylinder is too rich to burn.
    Flooding
    A condition caused by:
    Too much liquid refrigerant being metered into the evaporator for evaporation.
    Too much gasoline metered into an engine for combustion.
    Floor It
    To have the accelerator pushed to the floor. Also floorboard it and floored.
    Floor Pan
    The panel forming the floor of the interior of the vehicle.
    Floorboard
    The slanted section of the floor pan immediately behind the firewall.
    Floorboard It
    A term used for floored or floor it.
    Floored
    To run at full throttle. Also floorboard it and floor it.
    Flopper
    A funny car with a fiberglass body that flops up in the front to provide access to the engine, chassis, and driver compartment.
    Floppy Disk
    A flexible 5.25- or 3.5-inch disk used widely with microcomputers and minicomputers, providing electronic media storage at a relatively low cost.
    Flow Coating
    A method of applying paint by passing parts on a conveyor through a chamber where several nozzles direct a shower of coating material over the parts.
    Flowability
    The ability of molten filler metal to flow.
    The ability of a fluid or vapor to flow.
    Fluid
    Any liquid or gas.
    Fluid Aeration
    Air bubbles formed in a fluid, giving the appearance of foam.
    Fluid Cooler
    Small heat-exchanger component in a hydraulic line near the pump to reduce power-steering-fluid temperature.
    A device inside the radiator to provide cooling for transmission fluid.
    Any heat exchanger designed to reduce the temperature of a fluid.
    Fluid Coupling
    A device in the power train containing two rotating members, one of which transmits power to the other via fluid.
    Fluid Pressure
    The pressure of a fluid that is invariable and uniform in all directions.
    Fluorocarbon
    Any of a group of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, such as R-12.
    Flush
    To use a fluid to remove solid particles such as metal flakes or dirt.
    To purge refrigerant passages with a clean, dry gas, such as nitrogen (N).
    Flush Bucket
    An oversized carburetor that feeds more air/fuel mixture than the engine can handle.
    Flushing
    A term used for various acts of cleaning a system, such as brake flushing.
    Flushing Agent
    An approved liquid or gas used to flush a system.
    Flushing Hydraulic system
    The procedure for replacing old brake fluid with new fluid.
    Flux
    A material to dissolve and prevent the formation of oxides in molten metal and solid metal surfaces; a wetting agent that facilitates the bonding of a filler metal.
    Flyboy
    A drag competitor who races only occasionally as a hobby.
    Flying Kilometer
    The international standard for attempting to set a speed record by entering the measured kilometer after attaining the highest speed possible.
    Flying Mile
    The international standard for attempting to set a speed record by entering the measured mile after attaining the highest speed possible.
    Flyweight Governor
    Governor assembly, sensitive to centrifugal force, whose action is controlled by primary and secondary weights.
    Flywheel
    A heavy metal wheel with starter ring gear that is mounted at the rear of the crankshaft. It absorbs energy on power stroke(s), returns energy on other stroke(s), and transfers power to the clutch or torque converter.
    Front-most part of a clutch assembly that is bolted to the engine crankshaft with a rear surface to provide a smooth friction area for the disc-front facing to contact during clutch engagement.
    Flywheel Ring Gear
    A gear, fitted around the flywheel, that is engaged by teeth on the starting-motor drive to crank the engine.
    Foaming
    A condition caused by the churning of oil or other fluids.
    A term used for shock foaming.
    Fog Lamp
    Auxiliary lamps, often amber, mounted in front of a vehicle to aid visibility during snow dust or fog conditions.
    Fold
    To bend a material, usually to 180 degrees.
    Follower
    A term used for lifter.
    Following Ball Joint
    A term used for non-load-carrying ball joint.
    FoloThru Drive
    An inertia-starting motor drive, similar to a Bendix Folo-Thru drive.
    Foot (ft)
    An English measure equal to 12 inches.
    Foot In It
    A driver accelerating rapidly and/or refusing to yield during an attempted pass.
    Foot in the Carburetor
    The accelerator pushed to the floor.
    Foot Valve
    The foot-operated brake valve that controls air pressure to the service chambers.
    Foot-Pounds (ft-lb)
    An English measure for torque.
    Footprint
    The portion of the contact area of a loaded tire with the ground.
    The bolt pattern of a device.
    Footwell
    The area for passengers' feet in a vehicle.
    Force
    Any push or pull exerted on an object.
    Force Fit
    A term used for press fit.
    Forced Induction
    An intake system that provides a means for the air/fuel mixture to enter the combustion chamber at greater than atmospheric pressure.
    Fordor
    An early designation for a Ford four-door vehicle.
    Forge
    To form metal into a desired shape.
    Forging Flash
    Remnants of metal on a forged part, usually that which is squeezed out of a mold.
    Fork Lift
    A power-driven truck or tractor that carries pallets or platform-loaded cargo on forks ahead of the machine.
    Fork Truck
    A term used for fork lift.
    Forked Eight
    A V–8 engine.
    Forked Six
    A V–6 engine.
    Formed-in-Place Gasket
    A gel-like material that forms a gasket when clamped between two surfaces.
    Forming
    Making any change in the shape of a metal piece that does not intentionally reduce the metal thickness and produces a useful shape.
    Forming Charge
    The initial charge applied to a new battery before use.
    Formula Car
    A single-seal, open-wheeled race car built to a particular set of specifications.
    Formula Ford (FF)
    An entry level, highly competitive class of racing car with a stock 1,600 cc engine.
    Formula Libre
    A type of road racing open to all without any limitation or restrictions on engine size, bodywork, or other design features.
    Formula One
    A single-seat, open-wheeled car for international Grand Prix racing.
    Forward Clutch
    A clutch that is engaged whenever the vehicle moves forward, controlled by the valve-body forward circuit.
    Forward Rake
    A car having a lower front than rear, to create an extra down force at high speeds.
    Forward Sensor
    A sensor used in air-bag restraint systems.
    Forward Shoe
    A term used for leading shoe.
    Fossil Fuels
    Fuels formed underground from animal and plant matter by chemical and physical change, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
    Foul
    To leave before the green light in drag racing and be disqualified.
    Four Bbanger
    A four-cylinder engine.
    A vehicle equipped with a four-cylinder engine.
    Four By
    A term used for 4*4.
    Four Ccammer
    A V-type engine with dual overhead camshafts on each cylinder bank.
    Four Cycle
    A term used for four-stroke cycle.
    Four on the Floor
    A four-speed manual transmission with a floor-mounted shift lever.
    Four Speed
    A manual transmission with four forward gears.
    Four Wheeling
    The off-highway travel in a four-wheel vehicle.
    Four-Barrel Carburetor
    A carburetor having four venturis.
    Four-Bolt Mains
    A main bearing cap that is held in place with four bolts.
    Four-Gas Analyzer
    An exhaust-gas analyzer able to detect and measure exact amounts of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen.
    Four-Point Seat Belt
    A safety-belt system with two shoulder straps, two lap straps, and a single buckle.
    Four-Sspeed Transmission
    A transmission providing four forward-gear ratios, one reverse ratio, and neutral, permitting closer matching of engine speed to load requirements than a three-speed transmission.
    Four-Stroke Cycle
    A cycle of engine operation whereby the combustion occurs in every cylinder on every second revolution of the crankshaft.
    A complete cycle includes intake or induction, compression, combustion or expansion, and exhaust.
    Also known as four cycle.
    Four-Valve Head
    A head design having four valves per cylinder.
    Four-Wheel Drift
    A controlled four-wheel slide on a paved surface.
    Four-wheel Drive
    A vehicle having a driving axle in front and rear, so all four wheels are driven. Also 4WD.
    Four-Wheel Steering (4WS)
    A system whereby all four wheels are used to steer a vehicle.
    Fractionation
    A condition when one or more refrigerants of the same blend leak at a faster rate than other refrigerant in that same blend.
    Frame
    The substructure of a vehicle supported by the suspension system that supports the bodywork, engine, and power train.
    Frame Alignment
    The measurement of a vehicle frame to ensure that it is within a manufacturer's specifications.
    Franchised Dealer
    A dealer that has a contract with the vehicle manufacturer to sell and service its vehicles.
    Frantz Oil Filter
    The tradename of a popular filter that uses a roll of toilet tissue as its filtration medium.
    Free-Flow Exhaust
    An exhaust system with reduced back pressure.
    Free-Standing Deck
    An engine block construction in which the cylinders are cast in place without being tied by the deck to the outer walls.
    Freedom of Information Act
    A federal law giving everyone the right to certain information.
    Freewheeling
    A mechanical device in which a driving member imparts motion to a driven member in one direction, but not the other.
    Freeze Crack
    A crack in the engine caused by expansion due to coolant freezing.
    Freeze Plug
    A term used for core plug.
    Freeze Protection
    The controlling of evaporator temperature so that moisture on its surface does not freeze and block the airflow.
    An additive added to coolant to prevent freeze-up by lowering its freezing temperature.
    Freeze-Up
    Failure of a unit to operate properly due to the formation of ice at the metering device.
    A term used for seize.
    French Seam
    A fabric seam in which the edge of the material is tucked under and sewn on the inner side.
    Frenched
    A body part, normally separate, having been molded together with another body part.
    Freon
    Registered trademark of E.I. duPont, for a group of its refrigerants.
    Freon 12
    The trade term for refrigerant-12 by E.I. duPont.
    Frequency
    The number of complete cycles an alternating electric current, sound wave, or vibrating or rotating object undergoes in a given time.
    Frequency Valve
    A valve that is used to stabilize the air/fuel mixture on a fuel-injected engine.
    Friction
    The resistance to motion of two items in contact with each other.
    Friction Ball Joint
    A term used for non-load-carrying ball joint.
    Friction Bearing
    A bearing in which there is a sliding contact between the moving surfaces, such as a connecting rod bearing.
    Friction Disk
    A flat disc surfaced with a friction material on one or both sides, such as a clutch disk.
    Friction Facing
    A hard-molded or woven material that is riveted or bonded to the clutch-driven disc.
    Friction Horsepower
    Engine horsepower losses due to friction from such sources as the engine, transmission, and drive train.
    Friction Material
    One of several types of material used for friction surfacing, such as metallic friction material or organic friction material.
    Friction-Modified Fluid
    Automatic transmission fluid that provides smooth automatic shifts; designed to slip.
    Front and Rear Suspension Systems
    The suspension system, with the frame, supplies steering control under all road conditions and maintains proper tracking and directional stability as well as providing proper wheel alignment to minimize tire wear.
    Front Chute
    The front straightaway on a circle race track.
    Front Clip
    The complete replacement of the front bodywork back to the cowl or A-pillar.
    Front Control Arm
    Horizontal arms that connect the front wheels to the car and that support the weight of the front of the car.
    Front Drive
    A drive system that transmits power through the front wheels.
    Front Engined
    A vehicle with the engine in front, ahead of the passenger compartment.
    Front Idler
    A pulley used as a means of tightening the drive belt.
    Front Pump
    A pump, located at the front of the transmission, driven by the engine through two dogs on the torque-converter housing, to supply fluid whenever the engine is running.
    Front Seating
    Closing off the line, leaving the air-conditioner compressor open to the service port fitting, allowing service to the compressor without purging the entire system.
    Front Steer
    A steering gear mounted ahead of the front wheel centerline.
    Front Straight
    A straight area of a race track, such as between turns four and one at the Indianapolis Speedway.
    Front Suspension
    To support the weight of the front of the vehicle.
    Front to Rear Brake Bias
    The difference in balance of brake pressure between the front and rear brake cylinders or calipers; higher in front due to weight transfer during heavy breaking.
    Front-Axle Limiting Valve
    A valve that reduces pressure to the front service chambers, thus eliminating front wheel lockup on wet or icy pavements.
    Front-Body Structural Components
    In a perimeter frame design, the front body section is made up of the radiator support, front fender, and front fender apron. These are installed with bolts and form an easily disassembled structure.
    Front-End Drive
    A vehicle having its drive wheels located on the front axle.
    Front-End Geometry
    The angular relationships involving the front suspension, steering system, and tires.
    Front-of-Dash Components
    The heating and air-conditioning components that are mounted on the firewall side in the engine compartment.
    Front-Roll Center
    The center, determined by the front suspension geometry, around which the forward part of a vehicle tends to roll.
    Front-Suspension system
    Components that provide support of the vehicle front section, allow wheels to move vertically, and provide adjustments for front wheel alignment. The common parts include upper and lower ball joints; control arms, shaft bushings and shims; sway bar and bushings; strut rod and bushings; coil springs; stabilizers; shock absorbers; and steering knuckle and spindle.
    Front-Wheel Drive
    A drive system that transmits power through the front wheels.
    Frontal Area
    The area, in square feet, of the vehicle's cross section, as viewed from the front.
    Fronty
    In early racing, the Chevrolet Frontenac and the Fronty Ford Model T.
    Frosting Back
    The appearance of frost on the air-conditioning suction line extending back as far as the compressor.
    FRP
    An abbreviation for fiberglass-reinforced plastic.
    Fruit Cupper
    An amateur driver.
    Fry
    Overheat.
    Ft
    Abbreviation for foot.
    Ft-lb
    Abbreviation for foot-pound.
    Fudge Factor
    An allowance made for extra time and/or material when working on a vehicle.
    Fuel
    Any combustible liquid, such as gasoline, that can be used to fuel an engine.
    As slang, any fuel other than gasoline that is used to fuel an engine.
    Fuel Block
    A manifold used to distribute fuel to multiple carburetors.
    Fuel Burned
    The type of fuel used; usually gasoline, diesel fuel oil, or liquefied petroleum gas.
    Fuel Cell
    A special fuel tank designed for a race car.
    Fuel Consumption
    The amount of fuel that is consumed or used by the vehicle. Also known as gasoline consumption.
    Fuel Decel Valve
    A device that supplies additional air/fuel to the intake manifold during deceleration to help control hydrocarbon emissions.
    Fuel Distributor
    A mechanical or electro-mechanical device used to route fuel to the injectors.
    Fuel Filter
    A device located in the fuel line to remove impurities from the fuel before it enters the carburetor or injector system.
    Fuel Gas
    A gas, such as acetylene, natural gas, or hydrogen, normally used with oxygen in an oxyfuel process, and for heating.
    Fuel Gauge
    A gauge that indicates the amount of fuel remaining in the tank.
    Fuel Hose
    A term used for fuel line.
    Fuel Injection (FI)
    A term often used for fuel-injection system.
    Fuel Injector
    A mechanical or electro-mechanical device that meters fuel into an engine.
    Fuel Line
    Rubber or metal lines that:
    Carry fuel from the fuel tank to the carburetor or injector.
    Return fuel not used to cool the carburetor and/or injectors.
    Fuel Log
    A manifold that delivers fuel to two or more carburetors.
    Fuel Map
    A chart to show the relationship of engine rpm, fuel flow, and ignition for a particular engine.
    Fuel Nozzle
    A tube in the carburetor through which fuel passes from the float bowl into the passing air.
    Fuel Pump
    A mechanical or electrical device used to move fuel from the fuel tank to the carburetor or injectors.
    Fuel Pump Eccentric
    An engine part, usually bolted to the front of the camshaft, that is used to operate a mechanical fuel pump.
    Fuel Rail
    A conduit to deliver fuel from the distributor to the injectors of an FI system.
    Fuel Separator
    A device that separates fuel and water.
    Fuel System
    The system that delivers fuel to the cylinders, consisting of a fuel tank and lines, gauge, fuel pump, carburetor or injectors, and intake manifold or fuel rail.
    Fuel Tank
    A storage tank for fuel in a vehicle.
    Fuel Wash
    A condition that sometimes occurs during initial start-up of a rebuilt engine wherein fuel washes away the protective assembly oils to allow raw metal to metal contact.
    Fuel-Fouled Plug
    A term used for carbon-fouled plugs.
    Fuel-Injection System
    A system that sprays fuel under pressure into the intake manifold or directly into the cylinder intake ports, allowing more precise control of the air/fuel mixture for improved performance, fuel economy, and reduced exhaust emissions.
    Fuel-Pump Inertia Switch
    A normally closed, manually reset switch that opens if the vehicle is involved in an impact over 5 mph, or rolls over, turning off power to the fuel pump. This safety feature prevents fuel from being pumped onto the ground or hot engine components if the fuel line is ruptured or the engine dies.
    Fuel-Vapor Recovery System
    An evaporative emission-control system that recovers gasoline vapors escaping from the fuel tank and carburetor float bowl.
    Fueler
    A race car running on fuel other than gasoline.
    Fuelie
    An early production car with fuel injection rather than carburetion.
    A term for the fuel categories in drag racing, such as Top Fuel and Funny Car.
    Fulcrum
    A support, often wedge-shaped, on which a lever pivots when it lifts an object.
    Full Bore
    Full throttle. Also known as full chat.
    Full Chat
    A term used for full bore.
    Full Coil Suspension
    A vehicle suspension system in which all four wheels have their own coil spring.
    Full Floater
    A term used for full-floating axle. Also known as floater.
    Full Floating
    Any part that moves and rotates within another part, such as a floating piston pin.
    Full Flow
    A flow without restrictions.
    A type of oil filter, having no bypass, through which all of the oil from the oil pump flows.
    Full House
    An engine that has had every normal hot-rodding modification that may be set up for racing or for street use.
    Full Load
    An engine delivering its maximum output.
    Full Race
    An engine that is built for maximum racing performance.
    Full Throttle
    The wide open throttle position.
    The accelerator pressed to the floorboard.
    Full Trailer
    A trailer that employs a towbar coupled to a swiveling or steerable running gear assembly at the front and does not transfer any of the load to the towing vehicle.
    Full-Floating Axle
    An axle that performs only one function: to transfer torque to drive the vehicle; a type of axle popular on trucks.
    Full-Floating Pin
    A piston pin, held in position by snap rings fitted into grooves in the piston boss, that is allowed to move in both the piston and the connecting rod.
    Full-Flow Filter
    A type of oil filter designed so that all of the oil from the oil pump flows through it.
    Full-Load Enrichment
    The injection of additional fuel into an engine during full-load conditions.
    Full-Metallic Brake Lining
    Brake linings made of metal particles that have been fused together into a solid material.
    Full-Race Cam
    A camshaft that is ground for maximum performance.
    Fully Oscillating Fifth Wheel
    A fifth-wheel type with fore-aft and side-to-side articulation.
    Fume
    The airborne dispersion of minute particles, a byproduct of heating a solid, that may produce an oxide of the solid.
    Fundamental Tone
    The tone produced by the lowest frequency component of an audio or radio frequency (RF) signal.
    Funny Car
    A drag-racing vehicle covered with a lightweight plastic replica of a passenger car body.
    Furnace Brazing
    A welding process used to repair complex cast-iron castings.
    Fuse
    A protection device that opens a circuit when the fusible element is severed by heating, due to overcurrent passing through.
    To join two pieces of metal by bonding them together.
    Fuse Block
    A box-like enclosure that contains the fuses and circuit breakers for the electrical circuits of a vehicle.
    Fuse Link
    A term used for fusible link.
    Fuse Wire
    Wire made of an alloy that melts at a low temperature.
    A term used for fusible link.
    Fusible Link
    A type of fuse in which a special wire melts to open a circuit when the current is excessive.
    Fusion
    The melting together of filler metal and base metal, or of base metal only, to produce a weld.
    Fusion Welding
    Any welding process that uses fusion of the base metal to make the weld.
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