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VIEW SOLUTIONS TO COMMON PROBLEMS
A.I.R. Check Valve
Select a part to view solution for common problems associated with the item.
Operation: High combustion chamber temperatures are considered responsible for spark knock or pinging as well as the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOX) in the exhaust stream. The term EGR stands for Exhaust Gas Recirculation. The EGR valve injects small amounts of exhaust gas into the intake manifold at the appropriate times, in an effort to control combustion chamber temperatures reducing the possibility of spark knock and the formation of NOX. Advice: One of the most common causes of EGR system problems can be attributed to carbon particles getting caught up in the EGR valve pintle. An easy way to prevent this from happening is to install an EGR Klean Screen Carbon Filter Gasket before you start having EGR system problems. This inexpensive preventive maintenance measure can lengthen the life of your EGR system and save you the cost of premature EGR valve replacement. Recommendations: EGR Klean Screen Carbon Filter Gasket
Operation: A.I.R. stands for Air Injection Reactor. The A.I.R.pump, often called a smog pump, under specific conditions delivers air to the exhaust manifolds and/or the catalytic converter. The extra oxygen helps to create heat quickly and aids in reducing emissions by shortening the warm up time period of the engine. It also aids the catalytic converter in its job to turn harmful emission gases into water and CO2. Most A.I.R. pumps are belt driven although some applications use an electric motor. Advice: A.I.R pumps are not repairable and must be replaced with a new or factory remanufactured unit. The only maintenance required is the replacement of the drive belt and on some applications there is an A.I.R. pump filter that requires periodic replacement as well. Most A.I.R. pumps will exhibit a light roaring noise when in use. This is normal. Recommendations: A.I.R. pump filter
Operation: The diverter or switching valve is used to direct the compressed air from the A.I.R. (smog) pump to the exhaust manifold during engine warm up, then to the catalytic converter during normal engine operation. When the engine is decelerating, the exhaust stream is rich with un-burnt fuel. Extra oxygen delivered at this time could cause a backfire, so during deceleration the diverter valve dumps the compressed air directly to the atmosphere. Advice: Diverter valves are controlled by vacuum or electric solenoids. Make sure all vacuum hoses and electrical connections are in place and connected securely. Refer to the repair guide for diagnostic procedures. Recommendations: Repair Guides
Operation: The A.I.R. pipe(s) direct air from the A.I.R. (smog) pump to the exhaust manifold and the catalytic converter. Advice: A.I.R. pipes are hollow and easily distort when force is applied. The fittings that attach the A.I.R. pipe to the exhaust manifold are also hollow and are often seized to the manifold making them very difficult to loosen. Apply a generous amount of a good penetrating oil to the threads and allow to soak for 15 or 20 minutes before attempting removal. Use a Flare nut or line wrench to prevent rounding the corners during removal. In severe cases, it may be necessary to cut the tube just above the fitting and use a six sided socket and ratchet to remove the old A.I.R. pipe. Recommendation: Penetrating oil Tubing cutter Flare nut/Line wrench
Operation: The A.I.R. check valve is as a one way valve that allows air to flow from the A.I.R. (smog) pump into the A.I.R. pipe but prevents exhaust from entering the switching valve or A.I.R. (smog) pump. Advice: Failure of the A.I.R. check valve can cause severe damage to the diverter valve and the A.I.R. (smog) pump. To inspect the check valve, simply remove the hose from the end of the valve and start the engine. You should not feel any exhaust pressure coming through the valve, only a low growling sound. If you feel exhaust pressure, or if the connecting hose is burned or the diverter valve is filled with exhaust soot, the check valve should be replaced. The valve can be very difficult to remove from the A.I.R. pipe. Sometimes both the check valve and the A.I.R. pipe will need to be replaced as a pair because the valve will not come loose from the pipe. Apply a generous amount of a good penetrating oil to the threads and allow to soak for 15 or 20 minutes before attempting to remove. Recommendations: Penetrating oil
Operation: The catalytic converter causes a chemical reaction to occur in the exhaust stream changing the harmful hydrocarbons (HC) into harmless water vapors (H2O) and carbon monoxide gases (CO) into harmless carbon dioxide (CO2). A three way converter also changes harmful nitrogen oxides (NOX) into harmless nitrogen and oxygen. Advice: A catalytic converter typically will not fail on its own. Normal reasons for replacement are either because of rust holes or restricted or plugged passages. Rust holes can develop from moisture in the system especially if the vehicle is driven on frequent short trips where the engine is not running long enough to burn off the condensation in the pipes. Restricted or plugged passages are generally caused by raw fuel passing through the converter. This raw fuel is usually the by-product of a cylinder that is misfiring or a fuel system that is running too rich. If you do not correct the problem that destroyed the original converter, the new one will suffer the same fate.
Operation: Fuel vapors are a primary source of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In order to prevent them from entering the atmosphere, automakers have designed an enclosed venting fuel cap. This type of fuel cap allows the vapors to vent from the fuel tank without allowing them to escape into the atmosphere. Advice: When replacing a fuel cap make certain it is made for your specific vehicle. Also, it must be installed tightly to prevent fuel vapor leakage. A loose fuel cap can set a trouble code and cause the check engine or service engine soon light to illuminate. Recommendation: OE equivalent fuel cap
Operation: The charcoal canister holds the fuel vapors collected by the evaporative emissions system until the engine is started and the purge valve opens allowing the vapors to flow back into the intake manifold to be burned. Advice: Charcoal canisters require very little maintenance other than the filter on the side or bottom of the housing. When topping off your fuel tank, it is best to stop pumping when the pump nozzle kicks off the first time. Continuing to add fuel, trying to squeeze in as much as possible can overfill the system allowing raw gas to travel through the fuel vapor lines saturating the charcoal canister rendering it useless and in need of replacement. In the event raw fuel does enter the canister, repairs should be done immediately to avoid a fire hazard. Consult the repair guides for specific repair procedures. Recommendations Charcoal canister filter Repair guides
Operation: The PCV (Positive Crankcase Ventilation) valve was one of the first emission control devices. It is designed to route the engine blow-by back into the combustion chamber to be burned instead of venting into the atmosphere like older model vehicles. Advice: Without crankcase ventilation, the condensation and engine blow-by would remain in the engine contaminating the oil and turning it into an acidic sludge accelerating internal engine wear. The PCV valve is relatively inexpensive and easy to replace and goes a long way to prolonging the life of the engine, as well as keeping our atmosphere clean.