Acura Coupes and Sedans 1986-1993 Repair Guide



Because of the way an internal combustion engine breathes, it can produce torque, or twisting force, only within a narrow speed range. Most modern engines produce their peak torque in a very narrow range. Once past the torque peak, they are producing so little torque that continued increases in engine speed produce no power increase.

The manual transmission and clutch are employed to vary the relationship between engine speed and the speed of the wheels so that adequate engine power can be produced under all circumstances. The clutch allows engine torque to be applied to the transmission input shaft gradually, due to mechanical slippage. The car can, consequently, be started smoothly from a full stop.

The transmission changes the ratio between the rotating speeds of the engine and the wheels by the use of gears. Today, 5 speed transmissions are most common, with a 6 speed unit thrown in for good measure once in a while. The lower gears allow full engine power to be applied to the drive wheels during acceleration at low speeds.

The clutch drive plate is a thin disc, the center of which is splined to the transmission input shaft. Both sides of the disc are covered with a layer of material similar to brake lining and capable of allowing slippage without roughness or excessive noise.

The clutch cover or pressure plate assembly is bolted to the engine flywheel and incorporates a diaphragm spring which provides the pressure to engage the clutch. The driven disc is sandwiched between the pressure plate and the smooth surface of the flywheel when the clutch pedal is released, thus forcing it to turn at the same speed as the engine crankshaft.

The transmission contains a mainshaft which passes all the way through the transmission, from the clutch to the driveshaft. This shaft is separated at one point, so that front and rear portions can turn at different speeds.

Power is transmitted by a countershaft in the lower gears and reverse. The gears of the countershaft mesh with gears on the mainshaft, allowing power to be carried from one to the other. All the countershaft gears are integral with that shaft, while several of the mainshaft gears can either rotate independently of the shaft or be locked to it. Shifting from one gear to the next causes one of the gears to be freed from rotating with the shaft and locks another to it. Gears are locked and unlocked by internal dog clutches which slide between the center of the gear and the shaft. The forward gears usually employ synchronizers; friction members which smoothly bring gear and shaft to the same speed before the toothed dog clutches are engaged.

The clutch is operating properly if:

  1. It will stall the engine when released with the vehicle held stationary.
  3. The shift lever can be moved freely between 1st and reverse gears when the vehicle is stationary and the clutch disengaged.

A clutch pedal free-play adjustment is incorporated in the linkage. If there is about 25-50mm of motion before the pedal begins to release the clutch, it is adjusted properly. Inadequate free-play wears all parts of the clutch releasing mechanisms and may cause slippage. Excessive free-play may cause inadequate release and hard shifting of gears.

Some clutches use a hydraulic system in place of mechanical linkage. If the clutch fails to release, fill the clutch master cylinder with brake fluid to the proper level and pump the clutch pedal to fill the system with fluid. Bleed the system in the same way as a brake system; the bleeder is located on the slave cylinder. If leaks are located, tighten loose connections or overhaul the master or slave cylinder as necessary.

Front wheel drive cars do not have conventional rear axles or drive shafts. Instead, power is transmitted from the engine to a transaxle, or a combination of transmission and differential, in one unit. Both the transmission and differential (sometimes called the final drive unit) accomplish the same function as their counterparts in a front engine/rear axle design. The difference is in the location of the components.

In place of a conventional driveshaft, front wheel drive design uses two driveshafts, sometimes called halfshafts, which couple the transaxle to the wheels. Constant velocity (CV) joints, a special type of universal joint, are used in the halfshafts to allow the joint to rotate and turn with the steering inputs, in addition to allowing the length of the shaft to change as the front suspension moves up and down. An extension shaft is used to extend the output side of the transaxle. This allows equal length halfshafts to be used, to help reduce torque steer, the tendency for a front wheel drive car to pull to one side during acceleration.