Audi Cars 1999-05

Timing Belt

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General Information



Timing belts are used to synchronize the crankshaft with the camshaft, similar to a timing chain on an overhead valve (pushrod) engine. Unlike a timing belt, a timing chain could last the life of the engine without needing service or replacement. Timing belts use raised teeth to mesh with sprockets to operate the valve train of an overhead camshaft engine.

Engines, chain or belt-driven, can be classified as either free-running or interference, depending on what would happen if the piston-to-valve timing were disrupted. A free-running engine is designed with enough clearance between the pistons and valves to allow the crankshaft to rotate (pistons still moving) while the camshaft stays in one position (several valves fully open). If this condition occurs normally, no internal engine damage will result. In an interference engine, there is not enough clearance between the pistons and valves to allow the crankshaft to turn without the camshaft being in time.

An interference engine can suffer extensive internal damage if a timing belt fails. The piston design does not allow clearance for the valve to be fully open and the piston to be at the top of its stroke. If the belt fails, the piston will collide with the valve and will bend or break the valve, damage the piston, and/or bend a connecting rod. When this type of failure occurs, the engine will need to be replaced or disassembled for further internal inspection; either choice costing many times that of replacing the timing belt.

Whenever a vehicle with an unknown service history comes into your repair facility or is recently purchased, here are some points that should be asked to help prevent costly engine damage:



Do you know if, or when, the belt was replaced-
 
If the vehicle is purchased used, or the condition and mileage of the last timing belt replacement are unknown, it is recommended to inspect and replace as necessary
 
Note the mileage of the vehicle. The average replacement interval for a timing belt is approximately 60,000 miles (96,000 km) or every 6 years.
 


WARNING
Timing belt maintenance is extremely important! The A4 and Passat model utilize an interference-type, non-free-wheeling engine. If the timing belt breaks, the valves in the cylinder head may strike the pistons, causing potentially serious (also time-consuming and expensive) engine damage. The recommended replacement interval for the timing belt is at least every 6 years or 60,000-90,000 miles (96,000-144,000 km), depending on vehicle usage and engine type.


NOTE
If the vehicle has been stored for long periods (2 years or more), the belt should be changed before returning the vehicle to service.


WARNING
NEVER allow antifreeze, oil or solvents to come into with a timing belt. If this occurs immediately wash the solution from the timing belt. Also, never excessive bend or twist the timing belt; this can damage the belt so that its lifetime is severely shortened.


NOTE
If removed and reinstalled, the timing belt must be installed in the same rotational direction as removed.

Inspection




WARNING
Timing belt maintenance is extremely important! These models utilize an interference-type, non-free-wheeling engine. If the timing belt breaks, the valves in the cylinder head may strike the pistons, causing potentially serious (also time-consuming and expensive) engine damage.

All models covered herein, except the1993-97 Passat with the VR6 6-cylinder engine, use a toothed belt to drive the camshaft(s). This design is lightweight, and offers a low amount of parasitic drag on the crankshaft, which increases the output of the engine. Additionally, inspection and replacement of the belt is a relatively simple task (as opposed to replacing a timing chain and sprockets) ensuring that the engine is operating at its peak efficiency. On some models special tools may be required

The timing belt is a basic, yet critical engine component. If the belt were to break, the valve train can be seriously damaged. Frequent inspection, adjustment, and replacement of the timing belt and tensioning pulley is a must.

Audi and Volkswagen Do NOT list a replacement interval for timing belts for their later engines. Because of the consequences of a snapped timing belt (likely to result in significant engine damage), check the timing belt at regular intervals, and keep a record of the mileages checked.

On the 1990-93 2.0L 16-valve Passat GL/CL models, the timing belt should be checked every 2 years and replaced as necessary, or replaced every four years or (60,000 miles (96,000 km), whichever occurs first.

On all 1995-96 Passat GLS models, the timing belt and rollers should be inspected and adjusted as necessary at least every four years or every 60,000 miles (96,000 km) and replaced as necessary, especially on vehicles subjected to severe use. On all other models, if not replaced previously, replace the timing belt and rollers at 90,000 miles or every 6 years, whichever occurs first.

During inspection, check the belt for fluid contamination, cracking, damaged teeth and separation. If the belt is suspect in any of these areas replace the timing belt.



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Fig. The timing belt on the right is beginning to crack and separate. The belt on the left could be reused if necessary. The belt on the right is ready to be replaced



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Fig. The timing belt and tensioner assembly-1.8L engine shown

Inspect both sides of the timing belt. Replace the belt with a new one if any of the following conditions exist:



Hardening of the rubber-back side is glossy without resilience and leaves no indentation when pressed with a fingernail
 
Cracks on the rubber backing
 
Cracks or peeling of the canvas backing
 
Cracks on rib root
 
Cracks on belt sides
 
Missing teeth or chunks of teeth
 
Abnormal wear of belt sides-the sides are normal if they are sharp, as if cut by a knife.
 

If none of these conditions exist, the belt does not need replacement unless it is at the recommended interval. The belt MUST be replaced at the recommended interval.


WARNING
On interference engines, it is very important to replace the timing belt at the recommended intervals, otherwise expensive engine damage will likely result if the belt fails.


NOTE
For additional information, please refer to the following topic(s): General Information And Maintenance, Routine Maintenance And Tune-Up.



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Fig. NEVER bend or twist a timing belt excessively, and Do NOT allow solvents, antifreeze, gasoline, acid or oil to come into contact with the belt



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Fig. Broken tooth may be due to a damaged pulley



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Fig. Back surface worn or cracked from a possible overheated engine or interference with the belt cover



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Fig. Side wear from improper installation



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Fig. Worn teeth from excessive belt tension, camshaft or distributor not turning properly, or fluid leaking on the belt

Removal & Installation




WARNING
Do NOT turn the engine or camshaft with the timing belt removed. The pistons will contact the valves and cause internal engine damage.


CAUTION
On models with an air bag, wait at least 90 seconds from the time that the ignition switch is turned to the LOCK position and the battery is disconnected before performing any further work.

1.8L (AEB) Engine
  1. Note the radio security code and disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Place the (hood) lock carrier in the service position. For additional information, please refer to the following topic(s): Body And Trim, Service Position, Front Bumper, Hood Lock Carrier.
  4.  
  5. Remove the engine accessory drive belts. For additional information, please refer to the following topic(s): General Information And Maintenance, Routing Maintenance And Tune-up.
  6.  
  7. Using a 5 x 60mm bolt, secure the viscous fan pulley. Using a hex wrench, remove the viscous fan-to-pulley bolts. Remove the viscous fan assembly.
  8.  
  9. Turn the engine by hand to Top Dead Center (TDC) on the firing stroke for cylinder No. 1.
  10.  
  11. Remove the upper timing belt cover.
  12.  


NOTE
If reusing the timing belt, mark its rotational direction so it may be installed in its original position.

  1. Using the center bolt, rotate the crankshaft in the direction of engine rotation to position the No. 1 cylinder at Top Dead Center (TDC) of its compression stroke.
  2.  
  3. Remove the damper pulley-to-crankshaft bolts and the damper.
  4.  
  5. Remove the lower timing belt cover.
  6.  
  7. Using a Torx® Wrench T45, or equivalent, loosen the timing belt tensioner, push the tensioner downward and remove the timing belt.
  8.  



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Fig. Crankshaft pulley and camshaft sprocket alignment locations-1.8L engine



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Fig. Timing belt tension adjustment-1.8L engine



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Fig. Timing belt tension wear limits-1.8L engine



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Fig. The Top Dead Center (TDC) alignment marks for the camshaft sprocket



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Fig. The timing belt, tensioner and guide roller

To install:

  1. Align the camshaft sprocket timing mark with the cylinder head cover mark.
  2.  
  3. Install the timing belt on the crankshaft sprocket with the arrow facing the rotational direction.
  4.  
  5. Install the lower timing belt cover.
  6.  
  7. Using a bolt, secure the damper/belt pulley on the crankshaft.
  8.  
  9. Align the crankshaft damper/belt pulley with the housing timing mark so that the No. 1 cylinder is at TDC of its compression stroke.
  10.  
  11. Install the timing belt on the camshaft sprocket and belt tensioner.
  12.  
  13. Using a 2-pin Spanner Matra Tool No. V159 Wrench, or equivalent, lift (turn clockwise) the timing belt tensioner cylinder No. 1 until it is fully extended and tensioner cylinder No. 2 is raised approx. 1mm ( 3 / 8 inch); then, hand-tighten the mounting bolt.
  14.  
  15. Rotate the crankshaft 2 complete rotation in the running direction.
  16.  
  17. Inspect area 'A' for proper alignment with the upper edge of piston No. 2 and adjust if necessary.
  18.  


    Area 'A' - adjustment OK
     
    Area 'B' - wear limit
     
    Area 'C' - re-adjust and check belt drive including tensioner for wear.
     



NOTE
If the piston edge is located in area 'A', measurement 'D' is 25-29mm ( 31 / 32 -1 1 / 8 inches).

  1. After adjustment has been verified, secure the tensioner with a 2-pin Spanner Matra Tool No. V159 Wrench, or equivalent, and tighten the mounting bolt.
  2.  
  3. Complete the damper to crankshaft installation.
  4.  
  5. Using the center bolt, rotate the crankshaft 2 rotations in the direction of engine rotation until the camshaft and crankshaft marks align with their respective reference points.
  6.  
  7. Install the upper timing belt cover.
  8.  
  9. Install the drive belts.
  10.  
  11. The balance of assembly is in reverse order of removal.
  12.  
  13. Install the negative battery cable last.
  14.  
  15. Test drive the vehicle.
  16.  

 
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