Avalon 1995-1996

Vehicle Speed Sensor

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Operation



Specific to:

Toyota Avalon 1995-1996

The Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) is a permanent magnet output coil device that monitors the vehicle speed. A reluctor is attached to the transmission/transaxle final drive, and is used to generate a constant signal as it passes the VSS magnetic coil. The VSS Sensor utilizes system voltage (12 volts DC), or reference voltage (5 volts DC) to generate a digital output signal to the PCM that is based upon a 0.5 volt AC reference. The alternating magnetic field is used by the sensor output electronics to produce a generated wave form. The VSS waveform is used by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) to calculate engine and vehicle load, ignition timing, fuel injector timing and pulse width, fuel cut, and the speedometer display.  

Removal & Installation



Specific to:

Toyota Avalon 1995-1996

  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions Section.
  2.  
  3. Remove the air cleaner assembly.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the vehicle speed sensor connector.
  6.  
  7. Remove the bolt and vehicle speed sensor assembly.
  8.  
  9. Remove the clip and driven gear from the vehicle speed sensor.
  10.  
  11. Remove the O-ring from the vehicle speed sensor.

    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Remove the vehicle speed sensor

  12.  

To install:

  1. Coat a new O-ring with ATF and install it to the vehicle speed sensor.
  2.  
  3. Install the driven gear to the vehicle speed sensor and clip.

    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Install the O-ring and driven gear

  4.  
  5. Install the vehicle speed sensor assembly and tighten the bolt to 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm).
  6.  
  7. Connect the connector.
  8.  
  9. Install the air cleaner assembly.
  10.  

Testing



Specific to:

Toyota Avalon 1995-1996


NOTE
Refer to the Electrical Wiring Diagram for component and connector locations, connector views, and circuit-specific information.

Connection & Wiring Diagnosis

Specific to:

Toyota Avalon 1995-1996

Refer to the Electrical Wiring Diagram for component and connector locations, connector views, and circuit-specific information.

Many intermittent open or short circuits may be caused by wiring harness and connector movement due to vibration, engine torque, bumps and rough pavement, etc.

  1. Test the wiring harness and connectors by performing the following tests:

    Move the related connectors and wiring while monitoring the appropriate scan tool data.
     
    Move the related connectors and wiring with the component commanded ON and OFF. Using a suitable the scan tool, observe the component operation.
     
    With the engine running, move the related connectors and wiring while monitoring component operation.
     
    If harness or connector movement affects the data displayed, the component and system operation, or the engine operation, inspect and repair the harness or connections as necessary.
     

  2.  
  3. Test the connector terminal pins and/or wiring by performing the following tests:

    Inspect for incorrect mating of the connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body.
     
    Inspect for improperly formed or damaged terminals and test for incorrect terminal tension.
     
    Inspect for poor terminal to wire connections including terminals crimped over insulation. This requires removing the terminal from the connector body.
     
    Inspect for corrosion or water intrusion. Pierced or damaged insulation can allow moisture to enter the wiring. The conductor can corrode inside the insulation with little visible evidence. Look for swollen and/or brittle sections of wire in the suspect circuits.
     
    Inspect for wires that are broken inside the insulation by gently pulling on suspect sections of wiring.
     

  4.  

Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes

Specific to:

Toyota Avalon 1995-1996



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes

VSS Circuit Testing

Specific to:

Toyota Avalon 1995-1996

Use a suitable scan tool or a Graphing Multi-Meter (GMM) in order to view the VSS data.

VSS logic is based on alternating lines of magnetic flux which generate an analog signal to the PCM, and are based on the vehicle speed.

Verify that the engine that there is no foreign material obstructing the path between the reluctor and the VSS. If any engine mechanical faults are evident, locate and repair as required before continuing.

A Digital Volt-Ohm Meter (DVOM) may be used to verify the condition of the wiring: additional information may be acquired by taking measurements at the sensor connector as well as the PCM connector. If significant resistance is measured (greater than 5 ohms), check the wiring harness and connections for corrosion, poor pin connections, or damaged wires.

If all engine wiring and pin connections are confirmed, disconnect the VSS to verify the signal with a GMM, and verify PCM communication before replacing the VSS Sensor.

Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. VSS Range Chart

VSS Strategy

Specific to:

Toyota Avalon 1995-1996

The VSS provides a magnetically generated signal waveform to the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) for a number of engine control, drive train, and information display system calculations. The VSS signal frequency varies according to vehicle speed, and is compared with the Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor and Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor signals for measured operating conditions. The magnetic waveform pattern is used by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) to calculate engine and vehicle load, ignition timing, fuel injector timing and pulse width, and the speedometer display.

 
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