CTS 2003-2005

Diagnosis & Testing


When servicing the ABS-VI, the following steps should be followed in order. Failure to follow these steps may result in the loss of important diagnostic data and may lead to difficult and time consuming diagnosis procedures.

  1. Connect a bi-directional scan tool, as instructed by the tool manufacturer, then read all current and historical diagnostic codes. Be certain to note which codes are current diagnostic code failures. DO NOT CLEAR CODES unless directed to do so.
  3. Using a bi-directional scan tool, read the CODE HISTORY data. Note the diagnostic fault codes stored and their frequency of failure. Specifically note the last failure that occurred and the conditions present when this failure occurred. This last failure should be the starting point for diagnosis and repair.
  5. Perform a vehicle preliminary diagnosis inspection. This should include:
    1. Inspection of the compact master cylinder for proper brake fluid level.
    3. Inspection of the ABS hydraulic modulator for any leaks or wiring damage.
    5. Inspection of brake components at all four (4) wheels. Verify no drag exists. Also verify proper brake apply operation.
    7. Inspection for worn or damaged wheel bearings that allow a wheel to wobble.
    9. Inspection of the wheel speed sensors (where possible) and their wiring. Verify correct air gap range, solid sensor attachment, undamaged sensor toothed ring, and undamaged wiring, especially at vehicle attachment points. The sensors for the rear wheels are built into the rear wheel hub/bearing assemblies and cannot be inspected or serviced.
    11. Verify proper outer CV-joint alignment and operation.
    13. Verify tires meet legal tread depth requirements.

  7. If no codes are present, or mechanical component failure codes are present, perform the automated modulator test using the Tech 1®, T-100® or equivalent scan tool, to isolate the cause of the problem. If the failure is intermittent and not reproducible, test drive the vehicle while using the automatic snapshot feature of the bi-directional scan tool.

Perform normal acceleration, stopping, and turning maneuvers. If this does not reproduce the failure, perform an ABS stop, on a low coefficient surface such as gravel, from approximately 30-50 mph (48-80 km/h) while triggering any ABS/ETC code. If the failure is still not reproducible, use the enhanced diagnostic information found in CODE HISTORY to determine whether or not this failure should be further diagnosed.

  1. Once all system failures have been corrected, clear the ABS codes. The Tech 1® and T-100®, when plugged into the Data Link Connector (DLC), becomes part of the vehicle's electronic system. The Tech 1® and T-100® scan tools can also perform the following functions on components linked by the Serial Data Link (SDL):

    Display ABS data
    Display and clear ABS trouble codes
    Control ABS components
    Perform extensive ABS diagnosis
    Provide diagnostic testing for intermittent ABS conditions


Each test mode has specific diagnostic capabilities which depend upon various keystrokes. In general, five (5) keys control sequencing: YES, NO, EXIT, UP arrow and DOWN arrow. The FO through F9 keys select operating modes, perform functions within an operating mode, or enter trouble code or model year designations.

In general, the Tech 1® has five (5) test modes for diagnosing the anti-lock brake system. The five (5) test modes are as follows:

MODE FO: DATA LIST -In this test mode, the Tech 1® continuously monitors wheel speed data, brake switch status and other inputs and outputs.

MODE F1: CODE HISTORY -In this mode, fault code history data is displayed. This data includes how many ignition cycles since the fault code occurred, along with other ABS information. The first five (5) and last fault codes set are included in the ABS history data.

MODE F2: TROUBLE CODES -In this test mode, trouble codes stored by the EBCM, both current ignition cycle and history, may be displayed or cleared.

MODE F3: ABS SNAPSHOT -In this test mode, the Tech 1® captures ABS data before and after a fault occurrence or a forced manual trigger.

MODE F4: ABS TESTS -In this test mode, the Tech 1® performs hydraulic modulator functional tests to assist in problem isolation during troubleshooting.

Press F7 to covert from English to Metric.

Diagnostic Strategy

In difficult diagnostic situations use the above information to identify malfunction occurrence trends. Ask question such as the following:

  1. Did the malfunction only occur once over a large number of drive cycles, indicating an unusual condition present when it occurred-
  3. Does the malfunction occur infrequently over a large number of drive cycles, indicating that special diagnostic techniques may be required to identify the source of the malfunction-

A malfunction that occurs more frequently increases the odds of finding the cause of the malfunction.

Use the information in order to determine if a DTC is intermittent. Use the information in order to determine if the DTC has not set for long periods of time due to weather changes or a repair prior to this visit.

Diagnostic Test Drive

When servicing vehicles with the vehicle stability enhancement system (VSES), test drives will be necessary to allow all tests to be run, and all system functions to be enabled and exercised. A test drive may also be required to duplicate specific DTCs. The diagnostic system check (including test drive) should be run when vehicle repairs are complete in order to verify the repair. The diagnostic test drive will vary for ABS, TCS, or VSES concerns.

  1. The following is a suggested VSES diagnostic test drive:
    1. Turn OFF the ignition.
    3. Reconnect any previously disconnected components.
    5. Start the engine.
    7. Install a scan tool.
    9. With the scan tool, observe the VSES Is Centered parameter in the VSES data list. The scan tool will indicate Yes with the steering wheel centered. Drive the vehicle in a straight line for 45 seconds at 24 km/h (15 mph) while monitoring the scan tool.
    11. Remove the scan tool.
      Do not perform any unlawful or unsafe maneuvers.

    13. Drive the vehicle under the following conditions for at least 10 minutes.
    15. Highway driving.
    17. Rough roads.
    19. Perform turning maneuvers (curved freeway entrance ramp, parking lot maneuvers) and high steering angles and yaw rates at low speeds.
    21. Verify the customers concern and duplicate driving conditions.
    23. With the engine still running, use the scan tool in order to check for DTCs. If any DTCs are set, repair the concern as necessary.


Enhanced Diagnostics

Enhanced diagnostic information is found in the History Data function of the scan tool. Enhanced diagnostic information provides the service technician with specific malfunction occurrence information.

The scan tool will display the last 3 DTCs to occur, one at a time. The DTC with the most recent occurrence will be displayed first. Each DTC will include the following:

  1. The number of drive cycles since the DTC last occurred.
  3. The number of occurrences for the DTC since the scan tool DTC information was last cleared.

The most recent DTC will also display various data parameters with values from the time of the DTC occurrence.

Enhanced diagnostic information, found in the CODE HISTORY function of the bi-directional scan tool, is designed to provide specific fault occurrence information. For each of the first five (5) and the very last diagnostic fault codes stored, data is stored to identify the specific fault code number, the number of failure occurrences, and the number of drive cycles since the failure first and last occurred (a drive cycle occurs when the ignition is turned ON and the vehicle is driven faster than 10 mph). However, if a fault is present, the drive cycle counter will increment by turning the ignition ON and OFF . These first five (5) diagnostic fault codes are also stored in the order of occurrence. The order in which the first 5 faults occurred can be useful in determining if a previous fault is linked to the most recent faults, such as an intermittent wheel speed sensor which later becomes completely open.

During difficult diagnosis situations, this information can be used to identify fault occurrence trends. Does the fault occur more frequently now than it did during the last time when it only failed 1 out of 35 drive cycles- Did the fault only occur once over a large number of drive cycles, indicating an unusual condition present when the fault occurred- Does the fault occur infrequently over a large number of drive cycles, indication special diagnosis techniques may be required to identify the source of the fault-

If a fault occurred 1 out of 20 drive cycles, the fault is intermittent and has not reoccurred for 19 drive cycles. This fault may be difficult or impossible to duplicate and may have been caused by a severe vehicle impact (large pot hole, speed bump at high speed, etc.) that momentarily opened an electrical connector or caused unusual vehicle suspension movement. Problem resolution is unlikely, and the problem may never reoccur (check diagnostic aids proved for that code). If the fault occurred 3 out of 15 drive cycles, the odds of finding the cause are still not good, but you know how often it occurs and you can determine whether or not the fault is becoming more frequent based on an additional or past occurrences visit if the source of the problem can not or could not be found. If the fault occurred 10 out of 20 drive cycles, the odds of finding the cause are very good, as the fault may be easily reproduced.

By using the additional fault data, a trained, qualified technician can also determine if a failure is randomly intermittent or if it has not reoccurred for long periods of time due to weather changes or a repair prior to this visit. Say a diagnostic fault code occurred 10 of 20 drive cycles but has not reoccurred for 10 drive cycles. This means the failure occurred 10 of 10 drive cycles but has not reoccurred since. A significant environmental change or a repair occurred 10 drive cycles ago. A repair may not be necessary if a recent repair can be confirmed. If no repair was made, the service can focus on diagnosis techniques used to locate difficult to recreate problems.

Intermittent Failures

As with most electronic systems, intermittent failures may be difficult to accurately diagnose. The following is a method to try to isolate an intermittent failure especially wheel speed circuitry failures.

If an ABS fault occurs, the ABS warning light indicator will be on during the ignition cycle in which the fault was detected. If it is an intermittent problem which seems to have corrected itself (ABS warning light off), a history trouble code will be stored. Also stored will be the history data of the code at the time the fault occurred. The Tech 1® or equivalent scan tool must be used to read ABS history data.

Most intermittents are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring, although occasionally a sticking relay or solenoid can be a problem. Some items to check are:

  1. Poor mating of connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body (backed out).
  3. Dirt or corrosion on the terminals. The terminals must be clean and free of any foreign material which could impede proper terminal contact.
  5. Damaged connector body, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt, as well as not maintaining proper terminal orientation with the component or mating connector.
  7. Improperly formed or damaged terminals. All connector terminals in problem circuits should be checked carefully to ensure good contact tension. Use a corresponding mating terminal to check for proper tension. Refer to "Checking Terminal Contact" later in this section for the specific procedure.
  9. GM's J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit must be used whenever a diagnostic procedure requests checking or probing a terminal. Using the adapter will ensure that no damage to the terminal will occur, as well as giving an idea of whether contact tension is sufficient. If contact tension seems incorrect, refer to "Checking Terminal Contact" later in this section for specifics.
  11. Poor terminal-to-wire connection. Checking this requires removing the terminal from the connector body. Some conditions which fall under this description are poor crimps, poor solder joints, crimping over wire insulation rather than the wire itself, corrosion in the wire-to-terminal contact area, etc.
  13. Wire insulation which is rubbed through, causing an intermittent short as the bare area touches other wiring or parts of the vehicle.
  15. Wiring broken inside the insulation. This condition could cause a continuity check to show a good circuit, but if only 1 or 2 strands of a multi-strand type wire are intact, resistance could be far too high.

Checking Terminal Contact

When diagnosing an electrical system that uses Metri-Pack 150/280/480/630 series terminals (refer to Terminal Repair Kit J 38125-A for terminal identification), it is important to check terminal contact between a connector and component, or between inline connectors, before replacing a suspect component.

Mating terminals must be inspected to ensure good terminal contact. A poor connection between the male and female terminal at a connector may be the result of contamination or deformation.

Contamination is caused by the connector halves being improperly connected, a missing or damaged connector seal, or damage to the connector itself, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt. Contamination, usually in underhood or underbody connectors, leads to terminal corrosion, causing an open circuit or an intermittently open circuit.

Deformation is caused by probing the mating side of a connector terminal without the proper adapter, improperly joining the connector halves or repeatedly separating and joining the connector halves. Deformation, usually to the female terminal contact tang, can result in poor terminal contact causing an open or intermittently open circuit.

Follow the procedure below to check terminal contact.

  1. Separate the connector halves. Refer to Terminal Repair Kit J 38125-A, if available.
  3. Inspect the connector halves for contamination. Contamination will result in a white or green buildup within the connector body or between terminals, causing high terminal resistance, intermittent contact or an open circuit. An underhood or underbody connector that shows signs of contamination should be replaced in its entirety: terminals, seals, and connector body.
  5. Using an equivalent male terminal from the Terminal Repair Kit J 38125-A, check the retention force of the female terminal in question by inserting and removing the male terminal to the female terminal in the connector body. Good terminal contact will require a certain amount of force to separate the terminals.
  7. Using an equivalent female terminal from the Terminal Repair Kit J 38125-A, compare the retention force of this terminal to the female terminal in question by joining and separating the male terminal to the female terminal in question. If the retention force is significantly different between the two female terminals, replace the female terminal in question, using a terminal from Terminal Repair Kit J 38125-A.

Onboard Diagnostics

The ABS-VI contains sophisticated onboard diagnostics that, when accessed with a bi-directional scan tool, are designed to identify the source of any system fault as specifically as possible, including whether or not the fault is intermittent. There are over 58 Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) to assist with system diagnosis.

The last diagnostic fault code to occur is identified, specific ABS data is stored at the time of this fault, and the first five codes set are stored. Additionally, using a bi-directional scan tool, each input and output can be monitored, thus enabling fault confirmation and repair verification. Details of many of these functions are contained in the following sections.