ABS operation is available at all vehicle speeds above 3-5 mph. If a wheel locking tendency is detected during a brake application, the brake system enters the ABS mode. During ABS braking, hydraulic pressure in the four wheel circuits is modulated to prevent any wheel from locking. Each wheel circuit is designed with a set of electric solenoids to allow modulation, although for vehicle stability, both rear wheel solenoids receive the same electrical signal.
Wheel lockup may be perceived at the very end of an ABS stop and is considered normal.
During an ABS event, the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) regulates hydraulic pressure at all 4 of the vehicle-s wheels.
The hydraulic pressure at each front wheel is controlled independently (relative to the amount of slip at each wheel) in order to maximize the braking force generated by the front brakes. The rear wheels are controlled such that the hydraulic pressure at either rear wheel does not exceed that of the highest slip rear wheel in order to maintain vehicle stability.
The system can build and release pressure at each wheel, depending on signals generated by the Wheel Speed Sensors (WSS) at each wheel and received at the Anti-lock Brake Module (ABM).
The purpose of the Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) is to prevent wheel lockup under braking conditions on virtually any type of road surface. Anti-lock braking is desirable because a vehicle that is stopped without locking the wheels retains directional stability and some steering capability. This allows the driver to retain greater control of the vehicle during braking.