When servicing the battery and or clamps/terminals, DO NOT hammer on the battery clamps to install them, as this may crack the battery case or damage the terminals.
See Figures 1 and 2
The battery stores, stabilizes, and produces electrical current to operate various electrical systems. The determination of whether a battery is good or bad is made by the battery's ability to accept a charge and produce high-amperage current output over an extended period. The capability of the battery to store electrical current comes form a chemical reaction between the sulfuric acid solution (electrolyte) and the lead +/- plates in each cell of the battery. As the battery discharges, the plates collect the acid form the electrolyte. When the charging system charges the battery, the acid is forced out of the plates into the electrolyte. The amount of acid (specific gravity) in the electrolyte can be measured with a hydrometer. A factory installed battery is equipped with a built-in hydrometer (test indicator) to assist in determining the state-of-charge. The factory installed battery is also nonrefillable; water cannot be added. The battery is vented to release gases that are created when the battery is being charged. The battery top, posts, and terminals should be cleaned when other underhood maintenance is performed.
When the electrolyte level is below the top of the plates (yellow or bright color indicator dot), the battery must be replaced with a new one. The battery must be completely charged (green dot) and the top, posts and terminals should be properly cleaned before diagnostic procedures are performed.
Never disconnect the battery with the engine running or with the ignition turned ON. Severe and expensive damage to the onboard computers will result. With the ignition OFF and the key removed for safety, always disconnect the negative (-) cable first and connect it last.
Check the battery cables for signs of wear or chafing and replace any cable or terminal that looks marginal. Battery terminals can be easily cleaned; inexpensive cleaning tools are an excellent investment that will pay for themselves many times over. They can usually be purchased from any well-equipped auto store or parts department. The accumulated white powder and corrosion can be cleaned from the top of the battery with an old toothbrush and a solution of baking soda.
If the battery becomes corroded, or if electrolyte should splash out during additions of water, a mixture of baking soda and water will neutralize the acid. This should be washed off with cold water after making sure that the cell caps are tight. Battery fluid is particularly nasty to painted surfaces; work carefully to avoid spillage on fenders and other painted bodywork.
If a charging is required while the battery is in the car, disconnect the battery cables, negative (ground) cable first. If you have removed the battery from the vehicle for charging, make sure the battery is not sitting on bare earth or concrete while being charged. A block of wood or a small stack of newspapers will prevent the battery from losing internal heat while charging.
A battery charged to 12.4 volts or greater, with sufficient cranking capacity (minimum 9.6 volts when loaded for 15 seconds to 50% of cold cranking amperage rating at 70°F (21°C), is completely charged. A green dot, visible in the test indicator built into the top of the battery, indicates it is charged enough for further testing and possibly returned to use. A black dot indicates the battery voltage is below 12.4 volts and probably will accept a charge. A yellow or bright color dot (other than green) indicates the battery has excessively low electrolyte level. The battery can not be refilled or charged; it must be replaced with a new one.
The battery electrolyte will bubble inside of the case while being charged properly. If the electrolyte boils violently or is discharged from the vent holes while charging, immediately reduce the charging rate or turn the charger off and evaluate the battery condition.
See Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6
When replacing a battery, it is important that the replacement have an output rating equal to or when greater than original equipment. Do not confuse physical size with electrical capacity. A stronger battery (capable of delivering more power) need not be much larger that the original. A physically larger battery may not fit in the car and may actually deliver less power than the original.
To remove and install the battery, follow these directions:
- Loosen the battery terminal clamp bolts.
- Use a battery terminal puller to remove the battery negative (-) cable clamp first.
- Use the battery terminal puller to remove the battery positive (+) cable clamp.
- Loosen and remove the battery hold-down nut.
- Remove the battery hold-down.
- Unsnap the air cleaner hold-downs, if necessary.
- Remove the battery from the vehicle.
- Inspect the battery tray and hold-downs for corrosion. Remove corrosion using a stiff bristle brush and a baking soda and warm water solution. Paint any exposed bare metal. Replace damaged components with new ones.