Only caster, camber, and toe-in settings are adjustable. Specifications for steering axis inclination and wheel pivot ratio are useful only in detecting damaged components. Caster and camber cannot be set accurately without professional equipment. Toe-in can be adjusted with some degree of success without any special equipment. Front end height should be checked before adjusting front end alignment.
Caster is the backward or forward tilt from the vertical of the steering knuckle centerline at the top, measured in degrees. A steering knuckle centerline tilted backward at the top has positive (+) caster, while one tilted forward has negative (-) caster. Most American cars have negative or zero caster to reduce steering effort. Positive caster produces greater directional stability and requires greater steering effort, since it also increases the self-centering effect at the steering wheel.
Caster is adjusted by loosening either one of the upper control arm pivot bar adjusting bolts and moving the pivot bar. The bolts should be tightened to 150 ft. lbs. after adjustment.
Camber is the inward or outward tilt, measured in degrees, of the wheel at the top. A wheel tilted out at the top has positive (+) camber. A wheel tilted in has negative (-) camber. Camber has a great effect on tire wear.
Camber is adjusted by loosening both the upper control arm pivot bar adjusting bolts and moving both ends of the pivot bar equal amounts. The bolts should be tightened to 150 ft. lbs. after adjustment. Caster should always be rechecked after setting camber.