A key to the diagnosis of the PCM and its subsystems is to determine which subsystems are on a vehicle. Examples of typical subsystems appear below:
System Control Modules
Before attempting diagnosis of the Electronic Engine Control system, familiarize yourself with the basics of how the system is designed to operate. It consists of a central processing unit: Powertrain Control Module (PCM), Engine Control Module (ECM), Transmission Control Module (TCM) and/or the Body Control Module (BCM). These units are the -heart- of the electronic control systems on the vehicle. In some cases, these units are integral with one another, and on some applications, they are separate. As you get deeper into actual diagnostic testing, you will find out which units are used on the vehicle you are testing.
The PCM is a digital computer that contains a microprocessor. The PCM receives input signals from various sensors and switches that are referred to as PCM inputs. Based on these inputs, the PCM adjusts various engine and vehicle operations through devices that are referred to as PCM outputs. Examples of the input and output devices are shown in the graphic below.
Where To Begin
Accessing Components & Circuits
Every vehicle and every diagnostic situation is different. It is a good idea to first determine the best diagnostic path to follow using flow charts, wiring diagrams, TSBs, etc. Part of choosing steps is to determine how time-consuming and effective each step will be. It may be easy to access a component or circuit in one vehicle, but difficult in another. Many circuits are integrated into a large harness and are difficult to test. Many components are inaccessible without disassembly of unrelated systems.
In the graphic, you will note that the protective covers have been removed from the PCM connectors, and any circuit can be easily identified and back probed. In other cases, PCM access is difficult, and it may be easier to access circuits at the component side of the harness.
Another important point to remember is that any circuit or component controlled by a relay or fused circuit can be monitored from the appropriate fuse box.
There is generally more than one of each type of relay or fuse. Therefore, swapping a suspect relay from another system may be more efficient than testing the relay itself. Relays and fuses may also be removed and replaced with fused jumper wires for testing circuits. Jumper wires can also provide a loop for inductive amperage tests.
Choosing the easiest way has its limitations, however. Remember that an appropriate signal on a PCM controlled circuit at an actuator means that the signal at the PCM is also good. However, a sensor signal at the sensor does not necessarily mean that the PCM is receiving the same signal. Think about the direction flow through a circuit, and not just what signal is appropriate, to save time without making costly assumptions.Base Engine Tests
To determine that an engine is mechanically sound, certain tests need to be performed to verify that the correct A/F mixture enters the engine, is compressed, ignited, burnt, and then discharged out of the exhaust system. These tests can be used to help determine the mechanical condition of the engine.
To diagnose an engine-related complaint, compare the results of the Compression, Cylinder Balance, Engine Cylinder Leakage (not included) and Engine Vacuum Tests.Check For Trouble Codes Or Symptoms
Determine if the problem is a Code or a No Code Fault. Then refer to the appropriate published service diagnostic information to make the repair.Engine Compression Test
The Engine Compression Test is used to determine if each cylinder is contributing its equal share of power. The compression readings of all the cylinders are recorded and then compared to each other and to the manufacturer's specification (if available).
Cylinders that have low compression readings have lost their ability to seal. It this type of problem exists, the location of the compression leak must be identified. The leak can be in any of these areas: piston, head gasket, spark plugs, and exhaust or intake valves.
The results of this test can be used to determine the overall condition of the engine and to identify any problem cylinders as well as the most likely cause of the problem.
This next section provides an overview of ignition tests with examples of Engine Analyzer patterns for a Distributor Ignition System.Compression Test Procedure
- Allow the engine to run until it is fully warmed up.
- Remove the spark plugs and disable the Ignition system and the Fuel system for safety. Disconnecting the CKP sensor harness connector will disable both fuel and ignition (except on NGC vehicles).
- Carefully block the throttle to the wide-open position.
- Insert the compression gauge into the cylinder and tighten it firmly by hand.
- Use a remote starter switch or ignition key and crank the engine for 3-5 complete engine cycles. If the test is interrupted for any reason, release the gauge pressure and retest. Repeat this test procedure on all cylinders and record the readings.
The lowest cylinder compression reading should not be less than 70% of the highest cylinder compression reading and no cylinder should read less than 100 psi.Evaluating The Test Results
To determine why an individual cylinder has a low compression reading, insert a small amount of engine oil (3 squirts) into the suspect cylinder. Reinstall the compression gauge and retest the cylinder and record the reading. Review the explanations below.
Reading is higher -If the reading is higher at this point, oil inserted into the cylinder helped to seal the piston rings against the cylinder walls. Look for worn piston rings.
Reading did not change -If the reading didn't change, the most likely cause of the low cylinder compression reading is the head gasket or valves.
Low readings on companion cylinders -If low compression readings were recorded from cylinders located next to each other, the most likely cause is a blown head gasket.
Readings are higher than normal -If the compression readings are higher than normal, excessive carbon may have collected on the pistons and in the exhaust areas. One way to remove the carbon is with an approved brand of -Top Engine Cleaner.-
Ignition System Tests - Distributor
- Perform these checks prior to connecting the Engine Analyzer:
- Check the battery condition (verify that it can sustain a cranking voltage of 9.6v).
- Inspect the ignition coil for signs of damage or carbon tracking at the coil tower.
- Remove the coil wire and check for signs of corrosion on the wire or tower.
- Test the coil wire resistance with a DVOM (it should be less than 7 k/ohm per foot).
- Connect a low output spark tester to the coil wire and engine ground. Verify that the ignition coil can sustain adequate spark output while cranking for 3-6 seconds.
- Connect the Engine Analyzer to the Ignition System, and choose Parade display. Run the engine at 2000 RPM, and note the display patterns, looking for any abnormalities.
Perform the following checks prior to connecting the Engine Analyzer:
- Check the battery condition (verify that it can sustain a cranking voltage of 9.6v).
- Inspect the ignition coils for signs of damage or carbon tracking at the coil towers.
- Remove the secondary ignition wires and check for signs of corrosion.
- Test the plug wire resistance with a DVOM (specification varies from 15-30 k/ohm).
- Connect a low output spark tester to a plug wire and to engine ground. Verify that the ignition coil can sustain adequate spark output for 3-6 seconds.
- Connect the Engine Analyzer to the ignition system.
- Turn the scope selector to view the -Parade Display- of the ignition secondary.
- Start the engine in Park or Neutral and slowly increase the engine speed from idle to 2000 rpm.
Compare actual display to the examples below.
It is a good idea, prior to tracing any faults, to clear the DTCs, attempt to replicate the condition and see if the same DTC resets. Also, once any repairs are made, it will be necessary to clear the DTC(s) - PCM Reset - to ensure the repair has totally resolved the problem. For procedures on PCM Reset, see DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES.Problem Resolution & Repair
Once the problem component or circuit has been properly identified and verified using published diagnostic procedures, make any needed repairs or replacement to restore the vehicle to proper working order. If the condition has set a DTC, follow the designated repair chart to make an effective repair. If there is not a DTC set, but you can determine specific symptoms that are evident during the failure, select the symptom from the symptom tables and follow the diagnostic paths or suggestions to complete the repair or refer to the applicable component or system in service information.
If the vehicle does not set a DTC and has only intermittent operating failures or concerns, to resolve an intermittent fault, perform the following steps:
Once a repair is completed, the next step is to verify the vehicle operates properly and that the original symptom was corrected. Verification Tests, related to specific DTC diagnostic steps, can be used to verify a repair.Symptom Diagnosis
To determine whether vehicle problems are identified by a set Diagnostic Trouble Code, you will first have to connect a proper scan tool to the Data Link Connector and retrieve any set codes. See DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES for information on retrieving and reading codes.
If no codes are set, the problem must be diagnosed using only vehicle operating symptoms. A complete set of -No Code- symptoms is found in the SYMPTOM DIAGNOSIS (NO CODES).
Do NOT attempt to diagnose driveability symptoms without having a logical plan to use to determine which engine control system is the cause of the symptom - this plan should include a way to determine which systems do NOT have a problem! Remember, there are 2 kinds of NO CODE conditions:
Verify The Complaint & Check For TSBs
To verify the customer complaint, the technician should understand the normal operation of the system. Conduct a thorough visual and operational inspection, review the service history, detect unusual sounds or odors, and gather diagnostic trouble code (DTC) information resources to achieve an effective repair.
This check should include videos, newsletters, and any other information in the form of TSBs or Dealer Service Bulletins. Analyze the complaint and then use the recommended Six Step Test Procedure. Utilize the wiring diagrams and theory of operation articles. Combine your own knowledge with efficient use of the available service information.
Verify the cause of any related symptoms that may or may not be supported by one or more trouble codes. There are various checks that can be performed to Engine Controls that will help verify the cause of a related symptom. This step helps to lead you in an organized diagnostic approach.