Ford Crown Victoria, Mercury Grand Marquis, Marauder, Lincoln Town Car 1999-2005

Description & Operation


The Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system was used 1988-94 3.8L engines. The EFI fuel system includes a high pressure (30-45 psi/209-310 kPa) tank-mounted electric fuel pump, throttle body, fuel charging manifold, pressure regulator, fuel filter, and both solid and flexible fuel lines. The fuel charging manifold includes six electronically controlled fuel injectors, each mounted directly above an intake port in the lower intake manifold. The Electronic Engine Control (EEC-IV) computer outputs a command to the fuel injectors to meter the appropriate quantity of fuel.

All vehicles with the 4.6L and 5.0L engines are equipped with a Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection (SEFI) system. In this system, fuel is metered into each intake port in sequence with the engine firing order, according to engine demand, through fuel injectors mounted on a tuned intake manifold. The SEFI system consists of two subsystems, the fuel delivery system and the electronic control system. The fuel delivery system supplies fuel to the fuel injectors at a specified pressure. The electronic control system regulates the flow of fuel from the injectors into the engine.

The fuel delivery system consists of an electric fuel pump, fuel filters, fuel supply manifold (fuel rail), fuel pressure regulator and fuel injectors. The electric fuel pump, mounted in the fuel tank, draws fuel through a filter screen attached to the fuel pump/sending unit assembly. Fuel is pumped through a frame mounted fuel filter, to the engine compartment, and into the fuel supply manifold. The fuel supply manifold supplies fuel directly to the injectors. A constant fuel pressure to the injectors is maintained by the fuel pressure regulator. The fuel pressure regulator is mounted on the fuel supply manifold, downstream from the fuel injectors. The excess fuel supplied by the fuel pump but not required by the engine, passes through the regulator and returns to the fuel tank through the fuel return line. The fuel injectors spray a metered quantity of fuel into the intake air stream when they are energized. The quantity of fuel is determined by the electronic control system.

Air entering the engine is monitored by speed, pressure and temperature sensors. The outputs of these sensors are processed by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). The PCM computes the required fuel flow rate and determines the needed injector pulse width (injector "on" time) and sends a signal to the injector to meter the exact quantity of fuel. Each fuel injector is energized once every other crankshaft revolution, in sequence with the ignition firing order.

For description and testing of electronic control system components, see Section 4.

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Fig. Fuel injection system and related components-5.0L engine

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Fig. Cross-sectional view of an EFI fuel injector

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Fig. Fuel supply manifold assembly

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Fig. Throttle position sensor and idle air bypass valve location on the throttle body