A number of different engines have been offered since 1968. All of the engines use conventional cast iron, water cooled blocks. The cylinder heads are of the overhead valve design and the valves are actuated by pushrods and hydraulic valve lifters. The engines fall into several basic families.
A 3.9L inline 6-cylinder engine is used in some models between 1968 and 1972.
The second family is a series of small and medium sized V8 engines. They are; the 4.2L 5.0L and 5.8L engines. The 5.0L was the standard engine from 1968 through 1972 and then again from 1978 through 1980. The 5.8L Windsor (W) was installed in various models from 1969. In 1981, the 4.2L cubic inch V8 became the standard engine, replacing the 5.0L. The 4.2L featured weight reductions by about sixty pounds (from the 5.0L) and had been designed to be adaptable to a variety of fuel metering systems. In 1981, the 5.0L and 5.8L (and a high output version of the 5.8L, for police and towing) were offered as options. The 4.2L engine was dropped for the 1983 model year, leaving the 5.0L and 5.8L engines the only ones available. The 5.8L is available in a standard or high output version.
The third family includes two other 5.8L engines, and the 6.6L V8s. The 5.8L Cleveland (C) was used on 1972-74 models. The 5.8L Modified (M), which is a modified Cleveland design, was used starting in 1975. The 6.6L V8 was installed in 1971-78 models. This engine is based on the smaller 5.0L-5.8L(W) series, but enjoys a higher volumetric efficiency quotient due to its larger valves and better breathing semi-hemispherical combustion chambers.
The fourth engine family includes the 6.4L, 6.9L and 7.0L V8s. These may be found in 1968-71 models. These engines are the last examples of the Y-block design, first introduced in the mid-fifties. Identifying features of these engines include the shaft mounted rocker arms, and an intake manifold that extends beneath the valve cover.
The last group of engines include the 7.0L and 7.5L V8s. The 7.0L V8 is installed in 1969-73 models. The 7.5L V8 may be found in full size Fords starting in 1974. It was last used in 1978. This family of engines was introduced to replace the old Y-block series, and is also based on the smaller 5.0L-5.8L(W) design. Identifying features of these powerplants are their great bulk and the tunnelport shaped configuration of the intake manifold.