- If the vehicle is equipped with air bag (SIR) system, always properly disable the system before commencing work on the ABS system.
- Certain components within the ABS system are not intended to be serviced or repaired individually. Only those components with removal and installation procedures should be serviced.
- Do not use rubber hoses or other parts not specifically specified for the Teves ABS system. When using repair kits, replace all parts included in the kit. Partial or incorrect repair may lead to functional problems and require the replacement of the hydraulic unit.
- Lubricate rubber parts with clean, fresh brake fluid to ease assembly. Do not use lubricated shop air to clean parts; damage to rubber components may result.
- Use only brake fluid from an unopened container. Use of suspect or contaminated brake fluid can reduce system performance and/or durability.
- When any hydraulic component or line is removed or replaced, it may be necessary to bleed the entire system.
- A clean repair area is essential. Perform repairs after components have been thoroughly cleaned; use only denatured alcohol to clean components. Do not allow ABS components to come into contact with any substance containing mineral oil; this includes used shop rags.
- Remove the lock pin before disconnecting Connector Position Assurance (CPA) connectors in the harnesses.
- The EBCM is a microprocessor similar to other computer units in the vehicle. Insure that the ignition switch is OFF before removing or installing controller harnesses. Avoid static electricity discharge at or near the Controller.
- Never disconnect any electrical connection with the ignition switch ON unless instructed to do so in a test.
- Always wear a grounded wrist strap when servicing any control module or component labeled with a Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) symbol.
- Avoid touching module connector pins.
- Leave new components and modules in the shipping package until ready to install them.
- To avoid static discharge, always touch a vehicle ground after sliding across a vehicle seat or walking across carpeted or vinyl floors.
- Never allow welding cables to lie on, near or across any vehicle electrical wiring.
- Do not allow extension cords for power tools or droplights to lie on, near or across any vehicle electrical wiring.
DEPRESSURIZING THE HYDRAULIC UNIT
The ABS pump/motor assembly will keep the accumulator charged to a pressure between approximately 2000 and 2600 psi any time the ignition is in the ON or RUN position. The pump/motor cannot operate if the ignition is OFF or if a battery cable is disconnected.
- With the ignition OFF or the negative battery cable disconnected, pump the brake pedal a minimum of 25 times using at least 50 lbs. of pedal force each time.
- A definite increase in pedal effort will be felt as the accumulator becomes discharged.
- After the increased pedal effort occurs, continue with 5-10 additional brake applications to release any remaining pressure.
Before any system diagnosis is begun, the brake system should be inspected visually for common faults which could disable the ABS or cause a code to set. Check the vehicle carefully for any sign of: binding parking brake or faulty parking brake switch, low brake fluid, system fluid leaks including pump/motor area, failed fuses or fusible links, failed ABS relay, loose or damaged wiring including connectors, harnesses, and insulation wear. Check the mounting and function of the brake calipers at each wheel. Carefully inspect the multi-pin connectors at the EBCM for pushouts or poor connections.
Once the visual check has been performed, perform the functional check to determine if the problem is truly ABS related or arises from common faults.
DISPLAYING ABS TROUBLE CODES
See Figures 1 and 2
Only certain ABS malfunctions will cause the EBCM to store diagnostic trouble codes. Failures causing a code will generally involve wheel speed sensors, main valve or the inlet and outlet valves. Conditions affecting the pump/motor assembly, the accumulator, pressure switch or fluid level sensor usually do not cause a code to set. Some early 1988 vehicles may not have the ability to store trouble codes. The system functions the same way and the diagnosis and TESTING works about the same too. The only difference is the controller does not have code storing ability.
The EBCM will store trouble codes in a non-volatile memory. These codes remain in memory until erased through use of the correct procedure. The codes are NOT erased by disconnecting the EBCM, disconnecting the battery cable or turning off the ignition. Always be sure to clear the codes from the memory after repairs are made. To read stored ABS trouble codes:
- Turn ignition switch to ON . Allow the pump to charge the accumulator; if fully discharged, dash warning lights may stay on up to 30 seconds. If ANTI-LOCK warning light does not go off within 30 seconds, note it.
- Turn ignition switch to OFF .
- Remove the cover from the ALDL connector. Enter the diagnostic mode by using a jumper wire to connect pins H and A or to connect pin H to body ground.
- Turn the ignition switch to ON and count the light flashes for the first digit of the first code. The ANTI-LOCK light should illuminate for 4 seconds before beginning to flash. If, after 4 seconds, the light turns off and stays off, no codes are stored.
- The light will pause for 3 seconds between the first and second digits of the first code and then continue flashing. When counting flashes, count only the ON pulses.
- When the EBCM is finished transmitting the second digit of the first code, the ANTI-LOCK light will remain on. This last, constant ON should not be counted as a flash. Record the 2-digit code.
- Without turning the ignition switch OFF , disconnect the jumper from pin H and reconnect it. If an additional code is present, it will be displayed in similar fashion to the first. Record the second code.
- Repeat the disconnection and reconnection of pin H without changing the ignition switch until no more codes are displayed. The system is capable of storing and displaying 7 codes; the ANTI-LOCK warning light will stay on continuously when all codes have been displayed.
- After recording each code, remove the jumper from the ALDL, replace the cover and proceed.
The ABS trouble codes are not specifically designated current or history codes. If the ANTI-LOCK light is on before entering the ABS diagnostic mode, at least one of the stored codes is current. It is impossible to tell which code is current. If the ANTI-LOCK light is off before entering the diagnostic mode, none of the codes are current.
Although the ABS trouble codes stored by the EBCM are not identified as current or history codes, these codes may still be useful in diagnosing intermittent conditions.
If an intermittent condition is being diagnosed:
- Obtain an accurate description of the circumstances in which the failure occurs.
- Display and clear any ABS trouble codes which may be present in the EBCM.
- Test drive the vehicle, attempting to duplicate the failure condition exactly.
- After duplicating the condition(s), stop the vehicle and display any ABS codes which have set.
Most intermittent problems are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring. Always check for poor mating of connector halves or terminals not fully seated in connector bodies, deformed or damaged terminals and poor terminal to wire connections.
Most failures within the ABS will disable the anti-lock function for the entire ignition cycle, even if the fault clears before the next key off occurrence. There are 3 situations which will allow the ABS to re-engage if the condition is corrected during the ignition cycle. Each of these will illuminate 1 or both dash warning lights.
- Low system voltage: If the EBCM detects low voltage, the ANTI-LOCK warning lamp is illuminated. If the correct minimum voltage is restored to the EBCM, normal ABS function will resume.
- Low brake fluid level: Once detected by the fluid level sensor, this condition illuminates both the BRAKE and ANTI-LOCK warning lights; when the sensor indicates acceptable fluid level, the normal ABS function will resume.
- Low accumulator pressure: Should the accumulator lose or not develop correct pressure, both the BRAKE and ANTI-LOCK warning lights will illuminate. Full function is restored when the correct pressure is achieved.
- Any condition interrupting power to either the EBCM or hydraulic unit may cause the warning lights to come on intermittently. These circuits include the main relay, main relay fuse, EBCM fuse, pump motor relay and all related wiring.
CLEARING TROUBLE CODES
Stored ABS trouble codes should not be cleared until all repairs are completed. The control module will not allow any codes to be cleared until all have been read. After reading each stored code, drive the vehicle at a speed over 18 mph.
Re-read the system; if codes are still present, not all codes were read previously or additional repair is needed.
In the following diagnostic charts, certain special tools may be required. Use of the J-3192 Pinout box or equivalent is required to avoid damage to the connectors at the EBCM; use of J-3204 pressure gauge and J-3204-88 adapter (or equivalents) will be required to measure accumulator pressure. The use of a high-impedance multimeter (DVM or DVOM) is required at all times.