All 1973 and later engines covered in this guide are equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). This system consists of a metering valve, a vacuum line to the carburetor, and cast-in exhaust gas passages in the intake manifold. The EGR valve is controlled by carburetor vacuum, and accordingly opens and closes to admit exhaust gases into the fuel/air mixture. The exhaust gases lower the combustion temperature, and reduce the amount of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) produced. The valve is closed at idle between the two extreme throttle positions.
In most installations, vacuum to the EGR valve is controlled by a thermal vacuum switch (TVS). The TVS, which is installed into the engine block, shuts off vacuum to the EGR valve until the engine is hot. This prevents the stalling and lumpy idle which would result if EGR occurred when the engine was cold.
EGR VACUUM CONTROL SOLENOID
See Figures 1 and 2
To regulate EGR flow on 1981 and later models, a solenoid is used in the vacuum line, and is controlled by the Electronic Control Module (ECM). The ECM uses information from the coolant temperature, throttle position, and manifold pressure sensors to regulate the vacuum solenoid. When the engine is cold, a signal from the ECM energizes the EGR solenoid, thus blocking vacuum to the EGR valve. (The solenoid is also energized during cranking and wide-open throttle.) When the engine warms up, the EGR solenoid is turned off by the ECM, and the EGR valve operates according to normal ported vacuum and exhaust backpressure signals.
As the car accelerates, the carburetor throttle plate uncovers the vacuum port for the EGR valve. At 3-5 in. Hg, the EGR valve opens and then some of the exhaust gases are allowed to flow into the air/fuel mixture to lower the combustion temperature. At full-throttle the valve closes again.
Some California engines are equipped with a dual diaphragm EGR valve. This valve further limits the exhaust gas opening (compared to the single diaphragm EGR valve) during high intake manifold vacuum periods, such as high speed cruising, and provides more exhaust gas recirculation during acceleration when manifold vacuum is low. In addition to the hose running to the thermal vacuum switch, a second hose is connected directly to the intake manifold.
For 1977, all California models and cars delivered in areas above 4000 ft. are equipped with back pressure EGR valves. This valve is also used on all 1978-81 models. The EGR valve receives exhaust back pressure through its hollow shaft. This exerts a force on the bottom of the control valve diaphragm, opposed by a light spring. Under low exhaust pressure (low engine load and partial throttle), the EGR signal is reduced by an air bleed. Under conditions of high exhaust pressure (high engine load and large throttle opening), the air bleed is closed and the EGR valve responds to an unmodified vacuum signal. At wide open throttle, the EGR flow is reduced in proportion to the amount of vacuum signal available.
1979 and later models have a ported signal vacuum EGR valve. The valve opening is controlled by the amount of vacuum obtained from a ported vacuum source on the carburetor and the amount of backpressure in the exhaust system.
FAULTY EGR VALVE SYMPTOMS
An EGR valve that stays open when it should be closed causes weak combustion, resulting in a rough-running engine and/or frequent stalling. Too much EGR flow at idle, cruise, or when cold can cause any of the following:
- Engine stopping after a cold start
- Engine stopping at idle after deceleration
- Surging during cruising
- Rough idle
An EGR valve which is stuck closed and allows little or no EGR flow causes extreme combustion temperatures (too hot) during acceleration. Spark knock (detonation or pinging), engine overheating and excess engine emissions can all be a result, as well as engine damage. See the accompanying EGR system diagnosis chart for possible cause and correction procedures.
EGR VALVE REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
See Figures 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9
- Detach the vacuum lines from the EGR valve.
- Unfasten the two bolts or bolt and clamp which attach the valve to the manifold. Withdraw the valve.
- Installation is the reverse of removal. Always use a new gasket between the valve and the manifold. On dual diaphragm valves, attach the carburetor vacuum line to the tube at the top of the valve, and the manifold vacuum line to the tube at the center of the valve.
EGR VALVE CLEANING
Valves That Protrude from Mounting Face
- Remove the vacuum hose from the EGR valve assembly. Remove the two attaching bolts, remove the EGR valve from the intake manifold and discard the gasket.
- Holding the valve assembly in hand, tap the valve lightly with a small plastic hammer to remove exhaust deposits from the valve seat. Shake out any loose particles. DO NOT put the valve in a vise.
- Carefully remove any exhaust deposits from the mounting surface of the valve with a wire wheel or putty knife. Do not damage the mounting surface.
- Depress the valve diaphragm and inspect the valve seating area through the valve outlet for cleanliness. If the valve and/or seat are not completely clean, repeat Step 2.
- Look for exhaust deposits in the valve outlet, and remove any deposits with an old screwdriver.
- Clean the mounting surfaces of the intake manifold and valve assembly. Using a new gasket, install the valve assembly to the intake manifold. Torque the bolts to 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm). Connect the vacuum hose.
- Clean the base of the valve with a wire brush or wheel to remove exhaust deposits from the mounting surface.
- Clean the valve seat and valve in an abrasive-type spark plug cleaning machine or sandblaster. Most machine shops provide this service. Make sure the valve portion is cleaned (blasted) for about 30 seconds, and that the valve is also cleaned with the diaphragm spring fully compressed (valve unseated). The cleaning should be repeated until all deposits are removed.
- The valve must be blown out with compressed air thoroughly to ensure all abrasive material is removed from the valve.
- Clean the mounting surface of the intake manifold and valve assembly. Using a new gasket, install the valve assembly to the intake manifold. Torque the bolts to 25 ft. lbs. (34 Nm). Connect the vacuum hose.
TVS SWITCH REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
- Drain the radiator.
- Disconnect the vacuum lines from the switch noting their locations. Remove the switch.
- Apply sealer to the threaded portion of the new switch, and install it, torquing to 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm).
- Rotate the head of the switch to a position that will permit easy hookup of vacuum hoses. Then install the vacuum hoses to the proper connectors.