Use only oil that has the API (American Petroleum Institute) designation "SJ," "SJ/CC" or "SJ/CD."
Since the viscosity (thickness) of the engine oil affects fuel economy, it is recommended to select oil with reference to the outside temperature. For satisfactory lubrication, use lower viscosity oil for colder temperatures and higher viscosity oil for warmer temperatures.
For maximum fuel economy, look for an oil that carries the words "Energy Conserving II" in the API symbol. This means that the oil contains friction-reducing additives that help reduce the amount of fuel burned to overcome engine friction.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) viscosity rating indicates an oil's ability to flow at a given temperature. The number designation indicates the thickness or "weight" of the oil. SAE 5-weight oil is thin light oil; it allows the engine to crank over easily even when it is very cold, and quickly provides lubrication for all parts of the engine. However, as the engine temperature increases, the 5-weight oil becomes too thin, resulting in metal-to-metal contact and damage to internal engine parts. Heavier SAE 50-weight oil can lubricate and protect internal engine parts even under extremely high operating temperatures. However, it would not be able to flow quickly enough to provide internal engine protection during cold weather start-up, one of the most critical periods for lubrication protection in an engine.
The answer to the temperature extreme problem is the multi-grade or multi-viscosity oil. Multi-viscosity oils carry multiple number designations, such as SAE 5W-30 oil that has the flow characteristics of the thin 5 weight oil in cold weather, providing rapid lubrication and allowing easy engine cranking. When the engine warms up, the oil acts like a straight 30 weight oil providing internal engine protection under higher temperatures.
OIL LEVEL CHECK
- Make sure the vehicle is parked on level ground.
- When checking the oil level it is best for the engine to be at normal operating temperature, although checking the oil immediately after stopping will lead to a false reading. Wait a few minutes after turning off the engine to allow the oil to drain back into the crankcase.
- Open the hood and locate the dipstick. Pull the dipstick from its tube, wipe it clean, and then reinsert it.
- Pull the dipstick out again and, holding it horizontally, read the oil level. The oil should be between the "FULL" and "ADD" marks on the dipstick. If the oil is below the "ADD" mark, add oil of the proper viscosity through the capped opening in the top of the cylinder head cover.
- Replace the dipstick and check the oil level again after adding any oil. Be careful not to overfill the crankcase. Approximately 1 quart of oil will raise the level from the "ADD" mark to the "FULL" mark. Excess oil will generally be consumed at an accelerated rate.
CHANGING OIL & FILTER
The oil is to be changed every 7,500 miles (12,500 km) or 12 months, which ever occurs first. Under normal conditions, change the filter at first oil change and then at every other oil change, unless 12 months pass between changes. We recommend that the oil filter be changed every time the oil is changed. About a quart of dirty oil remains in the old filter. For a few dollars, it is a small expense for extended engine life.
If driving under such conditions, such as: dusty areas, trailer towing, idling for long periods of time, low speed operation, or when operating with temperatures below freezing or driving short distances (under 4 miles), change the oil and filter every 3,000 miles (5,000 km) or 3 months.
- Run the engine until it reaches normal operating temperature.
- Usually a run to the parts store to pick up the oil and filter will get the engine hot enough.
- Apply the parking brake and block the rear wheels.
- Raise the vehicle and support it on jack stands. Slide a six-quart (minimum) drain pan under the oil pan drain plug.
- Loosen the drain plug with a socket or box wrench. Push in on the plug as you turn in so no oil escapes until the plug is completely removed.
- Remove the oil pan plug and drain the dirty oil into a catch pan. Allow the oil to drain into the pan. Be careful, if the engine is at operating temperature, the oil is hot enough to burn you.
- Clean the drain plug and check it carefully; if the threads are stripped, replace it with a new one and a new gasket. If the gasket is cracked or damaged, replace it. Slide the oil drain pan under the oil filter.
- Using the right size oil filter wrench, remove the oil filter by turning it counter-clockwise. Wrap a rag around it (to protect you from the hot oil), unscrew it the rest of the way, and place it in the oil catch pan.
- Ensure that the old oil filter gasket is not stuck on the cylinder block or oil filter adapter. Using a clean rag, wipe the filter-mounting surface.
- When installing the oil filter, spread a small amount of clean oil on the sealing gasket on the new filter and tighten the filter only hand tight. Install the oil pan plug and tighten to 20 ft. lbs. (27 Nm).
- Make sure the plug is tight in the pan, but do not overtighten.
- Slide the oil drain pan out from under the vehicle, and lower the vehicle to the ground.
- Remove the oil filler cap from the rocker arm cover and place a funnel in the oil filler hole. Fill the crankcase with the oil specified for the engine.
- Remove the funnel, install the oil cap, and wipe away any spilled oil.
- Start the engine and inspect for oil leaks.