See Figure 1
The Cycling Clutch Orifice Tube (CCOT) system includes the compressor, condenser, evaporator, an accumulator/drier with fixed orifice tube, a clutch cycling switch with or without a temperature probing capillary tube to maintain a selected comfortable temperature within the vehicle, while preventing evaporator freeze-up. Full control of the system is maintained through the use of a selector control, mounted in the dash assembly. The selector control makes use of a vacuum supply and electrical switches to operate mode doors and the blower motor. A sight glass is not used in this system and one should not be installed. When charging the system, the correct quantity of refrigerant must be installed to obtain maximum system performance.
GENERAL SERVICING PROCEDURES
The most important aspect of air conditioning service is the maintenance of pure and adequate charge of refrigerant in the system; likewise, the systems greatest enemy is moisture and therefore a system cannot function properly and will be damaged if leaks are not repaired in a timely manner. A refrigeration system cannot function properly if a significant percentage of the charge is lost. Refrigerant leaks can occur because of oil contamination on the hoses and lines or vibration can cause a cracking or loosening of the air conditioning fittings. As a result, the extreme operating pressures of the system force refrigerant out.
The following is a list of general precautions that should be observed while servicing the air conditioning system:
- Always wear safety goggles when performing any work on or around the refrigerant system.
- If refrigerant should contact the eyes or skin, flush the exposed area with cold water and seek medical assistance immediately.
- Wrap a towel around the fitting valves when connecting or disconnecting the lines.
- Thoroughly purge the service gauges and hoses of air and moisture before connecting them to the system. Keep them capped when not in use.
- Thoroughly clean any refrigerant fitting before disconnecting it, in order to minimize the entrance of dirt into the system.
- Plan any operation that requires opening the system beforehand in order to minimize the length of time it will be exposed to open air. Cap or seal the open ends to minimize the entrance of foreign material.
- Never disconnect the air conditioning gauge service line at the gauges, always disconnect the line at the service fitting, otherwise the Schrader valve in the fitting will remain open and completely discharge the system, causing possible injury or system damage.
- When adding oil, ensure the system has been properly discharged and pour the oil through an extremely clean and dry tube or funnel. Keep the oil capped whenever possible. Do not use oil that has not been kept tightly sealed.
- Use only Refrigerant 12. Purchase refrigerant intended for use only in automotive air conditioning systems. Avoid the use of Refrigerant 12 that may be packaged for another use, such as cleaning, or powering a horn, as it is impure.
- Using an approved recovery/recycling machine, completely evacuate a system that has been opened to replace a component, other than when isolating the compressor, or that has leaked sufficiently to draw in moisture and air. This requires evacuating air and moisture with a good vacuum pump for at least one hour.
- Use a wrench on both halves of a fitting that is to be disconnected, so as to avoid placing torque on any of the refrigerant lines.
- Operation of the air conditioning blower at all four speeds with the mode button in any position except OFF, and engagement of the compressor clutch would indicate that the electrical circuits are functioning properly. (The blower will not operate in any speed with the mode button in the OFF position.)
- Operation of the air conditioning control selector (mode) button to distribute air from designated outlets would indicate proper functioning.
System leaks can usually be identified as oily areas around the hoses or components. If a hose is thought to be leaking, simply grasp the hose with one hand and the line with the other and attempt to turn the line, if the line turns it is defective and must be replaced.
The air conditioning system depends on the cooling system to lower the condenser temperature and change the vapors into a liquid; therefore the cooling system must be in proper working order. The cooling system quantity and protection factor must be satisfactory. The cooling fan must also be operating properly.RADIATOR CAP
For efficient operation of an air conditioned car's cooling system, the radiator cap should hold pressure which meets the manufacturer's specifications. A cap which fails to hold pressure should be replaced.Condenser
Any obstruction of or damage to the condenser fin configuration will restrict the air flow which is essential to its efficient operation. It is therefore a good rule to keep this unit clean and in proper physical shape.
Condensation Drain Tube
A molded drain tube allows the condensation which accumulates in the bottom of the evaporator housing to drain outside of the vehicle. Occasionally over time, this tube, which is generally located on the engine firewall below the evaporator housing will become obstructed and allow the evaporator housing to fill up with water (condensation). Simply unclog any obstruction in the drain tube and allow the water to drain. Be careful not to damage the evaporator core.
REFRIGERANT LEVEL CHECKS
The same hand-felt temperature of the evaporator inlet pipe and the accumulator surface of an operating system would indicate a properly charged system. The system contains NO sightglass.
Most of the service work performed in air conditioning requires the use of a set of two gauges, one for the high (head) pressure side of the system, the other for the low (suction) pressure side.
The low side gauge records both pressure and vacuum. Vacuum readings are calibrated from 0 to 30 inches and the pressure graduations read from 0 to no less than 60 psi.
The high side gauge measures pressure from 0 to at last 600 psi.
Both gauges are threaded into a manifold that contains two hand shut-off valves. Proper manipulation of these valves and the use of the attached test hoses allow the user to perform the following services:
- Test high and low side pressures.
- Remove air, moisture, and contaminated refrigerant.
- Purge the system (of refrigerant).
- Charge the system (with refrigerant).
The manifold valves are designed so that they have no direct effect on gauge readings, but serve only to provide for, or cut off, flow of refrigerant through the manifold. During all testing and hook-up operations, the valves are kept in a closed position to avoid disturbing the refrigeration system. The valves are opened only to purge the system of air or refrigerant and/or to charge it.
TESTING THE SYSTEM
See Figures 2, 3 and 4
- Close (clockwise) the gauge set valves.
- Connect the gauge set as follows:
- Locate the 2 service fittings in the air conditioning system.
- The low pressure fitting is located on the accumulator, connect the blue gauge hose to the fitting.
- The high pressure (smaller) fitting is located on the thinner line going from the accumulator to the condenser, connect the red gauge hose with special adapter to the fitting.
- Set the parking brake, place the transmission in N and establish an idle of 2,000 rpm.
- Place a high volume fan in front of the radiator grille to ensure proper airflow across the condenser.
- Run the air conditioning system in the MAX and COOL mode with the blower on HI . Ensure the windows and doors are closed.
- Insert a thermometer into the center air outlet. The thermometer should drop to approximately 45° (7°C) within a short period of time.
- Use the accompanying performance chart for specifications.
DISCHARGING THE SYSTEM
When replacing any of the air conditioning refrigeration components, the system must be completely discharged of refrigerant.
- With ignition turned OFF, remove protection cap from the low side service fitting on the accumulator and connect an approved Recycling/Recovery station, charging station J-23500-01.
- With the low side of the system fully discharged, check the high side system fitting (on the liquid line or muffler) for the remaining pressure.
- If some pressure is found, attempt to discharge the high side using the same procedure as was used for the low side. (This condition indicates a restriction on the high side and the cause must be diagnosed and corrected before evacuating and charging the system.
- When the system is completely discharged (no vapor escaping with hose fully tightened down), measure, record amount, and discard the collected refrigerant oil. If the measured quantity is 1 / 2 fl. oz. (15ml) or more, this amount of new 525 viscosity refrigerant oil must be added to the system, plus any quantity in removed parts before system evacuation and charging with R-12.
ADDING OIL TO THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
Adding oil to the air conditioning system should take place after discharging and before evacuation procedures by removing the refrigeration suction hose at the accumulator outlet pipe connection, pouring the correct quantity of new refrigerant oil into the hose or pipe and then properly reconnecting the hose to the pipe. The R-4 compressor system requires 6 fl. oz. (180ml) of 525 viscosity refrigerant oil.
- Remove only the accumulator.
- Drain, measure and record quantity of oil in the accumulator.
- If less than 3 fl. oz. (90ml) of oil was drained, add 3 fl. oz. (90ml) of new oil to the system.
- If more than 3 fl. oz. (90ml) of oil was drained, add the same amount of new oil drained.
- If a new accumulator must be added to the system, add 2 fl. oz. (60ml) additional oil to compensate for that retained by the original accumulator desiccant.
EVACUATING THE SYSTEM
Connect a gauge and vacuum pump assembly as follows:
- Connect low pressure gauge to the accumulator fitting.
- Connect the gauge set center hose to R-12 source.
- Connect the high pressure gauge to vacuum pump.
- To begin evacuation of the air conditioning system with the manifold gauge set and vacuum pump, slowly open the high and low side gauge valves and begin vacuum pump operation. Pump the system until the low side gauge reaches 26 in. Hg of vacuum.
- When the gauge reaches the prescribed vacuum, the system is fully evacuated. Close the high side gauge set valve and turn off the vacuum pump.
- Watch the low side gauge to be sure that vacuum holds for five minutes. If the vacuum does hold, disconnect the vacuum hose at the gauge set and then proceed to charge the system.
- If the system loses more than 2 in. Hg. of vacuum in five minutes, charge the system with 1 / 2 lb. (420ml) of R-12 and leak check. Discharge the system again and repair the leak as necessary. Then repeat evacuation procedure.
CHARGING THE SYSTEM
- Start and run the engine until it reaches operating temperature. Then set the air conditioning mode control button on OFF .
- Open the R-12 source valve and allow 14 oz. of liquid R-12 to flow into the system through the low side service fitting into the accumulator.
- As soon as the R-12 has been added to the system, immediately engage the compressor by setting the air conditioning control button to NORM and the blower speed on HI , to draw in the remainder of the R-12 charge.
- Turn OFF the R-12 source valve and run engine for 30 seconds to clear the lines and gauges.
- With the engine running, remove the charging low side hose adapter from the accumulator service fitting. Unscrew rapidly to avoid excess R-12 escaping from the system.
- Replace protective cap on accumulator fitting.
- Turn engine off.
- Leak check system with electronic leak detector J-29547 or equivalent.
- Start engine.
- With the system fully charged and leak checked, continue to check the system performance.