GM: Electra/Park Avenue/Ninety-Eight 1990-1993

System Operation


The C 3 I ignition system uses a waste spark distribution method. Each cylinder is paired with the cylinder opposite it (i.e. 1-4, 2-5, 3-6). The ends of each coil secondary is attached to a spark plug. These 2 plugs are on companion cylinders-cylinders that are at top dead center at the same time. The one that is on compression is said to be the event cylinder and the one on the exhaust stroke, the waste cylinder. When the coil discharges, both plugs fire at the same time to complete the series circuit.

Since the polarity of the primary and the secondary windings are fixed, one plug always fires in a forward direction and the other in reverse. This is different than a conventional system firing all plugs the same direction each time. Because of the demand for additional energy; the coil design, saturation time and primary current flow are also different. This redesign of the system allows higher energy to be available from the distributorless coils-greater than 40 kilovolts at all rpm ranges.

During cranking, when the engine speed is less than 400 rpm, the C 3 I module monitors the dual crank sensor sync signal. The sync signal is used to determine the correct pair of cylinders to be fired first. Once the sync signal has been processed by the ignition module, it sends a fuel control reference pulse to the ecm/pcm.

During the cranking period, the ecm/pcm will also receive a cam pulse signal and will operate the injectors sequentially, based on true camshaft position only.

The sync signal is used only by the ignition module. It is used for spark synchronization at start-up only.

When the engine speed is less than 400 rpm (during cranking), the C 3 I module controls the spark timing. Once the engine speed exceeds 400 rpm (engine running) spark timing is controlled by the est signal from the ecm. To control est the ecm/pcm uses the following inputs:

Crankshaft position
Engine speed (rpm)
Engine coolant (Coolant Temperature Sensor-Cts)
Intake air (Mass Air Flow-Maf)
Throttle valve position (Throttle Position Sensor-Tps)
Gear shift lever position (Park/Neutral Switch-P/N)
Vehicle speed (Vehicle Speed Sensor-Vss)
esc signal (Knock Sensor)

The C 3 I ignition module provides proper ignition coil sequencing during both the module and the est modes.

The esc system is designed to retard spark timing up to 10 degrees to reduce spark knock in the engine. When the knock sensor detects spark knocking in the engine, it sends an AC voltage signal to the ecm, which increases with the severity of the knock. The ecm/pcm then adjusts the est to reduce spark knock.


C 3 I Module

The C 3 I module monitors the sync-pulse and the crank signal. During cranking the C 3 I module monitors the sync-pulse to begin the ignition firing sequence. During this time, each of the 3 coils are fired at a pre-determined interval based on engine speed only. Above 400 rpm, the C 3 I module is only use as a reference signal.

Ignition Coil

The Type I C 3 I system, used in 1990 engines and some 1991-1993 non-supercharged engines, consists of a coil pack mounted to the module. The Type ii C 3 I system, used in some 1991-1993 non-supercharged engines, and all 1992-93 supercharged engines, consists or 3 separately serviceable ignition coils mounted to the module. Each coil(s) distributes the spark for 2 paired plugs simultaneously.

Electronic Spark Control (ESC)

The esc system incorporates a knock sensor and the ecm. The knock sensor detects engine detonation. When engine detonation occurs, the ecm receives the esc signal and retards est to reduce detonation.

Electronic Spark Timing (EST)

The est system is basically the same est to ecm circuit use on the distributor type ignition systems with est. This system includes the following circuits:

Reference circuit-provides the ecm with rpm and crankshaft position information from the C 3 I module. The C 3 I module receives this signal from the crank sensor hall-effect switch.
Bypass signal-above 400 rpm, the ecm applies 5 volts to this circuit to switch spark timing control from the C 3 I module to the ecm.
est signal-reference signal is sent to the ecm via the C 3 I module during cranking. Under 400 rpm, the C 3 I module controls the ignition timing. Above 400 rpm, the ecm applies 5 volts to the bypass line to switch the timing to the ecm control.
Electronic Control Module (ecm) or Powertrain Control Module (pcm)

The ecm/pcm is responsible for maintaining proper spark and fuel injection timing for all driving conditions.

Dual Crank Sensor

The dual crank sensor is mounted in a pedestal on the front of the engine near the harmonic balancer. The sensor consists of 2 hall-effect switches, which depend on 2 metal interrupter rings mounted on the balancer to activate them. Windows in the interrupters activate the hall-effect switches as they provide a path for the magnetic field between the switches transducers and magnets.

Camshaft Sensor

The camshaft sensor sends signal to the ecm/pcm which is used as a sync-pulse to trigger the injectors in the proper sequence.