GM Full-Size Trucks 1988-1998 Repair Information

Diagnosis and Testing

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The symptoms of a defective component within the HEI system are exactly the same as those you would encounter in a conventional system. Some of these symptoms are:



Hard or no Starting
 
Rough Idle
 
Fuel Poor Economy
 
Engine misses under load or while accelerating
 

If you suspect a problem in the ignition system, there are certain preliminary checks which you should carry out before you begin to check the electronic portions of the system. First, it is extremely important to make sure the vehicle battery is in a good state of charge. A defective or poorly charged battery will cause the various components of the ignition system to read incorrectly when they are being tested. Second, make sure all wiring connections are clean and tight, not only at the battery, but also at the distributor cap, ignition coil, and at the electronic control module.

SECONDARY SPARK TEST



Since the only change between electronic and conventional ignition systems is in the distributor component area, it is imperative to check the secondary ignition circuit first. If the secondary circuit checks out properly, then the engine condition is probably not the fault of the ignition system. To check the secondary ignition system, perform a simple spark test.

  1. Remove one of the plug wires and insert some sort of extension in the plug socket. An old spark plug with the ground electrode removed makes a good extension.
  2.  
  3. Hold the wire and extension about 1 / 4 in. (.009mm) away from the block and crank the engine. If a normal spark occurs, then the problem is most likely not in the ignition system.
  4.  
  5. Check for fuel system problems, or fouled spark plugs.
  6.  
  7. If, however, there is no spark or a weak spark, then further ignition system testing will have to be done. Troubleshooting techniques fall into two categories, depending on the nature of the problem. The categories are (1) Engine cranks, but won't start or (2) Engine runs, but runs rough or cuts out.
  8.  

Engine Fails to Start
  1. If the engine won't start, perform a spark test as described earlier. If no spark occurs, check for the presence of normal battery voltage at the battery ( BAT ) terminal in the distributor cap. The ignition switch must be in the ON position for this test.
  2.  
  3. If battery voltage is not present, this indicates an open circuit in the ignition primary wiring leading to the distributor. In this case, you will have to check wiring continuity back to the ignition switch using a test light.
  4.  
  5. If there is battery voltage at the BAT terminal, but no spark at the plugs, then the problem lies within the distributor assembly. Go on to test the ignition coil.
  6.  

Engine Runs, but Runs Roughly or Cuts Out
  1. Make sure the plug wires are in good shape first. There should be no obvious cracks or breaks. You can check the plug wires with an ohmmeter, but do not pierce the wires with a probe.
  2.  
  3. If the plug wires are OK, remove the cap assembly, and check for moisture, cracks, chips, or carbon tracks, or any other high voltage leaks or failures.
  4.  
  5. Replace the cap if you find any defects. Make sure the timer wheel rotates when the engine is cranked. If everything is all right so far, go on to test the ignition coil.
  6.  

IGNITION COIL



Carbureted Engines
  1. Connect an ohmmeter between the TACH and BAT terminals in the distributor cap. The primary coil resistance should be less than one ohm (zero or nearly zero).
  2.  
  3. To check the coil secondary resistance, connect an ohmmeter between the rotor button and the BAT terminal. Then connect the ohmmeter between the ground terminal and the rotor button. The resistance in both cases should be between 6000 and 30,000 ohms.
  4.  
  5. Replace the coil only if the readings in Step 1 and 2 are infinite.
  6.  

These resistance checks will not disclose shorted coil windings. This condition can be detected only with scope analysis or a suitably designed coil tester. If these instruments are unavailable, replace the coil with a known good coil as a final coil test.

Fuel Injected Engines

See Figure 1

  1. Tag and disconnect the distributor lead and wiring from the coil.
  2.  
  3. Connect an ohmmeter as shown in Step 1 of the accompanying illustration. Place the ohmmeter on the high scale. The reading should be infinite.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Fuel injected engine ignition coil test

  1. Connect an ohmmeter as shown in Step 2 of the same illustration. Place the ohmmeter on the low scale. The reading should be very low or zero. If not replace the coil.
  2.  
  3. Connect an ohmmeter as shown in Step 3 of the same illustration. Place the ohmmeter on the high scale. The meter should not read infinite. If it does replace the coil.
  4.  
  5. Connect the distributor lead and wiring.
  6.  

PICK-UP COIL



See Figures 2, 3 and 4

  1. To test the pick-up coil, first disconnect the white and green module leads. Set the ohmmeter on the high scale and connect it between a ground and either the white or green lead. Any resistance measurement less than infinity requires replacement of the pick-up coil.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2: The pick-up coil is located inside the distributor



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Testing the pick-up coil-coil-in-cap



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 4: Testing the pick-up coil-separate coil

  1. Pick-up coil continuity is tested by connecting the ohmmeter (on low range) between the white and green leads. Normal resistance is between 500 and 1500 ohms. Move the vacuum advance arm while performing this test. This will detect any break in coil continuity. Such a condition can cause intermittent misfiring. Replace the pick-up coil if the reading is outside the specified limits.
  2.  
  3. If no defects have been found at this time, and you still have a problem, then the module will have to be checked. If you do not have access to a module tester, the only possible alternative is a substitution test. If the module fails the substitution test, replace it.
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