Vehicles with the 3.8L engine are equipped with the Computer Controlled Coil (C 3 I). This system may also be called the Electronic Ignition (EI) system on later models. This system features a distributorless ignition engine. The C 3 I/EI system consists of 3 ignition coils, an Ignition Control Module (ICM), a dual crank sensor also, camshaft sensor, connecting wires, and the Electronic Spark Timing (EST) portion of the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
When the term Electronic Control Module (ECM) is used in this information, it refers to the engine control computer; regardless, if the term Powertrain Control Module (PCM) or Electronic Control Module (ECM) is used.
The ECM uses the EST circuit to control spark advance and ignition dwell, when the ignition system is operating in the EST mode. There are 2 modes of ignition system operation. These modes are as follows:
To control spark knock, and to use maximum spark advance to improve driveability and fuel economy, an Electronic Spark Control (ESC) system is used. This system consists of a knock sensor and an ESC module. The ECM monitors the ESC signal to determine when engine detonation occurs.
The C 3 I ignition system uses a waste spark distribution method. Each cylinder is paired with the cylinder opposite it (i.e. 1-4, 2-5, 3-6). The ends of each coil secondary is attached to a spark plug. These 2 plugs are on companion cylinders, cylinders that are at top dead center at the same time. The one that is on compression is said to be the event cylinder and the one on the exhaust stroke, the waste cylinder. When the coil discharges, both plugs fire at the same time to complete the series circuit.
Since the polarity of the primary and the secondary windings are fixed, one plug always fires in a forward direction and the other in reverse. This is different than a conventional system firing all plugs the same direction each time. Because of the demand for additional energy; the coil design, saturation time and primary current flow are also different. This redesign of the system allows higher energy to be available from the distributorless coils, greater than 40 kilovolts at all rpm ranges.
During cranking, when the engine speed is beneath 400 rpm, the C 3 I module monitors the dual crank sensor sync signal. The sync signal is used to determine the correct pair of cylinders to be sparked first. Once the sync signal has been processed by the ignition module, it sends a fuel control reference pulse to the ECM.
During the cranking period, the ECM will also receive a cam pulse signal and will operate the injectors sequentially, based on true camshaft position only.
The sync signal is used only by the ignition module. It is used for spark synchronization at start-up only.
When the engine speed is beneath 400 rpm (during cranking), the C 3 I module controls the spark timing. Once the engine speed exceeds 400 rpm (engine running) spark timing is controlled by the EST signal from the ECM. To control EST the ECM uses the following inputs:
The C 3 I ignition module provides proper ignition coil sequencing during both the module and the EST modes.
The ESC system is designed to retard spark timing up to 10 degrees to reduce spark knock in the engine. When the knock sensor detects spark knocking in the engine, it sends an A/C voltage signal to the ECM, which increases with the severity of the knock. The ECM then adjusts the EST to reduce spark knock.
The C 3 I module monitors the sync-pulse and the crank signal. During cranking the C 3 I module monitors the sync-pulse to begin the ignition firing sequence. During this time, each of the 3 coils are fired at a pre-determined interval based on engine speed only. Above 400 rpm, the C 3 I module is only use as a reference signal.
The ignition coil assemblies are mounted on the C 3 I module. Each coil distributes the spark for 2 plugs simultaneously.
Electronic Spark Control (ESC)
The ESC system incorporates a knock sensor and the ECM. The knock sensor detects engine detonation. When engine detonation occurs, the ECM receives the ESC signal and retards EST to reduce detonation.
Electronic Spark Timing (EST)
The EST system includes the following circuits:
Electronic Control Module (ECM) or Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
The ECM/PCM is responsible for maintaining proper spark and fuel injection timing for all driving conditions.
Dual Crank Sensor
The dual crank sensor is mounted in a pedestal on the front of the engine near the harmonic balancer. The sensor consists of 2 hall-effect switches, which depend on 2 metal interrupter rings mounted on the balancer to activate them. Windows in the interrupters activate the hall-effect switches as they provide a path for the magnetic field between the switches transducers and magnets.