A noticeable lack of engine power, excessive oil consumption and/or poor fuel mileage measured over an extended period are all indicators of internal engine wear. Worn piston rings, scored or worn cylinder bores, leaking head gaskets, sticking or burnt valves and worn valve seats are all possible culprits here. A check of each cylinder's compression will help you locate the problems.
As mentioned in the Tools and Equipment part of Routine Maintenance , a screw-in type compression gauge is more accurate that the type you simply hold against the spark plug hole, although it takes slightly longer to use. It's worth it to obtain a more accurate reading. Follow the procedures below.
- With the engine cold, carefully remove the spark plugs and coat the threads with an anti-sieze compound.
- Install the spark plugs.
- Warm up the engine to normal operating temperature.
- Shut the engine off, then carefully remove all the spark plugs.
- Unplug the primary side electrical connectors from the ignition coil.
- Screw the compression gauge into the No. 1 spark plug hole until the fitting is snug.
- Ask an assistant to depress the accelerator pedal fully on both carbureted and fuel injected vehicles.
- While you read the compression gauge, ask the assistant to crank the engine two or three times in short bursts using the ignition switch.
- Read the compression gauge at the end of each series of cranks, and record the highest of these readings. Repeat this procedure for each of the engine's cylinders. As a general rule, new motors will have compression on the order of 150-170 pounds per square inch (psi). This number will decrease with age and wear. The number of pounds of pressure that your test shows is not as important as the evenness between all the cylinders. Many engines run very well with all cylinders at 105 psi (723 kPa). The lower number simply shows a general deterioration internally. This motor probably burns a little oil and may be a bit harder to start, but, based on these numbers, doesn't warrant an engine tear-down yet. Compare the highest reading of all the cylinders. Any variation of more than 10 percent should be considered a sign of potential trouble. For example, on a 4-cylinder engine, if your compression readings for cylinders 1 through 4 were: 135 psi, 125 psi, 90 psi and 125 psi, it would be fair to say that cylinder number three is not working efficiently and is almost certainly the cause of your oil burning, rough idle or poor fuel mileage.
- If a cylinder is unusually low, pour a tablespoon of clean engine oil into the cylinder through the spark plug hole and repeat the compression test. If the compression comes up after adding the oil, it appears that the cylinder's piston rings or bore are damaged or worn. (The oil sealed some of the leakage.) If the pressure remains low, the valves may not be seating properly (a valve job is needed), or the head gasket may be blown near that cylinder. If compression in any two adjacent cylinders is low, and if the addition of oil doesn't help the compression, there is leakage past the head gasket. Oil and coolant in the combustion chamber can result from this problem. There may also be evidence of water droplets on the engine oil dipstick when a head gasket has failed.