The battery and starter motor are linked by very heavy gauge electrical cables designed to minimize resistance to the flow of current. Generally, the major power supply cable that leaves the battery goes directly to the starter, while other electrical system needs are supplied by a smaller gauge cable. During starter operation, the positive (+) battery power flows from the battery to the starter solenoid, and the starter and is grounded through the engine which is grounded by the battery's negative ground strap.
The starter is a specially designed, direct current electric motor capable of producing a great amount of power for its size. What allows the motor to produce a great deal of power is its tremendous rotating speed. It drives the engine through a tiny pinion gear (attached to the starter's armature), that drives the very large flywheel ring gear at a greatly reduced speed. Another factor allowing it to produce so much power is that only intermittent operation is required of it. Thus, little allowance for air circulation is necessary, and the windings can be built into a very small space.
The starter solenoid is an electromagnetic device that is triggered by the small current supplied by the start circuit of the ignition switch. This electromagnetic action moves a plunger that mechanically engages the starter gear and closes the high amperage switch connecting the starter to the battery. The starting switch circuit is part of the ignition switch. The starting circuit wiring includes a safety circuit, such as a neutral safety switch, or clutch pedal switch, that prevents the engine from being started with the transmission engaged. Also included in the starting circuit is the wiring necessary to connect these in series with the starter solenoid.
The pinion, a small gear, is mounted to a one-way drive clutch. This clutch is splined to the starter armature shaft. When the ignition switch is moved to the START position, the solenoid plunger slides the pinion toward the flywheel ring gear via a collar and spring. If the teeth on the pinion and flywheel match properly, the pinion will engage the flywheel immediately. If the gear teeth butt one another, the spring will be compressed and will force the gears to mesh as soon as the starter turns far enough to allow them to do so. As the solenoid plunger reaches the end of its travel, it closes the contacts that connect the battery to the starter, and then the engine is cranked.
As soon as the engine starts, the flywheel ring gear begins turning fast enough to drive the pinion at an extremely high rate of speed. At this point, the one-way clutch begins allowing the pinion to spin faster than the starter shaft so that the starter will not operate at excessive speed. When the ignition switch is released from the start position, the solenoid is de-energized, and a spring pulls the gear out of mesh, interrupting the current flow to the starter.
Some starters employ a separate relay, mounted away from the starter, to switch the motor and solenoid current on and off. The relay replaces the solenoid electrical switch, but does not eliminate the need for a solenoid mounted on the starter used to mechanically engage the starter drive gears. The relay is used to reduce the amount of current the start position of the ignition switch must carry.