Honda Civic/CRX/del Sol 1984-1995 Repair Guide

Air Conditioning System

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CAUTION
The refrigerant used in A/C systems is an extremely cold substance. When exposed to air, it will instantly freeze any surface it comes in contact with, including your eyes. It is imperative to use eye and skin protection when working on A/C systems.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS



R-12 refrigerant is a chlorofluorocarbon which, when released into the atmosphere, contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer. Ozone filters out harmful radiation from the sun. Consult the laws in your area before servicing the air conditioning system. In some states it is illegal to perform repairs involving refrigerant unless the work is done by a certified technician. It is also likely that you will not be able to purchase R-12 without proof that you are properly trained and certified to work on A/C systems.



The refrigerant used in A/C systems is an extremely cold substance. When exposed to air, it will instantly freeze any surface it comes in contact with, including your eyes.
 
Although normally non-toxic, refrigerant gas becomes highly poisonous in the presence of an open flame. One good whiff of the vapor formed by refrigerant can be fatal. Keep all forms of fire (including cigarettes) well clear of the air conditioning system.
 
It has been established that the chemicals in R-12 (used on Civic models up to 1993) contribute to the damage occurring in the upper atmosphere. On 1994-1995 models, R-134a refrigerant is used. Both of these refrigerant systems must be discharged using the proper recovery/recycling equipment.
 
Do not mix refrigerants. They are NOT compatible.
 
On R-134a systems, use only the recommended polyalkyleneglycol (PAG) refrigerant oil designed for the R-134a compressor. Intermixing the recommended oil with any other type will result in compressor failure.
 
Never mix ANY parts between the systems, as they are not compatible.
 
R-12 and R-134a refrigerant servicing equipment are not interchangeable. Only use recovery/recycling systems which are U.L-listed and are certified to meet SAE requirements for the type of refrigerant system to be serviced. Follow the instructions provided with the equipment carefully when discharging the system.
 
Servicing (recovery, evacuation and charging) of the A/C system, should be left to a professional certified mechanic with the proper equipment and related training.
 

OPERATION



See Figure 1

Once the air conditioning system is fully charged and free of leaks, it is ready to operate on demand. When turned on, the compressor discharges high temperature and high pressure refrigerant. This refrigerant gas contains heat transferred from inside the car plus the heat developed by the compressor on the discharge stroke.

This gaseous refrigerant flows into the condenser. Because of the airflow through the condenser (either from the motion of the car or the action of the fans), heat is removed from the gas. Now cooled, the gas condenses into a liquid and flows into the receiver/dryer. The receiver/drier stores the liquid refrigerant and filters out small amounts of moisture which may be present.

Flowing from the receiver, the liquid refrigerant passes through an expansion valve which changes it into a low temperature, low pressure mixture of gas and liquid. This cold and foggy refrigerant flows to the evaporator.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Air conditioning system components

Once in the evaporator, (inside the cabin of the vehicle) the refrigerant is exposed to the warmer air being moved by the blower fan. The refrigerant changes to a gas within the evaporator and absorbs heat from the air being circulated by the fan. After being fully vaporized within the evaporator, the heated refrigerant gas is drawn out of the evaporator to the compressor where the cycle continues.

The efficiency of any air conditioning system is controlled not only by the system itself but by outside factors such as air temperature, humidity, forward speed of the car and amount of sunlight entering the car.

SYSTEM INSPECTION



A lot of A/C problems can be avoided by running the air conditioner at least once a week, regardless of the season. Simply let the system run for at least 5 minutes a week (even in the winter), and you'll keep the internal parts lubricated as well as preventing the hoses from hardening.

Checking For A/C Oil Leaks

Refrigerant leaks show up only as oily areas on the various components because the compressor oil is transported around the entire system along with the refrigerant. Look for oily spots on all the hoses and lines (especially on the hose and tube connections). If there are oily deposits, the system may have a leak, and you should have it checked by a qualified mechanic.

Check the A/C Compressor Belt

The compressor drive belt should be checked frequently for tension and condition. Refer to the information in this section on "Belts".

Keep the A/C Condenser Clear

The condenser is mounted in front of the radiator (and is often mistaken for the radiator). It serves to remove heat from the air conditioning system and to cool the refrigerant. Proper air flow through the condenser is critical to the operation of the system.

Periodically inspect the front of the condenser for bent fins or foreign material (dirt, bugs, leaves, etc.). If any cooling fins are bent, straighten them carefully with needle nose pliers. You can remove any debris with a stiff bristle brush or hose.

Additional Preventive Maintenance Checks
ANTIFREEZE

In order to prevent heater core freeze-up during A/C operation, it is necessary to maintain permanent type antifreeze protection of +15°F, or lower. A reading of -15°F is ideal since this protection also supplies sufficient corrosion inhibitors for the protection of the engine cooling system.

The same antifreeze should not be used longer than the manufacturer specifies.

RADIATOR CAP

For efficient operation of an air conditioned car's cooling system, the radiator cap should have a holding pressure which meets manufacturer's specifications. A cap which fails to hold these pressures should be replaced.

CONDENSATION DRAIN TUBE

This single molded drain tube expels the condensation, which accumulates on the bottom of the evaporator housing, into the engine compartment. If this tube is obstructed, the air conditioning performance can be restricted and condensation buildup can spill over onto the vehicle's floor.

REFRIGERANT LEVEL CHECKS



See Figure 2

If your car is equipped with an aftermarket air conditioner, the following system check may not apply. Contact the manufacturer of the unit for instructions on system checks.

The easiest way to check the air conditioning is to turn it on; if cold air is supplied, the system is probably in good order. A properly charged system which is used frequently is not likely to need maintenance. It is not uncommon to find cars several years old running on the original charge in the system. If working properly, the system does not require periodic recharging.

If a problem is suspected, the first order of business when checking the refrigerant is to find the sight glass. It is usually located in the head of the receiver/drier at the left front corner of the engine compartment. Due to the recessed locations of some receive/driers, the glass may be located in its own block, anywhere in the liquid line running to the evaporator. It should be visible by looking at the air conditioning lines running across the engine compartment near the radiator.

Once you've found it, wipe off the small glass window and proceed as follows:

  1. With the engine running and the air conditioner switched on inside the vehicle, look for the flow of refrigerant through the sight glass. If the system is working properly, you'll see a continuous flow of clear refrigerant in the sight glass, with perhaps an occasional bubble if the system is operating at high temperatures.
  2.  
  3. Cycle the air conditioner on and off to make sure what you are seeing is refrigerant. Since the fluid is clear, it is possible to mistake a completely discharged system for one that is fully charged. Turn the system off and watch the sight glass; if there is refrigerant in the system, you'll see bubbles during the OFF cycle. If you see no bubbles when the system is running and cold air is flowing from the air vents inside, the system is OK.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2: Sight glass inspection

The air conditioning system may turn itself off automatically to prevent the evaporator from freezing. If this happens while you're looking at the sight glass, don't mistake it for a failure. Wait a short while and the system will re-engage.

  1. If you observe bubbles in the sight glass while the system is operating, the system is low on refrigerant. The only reason for this is a leak somewhere; have it checked by a professional. Running the air conditioning with an insufficient charge may damage the compressor.
  2.  
  3. Oil streaks in the sight glass are an indication of trouble. Most of the time, oil will appear as a series of streaks although it may also be a solid stream. In either case, it means reduced cooling and possibly compressor replacement.
  4.  

GAUGE SETS



See Figure 3

Generally described, this tool is a set of two gauges, a manifold and three hoses. By connecting the proper hoses to the car's system, the gauges can be used to "see" the air conditioning system at work. Do not use the gauge set as a means for discharging the system.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Manifold gauge set

DISCHARGING, EVACUATING AND CHARGING



Discharging, evacuating and charging the air conditioning system must be performed by a properly trained and certified mechanic in a facility equipped with refrigerant recovery/recycling equipment that meets SAE standards for the type of system to be serviced.

 
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