See Figures 1 through 9
Starter Won't Crank The Engine
- Dead battery.
Open starter circuit, such as:
- Broken or loose battery cables.
- Inoperative starter motor solenoid.
- Broken or loose wire from ignition switch to solenoid.
- Poor solenoid or starter ground.
- Bad ignition switch.
Defective starter internal circuit, such as:
- Dirty or burnt commutator.
- Stuck, worn or broken brushes.
- Open or shorted armature.
- Open or grounded fields.
Starter motor mechanical faults, such as:
- Jammed armature end bearings.
- Bad bearings, allowing armature to rub fields.
- Bent shaft.
- Broken starter housing.
- Bad starter drive mechanism.
- Bad starter drive or flywheel-driven gear.
Engine hard or impossible to crank, such as:
- Hydrostatic lock, water in combustion chamber.
- Crankshaft seizing in bearings.
- Piston or ring seizing.
- Bent or broken connecting rod.
- Seizing of connecting rod bearings.
- Flywheel jammed or broken.
Starter Spins Freely, Won't Engage
- Sticking or broken drive mechanism.
- Damaged ring gear.
REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
See Figures 10 and 11
The starter on the 4-134 and the 6-226 can be removed from above or below the engine. On all other engines, the starter must be removed from below.
- Disconnect the battery ground.
- Raise and support the vehicle on jackstands.
- On the 8-327, remove the right side exhaust manifold.
- Remove all wires from the starter and tag them for installation.
- Remove all but one upper attaching bolt, support the starter (it's heavier than it looks) and remove the last bolt.
- Pull the starter from the engine.
- Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque the mounting bolts to:
STARTER OVERHAUL Autolite/Motorcraft
- Remove the cover screw, the cover thru-bolts, the starter drive end housing and the starter drive plunger lever return spring.
- Remove the starter gear plunger lever pivot pin, the lever and the armature. Remove the stop ring retainer and the stop ring from the armature shaft (discard the ring), then the starter drive gear assembly.
- Remove the brush end plate, the insulator assembly and the brushes from the plastic holder, then lift out the brush holder. For reassembly, note the position of the brush holder with respect to the end terminal.
- Remove the two ground brush-to-frame screws.
- Bend up the sleeve's edges which are inserted in the frame's rectangular hole, then remove the sleeve and the retainer. Detach the field coil ground wire from the copper tab.
- Remove the three coil retaining screws. Cut the field coil connection at the switch post lead, then remove the pole shoes and the coils from the frame.
- Cut the positive brush leads from the field coils (as close to the field connection point as possible).
- Check the armature and the armature windings for broken or burned insulation, open circuits or grounds.
- Check the commutator for runout; if it is rough, has flat spots or is more than 0.005 in. out of round, reface the commutator face.
- Inspect the armature shaft and the two bearings for scoring and excessive wear, then replace (if necessary).
- Inspect the starter drive; if the gear teeth are pitted, broken or excessively worn, replace the starter drive.
The factory brush length is1/2in.; the wear limit is1/4in.
- Install the starter terminal, the insulator, the washers and the nut in the frame.
Be sure to position the screw slot perpendicular to the frame end surface.
- Position the coils and the pole pieces, with the coil leads in the terminal screw slot, then install the screws. When tightening the pole screws, strike the frame with several sharp hammer blows to align the pole shoes, then stake the screws.
- Install the solenoid coil and the retainer, then bend the tabs to hold the coils to the frame.
- Using resin-core solder and a 300 watt iron, solder the field coils and the solenoid wire to the starter terminal. Check for continuity and ground connections of the assembled coils.
- Position the solenoid coil ground terminal over the nearest ground screw hole and the ground brushes-to-starter frame, then install the screws.
- Apply a thin coating of Lubriplate® on the armature shaft splines. Install the starter motor drive gear assembly-to-armature shaft, followed by a new stop ring and retainer. Install the armature in the starter frame.
- Position the starter drive gear plunger lever to the frame and the starter drive assembly, then install the pivot pin. Place some grease into the end housing bore; fill it about 1 / 4 full, then position the drive end housing to the frame.
- Install the brush holder and the brush springs; the positive brush leads should be positioned in their respective brush holder slots, to prevent grounding problems.
- Install the brush end plate; be certain that the end plate insulator is in the proper position on the end plate. Install the two starter frame thru-bolts and torque them to 55-75 inch lbs.
- Install the starter drive plunger lever cover and tighten the retaining screw.
See Figure 12
- Detach the field coil connectors from the motor solenoid terminal.
If equipped, remove solenoid mounting screws.
- Remove the thru-bolts, the commutator end frame, the field frame and the armature assembly from drive housing.
Remove the overrunning clutch from the armature shaft as follows:
- Slide the two piece thrust collar off the end of the armature shaft.
- Slide a standard 1 / 2 in. pipe coupling or other spacer onto the shaft, so that the coupling end butts against the retainer edge.
- Using a hammer, tap the coupling end, driving the retainer towards the armature end of the snapring.
- Using snapring pliers, remove the snapring from its groove in the shaft, then slide the retainer and the clutch from the shaft.
Disassemble the field frame brush assembly by releasing the V-spring and removing the support pin. The brush holders, the brushes and the springs can now be pulled out as a unit and the leads disconnected.
On the integral frame units, remove the brush holder from the brush support and the brush screw.
- If equipped, separate the solenoid from the lever housing.
- Clean the parts with a rag; do not immerse the parts in a solvent.
- Test the overrunning clutch action; the pinion should turn freely in the overrunning direction but must not slip in the cranking direction. Check that the pinion teeth have not been chipped, cracked or excessively worn; replace the unit (if necessary).
- Inspect the armature commutator; if the commutator is rough or out of round, it should be machined and undercut.
Undercut the insulation between the commutator bars by1/32in. The undercut must be the full width of the insulation and flat at the bottom; a triangular groove will not be satisfactory. Most late model starter motor use a molded armature commutator design; no attempt to undercut the insulation should be made or serious damage may result to the commutator.ASSEMBLY
- Install the brushes into the holders, then install solenoid (if equipped).
- Assemble the insulated and the grounded holder together. Using the V-spring, position and assemble the unit on the support pin. Push the holders and the spring to bottom of the support, then rotate the spring to engage the slot in the support. Attach the ground wire to the grounded brush and the field lead wire to the insulated brush, then repeat this procedure for other brush sets.
Assemble the overrunning clutch to the armature shaft as follows:
- Lubricate the drive end of the shaft with silicone lubricant.
- Slide the clutch assembly onto the shaft with the pinion outward.
- Slide the retainer onto the shaft with the cupped surface facing away from the pinion.
- Stand the armature up on a wood surface with the commutator downward. Position the snapring on the upper end of the shaft and drive it onto the shaft with a small block of wood and a hammer, then slide the snapring into groove.
- Install the thrust collar onto the shaft with the shoulder next to snapring.
- With the retainer on one side of the snapring and the thrust collar on the other side, squeeze two sets together (with pliers) until the ring seats in the retainer. On models without a thrust collar use a washer; remember to remove the washer before continuing.
- Lubricate the drive end bushing with silicone lubricant, then slide the armature and the clutch assembly into place, while engaging the shift lever with the clutch.
On the non-integral starters, the shift lever may be installed in the drive gear housing first.
- Position the field frame over the armature and apply sealer (silicone) between the frame and the solenoid case. Position the frame against the drive housing, making sure the brushes are not damaged in the process.
- Lubricate the commutator end bushing with silicone lubricant, place a washer on the armature shaft and slide the commutator end frame onto the shaft. Install the thru-bolts and tighten.
- Reconnect the field coil connections to the solenoid motor terminal. Install the solenoid mounting screws (if equipped).
- Check the pinion clearance; it should be 0.010-0.140 in. with the pinion in the cranking position, on all models.
PrestoliteDISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
- To remove the solenoid, remove the screw from the field coil connector and solenoid mounting screws. Rotate the solenoid 90º and remove it along with the plunger return spring.
- For further service, remove the two through-bolts, then remove the commutator end frame and washer.
To replace the clutch and drive assembly proceed as follows:
- Remove the thrust washer or the collar from the armature shaft.
- Slide a 5 / 8 in. deep socket or a piece of pipe of suitable size over the shaft and against the retainer as a driving tool. Tap the tool to remove the retainer off the snapring.
- Remove the snapring from the groove in the shaft. Check and make sure the snapring isn't distorted. If it is, it will be necessary to replace it with a new one upon reassembly.
- Remove the retainer and clutch assembly from the armature shaft.
- The shift lever may be disconnected from the plunger at this time by removing the roll pin.
- On models with the standard starter, the brushes may be removed by removing the brush holder pivot pin which positions one insulated and one grounded brush. Remove the brush and spring and replace the brushes as necessary.
- On models with the smaller 5MT starter, remove the brush and holder from the brush support, then remove the screw from the brush holder and separate the brush and holder. Replace the brushes as necessary.
Installation is the reverse of removal. Assemble the armature and clutch and drive assembly as follows:
- Lubricate the drive end of the armature shaft and slide the clutch assembly onto the armature shaft with the pinion away from the armature.
- Slide the retainer onto the shaft with the cupped side facing the end of the shaft.
- Install the snapring into the groove on the armature shaft.
- Install the thrust washer on the shaft.
- Position the retainer and thrust washer with the snapring in between. Using two pliers, grip the retainer and thrust washer or collar and squeeze until the snapring is forced into the retainer and is held securely in the groove in the armature shaft.
- Lubricate the drive gear housing bushing.
- Engage the shift lever yoke with the clutch and slide the complete assembly into the drive gear housing.
When the starter motor has been disassembled or the solenoid has been replaced, it is necessary to check the pinion clearance. Pinion clearance must be correct to prevent the buttons on the shift lever yoke from rubbing on the clutch collar during cranking.CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
- Disconnect the motor field coil connector from the solenoid motor terminal and insulate it carefully.
- Connect one 12 volt battery lead to the solenoid switch terminal and the other to the starter frame.
- Flash a jumper lead momentarily from the solenoid motor terminal to the starter frame. This will shift the pinion into cranking position and it will remain there until the battery is disconnected.
- Push the pinion back as far as possible to take up any movement, and check the clearance with a feeler gauge. The clearance should be 0.010-0.140 in.
- There is no means for adjusting pinion clearance on the starter motor. If clearance does not fall within the limits, check for improper installation and replace all worn parts.