Hydraulic systems are used to actuate the brakes of all modern automobiles. The system transports the power required to force the frictional surfaces of the braking system together from the pedal to the individual brake units at each wheel. A hydraulic system is used for two reasons.
First, fluid under pressure can be carried to all parts of an automobile by small pipes and flexible hoses without taking up a significant amount of room or posing routing problems.
Second, a great mechanical advantage can be given to the brake pedal end of the system, and the foot pressure required to actuate the brakes can be reduced by making the surface area of the master cylinder pistons smaller than that of any of the pistons in the wheel cylinders or calipers.
The master cylinder consists of a fluid reservoir along with a double cylinder and piston assembly. Double type master cylinders are designed to separate the front and rear braking systems hydraulically in case of a leak. The master cylinder coverts mechanical motion from the pedal into hydraulic pressure within the lines. This pressure is translated back into mechanical motion at the wheels by either the wheel cylinder (drum brakes) or the caliper (disc brakes).
Steel lines carry the brake fluid to a point on the vehicle's frame near each of the vehicle's wheels. The fluid is then carried to the calipers and wheel cylinders by flexible tubes in order to allow for Suspension and Steering movements.
In drum brake systems, each wheel cylinder contains two pistons, one at either end, which push outward in opposite directions and force the brake shoe into contact with the drum.
In disc brake systems, the cylinders are part of the calipers. At least one cylinder in each caliper is used to force the brake pads against the disc.
All pistons employ some type of seal, usually made of rubber, to minimize fluid leakage. A rubber dust boot seals the outer end of the cylinder against dust and dirt. The boot fits around the outer end of the piston on disc brake calipers, and around the brake actuating rod on wheel cylinders.
The hydraulic system operates as follows: When at rest, the entire system, from the piston(s) in the master cylinder to those in the wheel cylinders or calipers, is full of brake fluid. Upon application of the brake pedal, fluid trapped in front of the master cylinder piston(s) is forced through the lines to the wheel cylinders. Here, it forces the pistons outward, in the case of drum brakes, and inward toward the disc, in the case of disc brakes. The motion of the pistons is opposed by return springs mounted outside the cylinders in drum brakes, and by spring seals, in disc brakes.
Upon release of the brake pedal, a spring located inside the master cylinder immediately returns the master cylinder pistons to the normal position. The pistons contain check valves and the master cylinder has compensating ports drilled in it. These are uncovered as the pistons reach their normal position. The piston check valves allow fluid to flow toward the wheel cylinders or calipers as the pistons withdraw. Then, as the return springs force the brake pads or shoes into the released position, the excess fluid reservoir through the compensating ports. It is during the time the pedal is in the released position that any fluid that has leaked out of the system will be replaced through the compensating ports.
Dual circuit master cylinders employ two pistons, located one behind the other, in the same cylinder. The primary piston is actuated directly by mechanical linkage from the brake pedal through the power booster. The secondary piston is actuated by fluid trapped between the two pistons. If a leak develops in front of the secondary piston, it moves forward until it bottoms against the front of the master cylinder, and the fluid trapped between the pistons will operate the rear brakes. If the rear brakes develop a leak, the primary piston will move forward until direct contact with the secondary piston takes place, and it will force the secondary piston to actuate the front brakes. In either case, the brake pedal moves farther when the brakes are applied, and less braking power is available.
All dual circuit systems use a switch to warn the driver when only half of the brake system is operational. This switch is usually located in a valve body which is mounted on the firewall or the frame below the master cylinder. A hydraulic piston receives pressure from both circuits, each circuit's pressure being applied to one end of the piston. When the pressures are in balance, the piston remains stationary. When one circuit has a leak, however, the greater pressure in that circuit during application of the brakes will push the piston to one side, closing the switch and activating the brake warning light.
In disc brake systems, this valve body also contains a metering valve and, in some cases, a proportioning valve. The metering valve keeps pressure from traveling to the disc brakes on the front wheels until the brake shoes on the rear wheels have contacted the drums, ensuring that the front brakes will never be used alone. The proportioning valve controls the pressure to the rear brakes to lessen the chance of rear wheel lock-up during very hard braking.
Warning lights may be tested by depressing the brake pedal and holding it while opening one of the wheel cylinder bleeder screws. If this does not cause the light to go on, substitute a new lamp, make continuity checks, and, finally, replace the switch as necessary.
The hydraulic system may be checked for leaks by applying pressure to the pedal gradually and steadily. If the pedal sinks very slowly to the floor, the system has a leak. This is not to be confused with a springy or spongy feel due to the compression of air within the lines. If the system leaks, there will be a gradual change in the position of the pedal with a constant pressure.
Check for leaks along all lines and at wheel cylinders. If no external leaks are apparent, the problem is inside the master cylinder.
Instead of the traditional expanding brakes that press outward against a circular drum, disc brake systems utilize a disc (rotor) with brake pads positioned on either side of it. An easily-seen analogy is the hand brake arrangement on a bicycle. The pads squeeze onto the rim of the bike wheel, slowing its motion. Automobile disc brakes use the identical principle but apply the braking effort to a separate disc instead of the wheel.
The disc (rotor) is a casting, usually equipped with cooling fins between the two braking surfaces. This enables air to circulate between the braking surfaces making them less sensitive to heat buildup and more resistant to fade. Dirt and water do not drastically affect braking action since contaminants are thrown off by the centrifugal action of the rotor or scraped off the by the pads. Also, the equal clamping action of the two brake pads tends to ensure uniform, straight line stops. Disc brakes are inherently self-adjusting. There are three general types of disc brake:
- A fixed caliper.
- A floating caliper.
- A sliding caliper.
The fixed caliper design uses two pistons mounted on either side of the rotor (in each side of the caliper). The caliper is mounted rigidly and does not move.
The sliding and floating designs are quite similar. In fact, these two types are often lumped together. In both designs, the pad on the inside of the rotor is moved into contact with the rotor by hydraulic force. The caliper, which is not held in a fixed position, moves slightly, bringing the outside pad into contact with the rotor. There are various methods of attaching floating calipers. Some pivot at the bottom or top, and some slide on mounting bolts. In any event, the end result is the same.
Drum brakes employ two brake shoes mounted on a stationary backing plate. These shoes are positioned inside a circular drum which rotates with the wheel assembly. The shoes are held in place by springs. This allows them to slide toward the drums (when they are applied) while keeping the linings and drums in alignment. The shoes are actuated by a wheel cylinder which is mounted at the top of the backing plate. When the brakes are applied, hydraulic pressure forces the wheel cylinder's actuating links outward. Since these links bear directly against the top of the brake shoes, the tops of the shoes are then forced against the inner side of the drum. This action forces the bottoms of the two shoes to contact the brake drum by rotating the entire assembly slightly (known as servo action). When pressure within the wheel cylinder is relaxed, return springs pull the shoes back away from the drum.
Most modern drum brakes are designed to self-adjust themselves during application when the vehicle is moving in reverse. This motion causes both shoes to rotate very slightly with the drum, rocking an adjusting lever, thereby causing rotation of the adjusting screw. Some drum brake systems are designed to self-adjust during application whenever the brakes are applied. This on-board adjustment system reduces the need for maintenance adjustments and keeps both the brake function and pedal feel satisfactory.
Virtually all modern vehicles use a vacuum assisted power brake system to multiply the braking force and reduce pedal effort. Since vacuum is always available when the engine is operating, the system is simple and efficient. A vacuum diaphragm is located on the front of the master cylinder and assists the driver in applying the brakes, reducing both the effort and travel he must put into moving the brake pedal.
The vacuum diaphragm housing is normally connected to the intake manifold by a vacuum hose. A check valve is placed at the point where the hose enters the diaphragm housing, so that during periods of low manifold vacuum brakes assist will not be lost.
Depressing the brake pedal closes off the vacuum source and allows atmospheric pressure to enter on one side of the diaphragm. This causes the master cylinder pistons to move and apply the brakes. When the brake pedal is released, vacuum is applied to both sides of the diaphragm and springs return the diaphragm and master cylinder pistons to the released position.
If the vacuum supply fails, the brake pedal rod will contact the end of the master cylinder actuator rod and the system will apply the brakes without any power assistance. The driver will notice that much higher pedal effort is needed to stop the car and that the pedal feels harder than usual.
Vacuum Leak Test
- Operate the engine at idle without touching the brake pedal for at least one minute.
- Turn off the engine and wait one minute.
- Test for the presence of assist vacuum by depressing the brake pedal and releasing it several times. If vacuum is present in the system, light application will produce less and less pedal travel. If there is no vacuum, air is leaking into the system.
System Operation Test
- With the engine OFF , pump the brake pedal until the supply vacuum is entirely gone.
- Put light, steady pressure on the brake pedal.
- Start the engine and let it idle. If the system is operating correctly, the brake pedal should fall toward the floor if the constant pressure is maintained.
Power brake systems may be tested for hydraulic leaks just as ordinary systems are tested.
When the brake linings become worn, effective brake pedal travel is reduced. Adjusting the brake shoes will restore the necessary travel for efficient braking.
Before adjusting the brakes, check the spring nuts, brake dust shield-to-axle flange bolts and wheel adjustments. Any looseness in these parts can cause erratic brake operation.
Disc brakes require no manual adjustment, nor are they adjustable. Therefore, the following applies only to drum brakes.
Manually Adjusted BrakesCAM TYPE ADJUSTERS
See Figure 1
Early trucks were equipped with cam type, eccentric adjusters, rather than the more familiar starwheel type adjusters. Before adjusting the brakes, make sure that the brake pedal has1/2" free-play.
- Raise and support the front and rear on jackstands.
- At the left front and left rear wheels, turn the forward shoe cam clockwise until the shoe is tight against the drum. Turn the cam counterclockwise until the wheel just rotates freely without drag.
- Turn the right wheel adjusters on the front and rear forward shoes counterclockwise until the shoes are tight against the drum, then turn them clockwise to just free the wheel.
- Repeat these procedures in reverse for the rearward shoes.
See Figures 2 and 3
- Jack up the vehicle.
- Remove the adjusting hole dust plug from the back of the brake backing plate.
- Use a brake adjusting tool to turn the starwheel. Raise the handle of the tool to tighten the shoes against the drum.
- When the brake shoes are tight against the drum, turn the starwheel in the opposite direction until the wheel rotates freely without brake drag.
- Repeat the above procedure for all four wheels. Replace the dust plug.
- Jack up the vehicle.
- Remove the access slot cover and using a brake adjusting tool or screwdriver, rotate the starwheel until the wheel is locked and can't be turned by hand. To tighten, rotate the starwheel in the clockwise direction.
- Back off the starwheel at least 15 to 20 notches. To back off the starwheel on the brake, insert an ice pick or thin screwdriver in the adjusting screw slot to hold the automatic adjusting lever away from the starwheel. Do not attempt to back off on the adjusting screw without holding the adjusting lever away from the starwheel as the adjuster will be damaged.
Brake Pedal Free-play
Pedal free-play is measured at the top of the pedal pad.FC SERIES
Proper free-play is 1 / 2 in. Adjustment is made by turning the eccentric bolt which connects the brake pedal with the master cylinder pushrod.JEEPSTER/COMMANDO
Proper free-play is 1 / 2 in. Adjustment on vehicles with power brakes is made by turning the eccentric bolt which connects the brake pedal with the master cylinder pushrod.
Adjustment on vehicles with non-power brakes is made at the adjusting bolt located on the brake pedal mounting bracket. Loosen the locknut and turn the adjusting bolt to give you the proper free-play.1962-69 WAGONEER AND J-SERIES TRUCK
Proper free-play is 1 / 2 in. Adjustment is made at the adjusting bolt located on the brake pedal mounting bracket. Loosen the locknut and turn the adjusting bolt to give you the proper free-play.1970-83, ALL MODELS
Proper free-play should be 1 / 16 to 1 / 4 inch. Free-play is not adjustable. If free-play is not correct, the problem is the result of worn or damaged parts.