Lexus Car ES, IS, LS 1998-06

Starter

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Removal & Installation



1MZ-FE Engine
  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative cable
     
    Automatic transmission shift control cable
     
    Engine wire
     
    Starter connector
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    2 bolts, automatic transmission shift control cable clamp and starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Installation is the reversal of the removal process.
  2.  
  3. Torque the starter bolts to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  4.  

  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the precautions in the beginning of this section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative cable
     
    Automatic transmission shift control cable
     
    Engine wire
     
    Starter connector
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    2 bolts, automatic transmission shift control cable clamp and starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Installation is the reversal of the removal process.
  2.  
  3. Torque the starter bolts to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  4.  

  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative battery cable. Wait at least 90 seconds before performing any other work
     
    Automatic transmission shift control cable
     
    Engine wire
     
    Starter connector
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    2 bolts, automatic transmission shift control cable clamp and starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Installation is the reversal of the removal process.
  2.  
  3. Torque the starter bolts to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  4.  

1UZ-FE & 3UZ-FE Engines
  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Drain engine coolant
     
    V-bank cover
     
    Accelerator cable
     
    Intake air connector
     
    Throttle Body
     
    Upper and lower intake manifold assembly
     
    Rear water bypass joint
     
    Water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe from the water pump
     
    Wire clamp from the bracket on the water bypass pipe
     
    O-ring from the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe bracket from the water bypass pipe
     
    2 bolts holding the starter to the cylinder block
     
    Starter connector
     
    Starter from the cylinder block
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    Starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Install or connect the following:

    Wire clamp to the wire bracket with the bolt. Tighten to 87 inch lbs.
     
    Starter wire with the nut. Tighten to 87 inch lbs.
     
    Starter connector
     
    Starter with the 2 bolts. Torque the bolts to 29 ft. lbs. (39 Nm).
     
    Water bypass pipe bracket to the water bypass pipe
     
    O-ring to the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe
     
    Wire clamp to the bracket on the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe bolts. Torque the bolts to 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm).
     
    Rear water bypass joint
     
    Intake manifold assembly
     
    Throttle body
     
    Intake air connector
     
    Accelerator cable
     
    V-bank cover
     

  2.  

  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the precautions in the beginning of this section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    V-bank cover
     
    Accelerator cable
     
    Intake air connector
     
    Throttle Body
     
    Intake manifold assembly
     
    Rear water bypass joint
     
    Water bypass pipe
     
    2 bolts
     
    Water bypass pipe from the water pump
     
    Wire clamp from the bracket on the water bypass pipe
     
    O-ring from the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe bracket from the water bypass pipe
     
    Starter
     
    2 bolts holding the starter to the cylinder block
     
    Starter from the cylinder block
     
    Starter connector
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    Starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Install or connect the following:

    Wire clamp to the wire bracket with the bolt. Tighten to 87 inch lbs.
     
    Starter wire with the nut. Tighten to 87 inch lbs.
     
    Starter connector
     
    Starter with the 2 bolts. Torque the bolts to 29 ft. lbs. (39 Nm).
     
    Water bypass pipe bracket to the water bypass pipe
     
    O-ring to the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe
     
    Wire clamp to the bracket on the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe bolts. Torque the bolts to 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm).
     
    Rear water bypass joint
     
    Intake manifold assembly
     
    Throttle body
     
    Intake air connector
     
    Accelerator cable
     
    V-bank cover
     

  2.  

  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative battery cable. Wait at least 90 seconds before performing any other work
     
    Drain engine coolant
     
    V-bank cover
     
    Accelerator cable
     
    Intake air connector
     
    Throttle body
     
    Upper and lower intake manifold assembly
     
    Rear water bypass joint
     
    Water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe from the water pump
     
    Wire clamp from the bracket on the water bypass pipe
     
    O-ring from the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe bracket from the water bypass pipe
     
    2 bolts holding the starter to the cylinder block
     
    Starter connector
     
    Starter from the cylinder block
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    Starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Install or connect the following:

    Wire clamp to the wire bracket with the bolt. Tighten to 87 inch lbs.
     
    Starter wire with the nut. Tighten to 87 inch lbs.
     
    Starter connector
     
    Starter with the 2 bolts. Torque the bolts to 29 ft. lbs. (39 Nm).
     
    Water bypass pipe bracket to the water bypass pipe
     
    O-ring to the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe
     
    Wire clamp to the bracket on the water bypass pipe
     
    Water bypass pipe bolts. Torque the bolts to 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm).
     
    Rear water bypass joint
     
    Intake manifold assembly
     
    Throttle body
     
    Intake air connector
     
    Accelerator cable
     
    V-bank cover
     

  2.  

2JZ-GE Engine
  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative cable
     
    Starter connector
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    2 bolts and starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Installation is the reversal of the removal procedure.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the starter bolts to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  4.  

  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the precautions in the beginning of this section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative cable
     
    Starter connector
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    2 bolts and starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Installation is the reversal of the removal procedure.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the starter bolts to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  4.  

  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative battery cable. Wait at least 90 seconds before performing any other work
     
    Starter connector
     
    Nut, and disconnect the starter wire
     
    2 bolts and starter
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Installation is the reversal of the removal procedure.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the starter bolts to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  4.  

3.7L & 4.7L Engines
  1. Disconnect and isolate negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and support vehicle.
  4.  
  5. Note: If equipped with 4WD and certain transmissions, a support bracket is used between front axle and side of transmission. Remove 2 support bracket bolts at transmission. Pry support bracket slightly to gain access to lower starter mounting bolt.
  6.  
  7. Remove two bolts if equipped with an automatic transmission.
  8.  
  9. Move starter motor towards front of vehicle far enough for nose of starter pinion housing to clear housing. Always support starter motor during this process, do not let starter motor hang from wire harness.
  10.  
  11. Tilt nose downwards and lower starter motor far enough to access and remove nut that secures battery positive cable wire harness connector eyelet to solenoid battery terminal stud. Do not let starter motor hang from wire harness.
  12.  
  13. Remove battery positive cable wire harness connector eyelet from solenoid battery terminal stud.
  14.  
  15. Disconnect battery positive cable wire harness connector from solenoid terminal connector receptacle.
  16.  
  17. Remove starter motor.

    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Starter mounting-3.7L and 4.7L engines

  18.  

To install:

  1. Connect solenoid wire to starter motor (snaps on).
  2.  
  3. Position battery cable to solenoid stud. Install and tighten battery cable eyelet nut . Do not allow starter motor to hang from wire harness.
  4.  
  5. Position starter motor to transmission.
  6.  
  7. If equipped with automatic transmission, slide cooler tube bracket into position.
  8.  
  9. Install and tighten both bolts .
  10.  
  11. Lower vehicle.
  12.  
  13. Connect negative battery cable.
  14.  

3MZ-FE Engine
  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    RH radiator side deflector
     
    Air cleaner inlet assembly, air cleaner assembly and bracket
     
    Battery and battery tray
     
    Remove starter connector
     
    Starter wire
     
    Two bolts securing starter to engine
     
    Starter assembly
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Install or connect the following:

    Starter assembly with 2 bolts; torque to 26 ft. lbs. (37 Nm)
     
    Starter wires
     
    Battery and battery tray
     
    Air cleaner assembly, bracket and inlet
     
    Radiator side deflector
     

  2.  
  3. System initialization
  4.  

  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative battery cable. Wait at least 90 seconds before performing any other work
     
    RH radiator side deflector
     
    Air cleaner inlet assembly, air cleaner assembly and bracket
     
    Battery and battery tray
     
    Remove starter connector
     
    Starter wire
     
    Two bolts securing starter to engine
     
    Starter assembly
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Install or connect the following:

    Starter assembly with 2 bolts; torque to 26 ft. lbs. (37 Nm)
     
    Starter wires
     
    Battery and battery tray
     
    Air cleaner assembly, bracket and inlet
     
    Radiator side deflector
     

  2.  
  3. System initialization
  4.  

4.0L Engine
  1. Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and support the vehicle.
  4.  
  5. Remove the lower screw (forward facing) that secures the starter motor to the manual transmission clutch housing or the automatic transmission torque converter housing.
  6.  
  7. While supporting the starter motor with one hand, use the other hand to remove the upper screw (rearward facing) that secures the starter motor to the manual transmission clutch housing or the automatic transmission torque converter housing.
  8.  
  9. Lower the starter motor from the front of the manual transmission clutch housing or automatic transmission torque converter housing far enough to access and remove the nut that secures the battery positive cable eyelet terminal to the starter solenoid B(+) terminal stud. Always support the starter motor during this process. Do not let the starter motor hang from the wire harness.
  10.  
  11. Remove the battery positive cable eyelet terminal from the solenoid B(+) terminal stud. Always support the starter motor during this process. Do not let the starter motor hang from the wire harness.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the solenoid terminal wire harness connector from the connector receptacle on the starter solenoid. Always support the starter motor during this process. Do not let the starter motor hang from the wire harness.
  14.  
  15. Remove the starter motor from the manual transmission clutch housing or automatic transmission torque converter housing.

    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Starter mounting-4.0L engine w/manual transmission



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Starter mounting-4.0L engine w/42RLE automatic transmission

  16.  

To install:

  1. Position the starter motor to the manual transmission clutch housing or automatic transmission torque converter housing.
  2.  
  3. Reconnect the solenoid terminal wire harness connector to the connector receptacle on the starter solenoid. Always support the starter motor during this process. Do not let the starter motor hang from the wire harness.
  4.  
  5. Install the battery positive cable eyelet terminal onto the starter solenoid B(+) terminal stud. Always support the starter motor during this process. Do not let the starter motor hang from the wire harness.
  6.  
  7. Install and tighten the nut that secures the battery positive cable eyelet terminal to the starter solenoid B(+) terminal stud. Tighten the nut to 100 inch lbs. (11.3 Nm). Always support the starter motor during this process. Do not let the starter motor hang from the wire harness.
  8.  
  9. Position the starter motor to the manual transmission clutch housing or automatic transmission torque converter housing. Loosely install the two starter motor mounting screws to secure the starter motor to the manual transmission clutch housing or automatic transmission torque converter housing.
  10.  
  11. Tighten the lower (forward facing) screw that secures the starter motor to the manual transmission clutch housing or automatic transmission torque converter housing. Tighten the screw to 30 ft. lbs. (40.7 Nm).
  12.  
  13. Tighten the upper (rearward facing) screw that secures the starter motor to the manual transmission clutch housing or automatic transmission torque converter housing. Tighten the screw to 35 ft. lbs. (47.5 Nm).
  14.  
  15. Lower the vehicle.
  16.  
  17. Reconnect the battery negative cable.
  18.  

4gr-Fse & 2gr-Fse Engines
  1. Before servicing the vehicle, refer to the Precautions section.
  2.  
  3. Remove or disconnect the following:

    Negative battery cable. Wait at least 90 seconds before performing any other work.
     
    Cool air intake duct seal
     
    Left engine room side cover
     
    Rear No. 1 floor panel brace
     
    Front center floor brace
     
    Heated oxygen sensor
     
    Front exhaust pipe assembly
     
    Front propeller shaft assembly (AWD)
     
    No. 1 exhaust pipe support bracket (2.5L with automatic transmission)
     
    Left exhaust manifold
     
    Terminal 50 connector from starter
     
    Terminal cap
     
    Nut and wire harness from terminal 30
     
    2 bolts and starter motor
     

  4.  

To install:

  1. Install or connect the following:

    Starter assembly with 2 bolts. Torque to 43 ft. lbs. (58 Nm).
     
    Starter wires
     
    Left exhaust manifold
     
    No. 1 exhaust pipe support bracket (2.5L with automatic transmission) with 2 bolts. Torque to 32 ft. lbs. (43 Nm).
     
    Front propeller shaft assembly (AWD)
     
    Front exhaust pipe assembly
     
    Heated oxygen sensor
     
    Front center floor brace. Torque to 65 inch lbs. (7 Nm).
     
    Rear No. 1 floor panel brace. Torque to 14 ft. lbs. (19 Nm).
     
    Left engine room side cover
     
    Cool air intake duct seal
     
    Negative battery cable
     
    System initialization
     

  2.  
  3. Start the vehicle and check for exhaust leaks.
  4.  

Testing & Troubleshooting



Correct starter motor operation can be confirmed by performing the following free running bench test. This test can only be performed with starter motor removed from vehicle.


CAUTION
Permanent magnets are used in the starter. Permanent magnet starters are highly sensitive to hammering, shocks, external pressure and reverse polarity. This starter motor must never be clamped in a vise by starter field frame. The starter should only be clamped by mounting flange. Do not reverse battery cable connections to starter motor when testing. The permanent magnets may be damaged and starter rendered unserviceable if it is subjected to any of these conditions.

  1. Remove starter motor from vehicle.
  2.  
  3. Mount starter motor securely in a soft-jawed bench vise. The vise jaws should be clamped on the mounting flange of starter motor. Never clamp on starter motor by field frame.
  4.  
  5. Connect a suitable volt-ampere tester and a 12-volt battery to starter motor in series, and set ammeter to 100 ampere scale. See instructions provided by manufacturer of volt-ampere tester being used.
  6.  
  7. Install jumper wire from solenoid terminal to solenoid battery terminal. The starter motor should operate. If starter motor fails to operate, replace faulty starter motor assembly.
  8.  
  9. Adjust carburetor on pile load of tester to obtain free running test voltage.
  10.  
  11. Note reading on ammeter and compare reading to free running test maximum amperage draw.
  12.  
  13. If ammeter reading exceeds maximum amperage draw specification, replace faulty starter motor assembly.
  14.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Performing the starter pull-in test.


NOTE
These tests must be done within 3 to 5 seconds to avoid burning out the coil.

  1. Perform the pull-in test as follows:


    1. Disconnect the field coil lead wire from terminal C.
    2.  
    3. Connect the battery to the starter solenoid (magnetic switch) as shown. Check that the clutch pinion gear moves outward.

      Click image to see an enlarged view

      Fig. Performing the starter hold-in test.

    4.  

  2.  
  3. Perform hold-in test as follows:


    1. With battery connected as above with the clutch pinion gear out, disconnect the negative (-) lead from terminal C.
    2.  
    3. Check that the pinion gear remains out.

      Click image to see an enlarged view

      Fig. Performing the clutch pinion gear return test.

    4.  

  4.  
  5. Inspect clutch pinion gear return as follows:


    1. Disconnect the negative (-) lead from the starter solenoid (magnetic switch) body.
    2.  
    3. Check that the clutch pinion gear returns inward.

      Click image to see an enlarged view

      Fig. Performing the no-load performance test.

    4.  

  6.  
  7. Perform no-load performance test as follows:


    1. Connect the lead wire to the terminal C with the nut. Torque to 52 inch lbs. (6 Nm).
    2.  
    3. Connect the battery and ammeter to the starter as shown.
    4.  
    5. Check that the starter rotates smoothly and steadily with the pinion gear moving out. Check that the ammeter shows the specified current. Specified current should read 90 amps or less at 11.5V.
    6.  

  8.  


NOTE
These tests must be done within 3 to 5 seconds to avoid burning out the coil.

  1. Perform the pull-in test as follows:


    1. Disconnect the field coil lead wire from terminal C.
    2.  
    3. Connect the battery to the starter solenoid (magnetic switch). Check that the clutch pinion gear moves outward.
    4.  

  2.  
  3. Perform the hold-in test as follows:


    1. While connected as above with the pinion gear out, disconnect the negative (-) lead from terminal C.
    2.  
    3. Check that the pinion gear remains out.
    4.  

  4.  
  5. Perform the clutch pinion gear return test as follows:


    1. Disconnect the negative (-) lead from the starter solenoid (magnetic switch) body.
    2.  
    3. Check that the pinion gear returns inward.
    4.  

  6.  
  7. Perform the no-load performance test as follows:


    1. Connect the battery and ammeter to the starter as shown.
    2.  
    3. Check that the starter rotates smoothly and steadily with the pinion gear moving out. Check that the ammeter shows the specified current. Specified current should read 100 amps or less at 11.5V.
    4.  
    5. If the result is not as specified, replace the starter assembly.
    6.  

  8.  

Cold Cranking Test

The battery must be fully charged and load-tested before proceeding.

  1. Connect volt-ampere tester to battery terminals . See instructions provided by manufacturer of volt-ampere tester being used. Note: Certain diesel equipped models use dual batteries. If equipped with dual battery system, tester should be connected to battery on left side of vehicle only. Also, tester current reading must be taken from positive battery cable lead that connects to starter motor.
  2.  
  3. Fully engage parking brake.
  4.  
  5. If equipped with manual transmission, place gearshift selector lever in Neutral position and block clutch pedal in fully depressed position. If equipped with automatic transmission, place gearshift selector lever in Park position.
  6.  
  7. Verify that all lamps and accessories are turned off.
  8.  
  9. To prevent a gasoline engine from starting, remove Automatic ShutDown (ASD) relay. To prevent a diesel engine from starting, remove Fuel Pump Relay. These relays are located in Power Distribution Center (PDC). Refer to label on PDC cover for relay location.
    WARNING
    If equipped with a diesel engine, attempt to start the engine a few times before proceeding with the following step.

  10.  
  11. Rotate and hold ignition switch in START position.
    NOTE
    Cranking voltage and current (amperage) draw readings shown on volt-ampere tester.


    NOTE
    A cold engine will increase starter current (amperage) draw reading, and reduce battery voltage reading.



    If voltage reads below 9.6 volts, refer to Starter Motor test. If starter motor is not OK, replace faulty starter motor.
     
    If voltage reads above 9.6 volts and current (amperage) draw reads below specifications, refer to Feed Circuit Test.
     
    If voltage reads 12.5 volts or greater and starter motor does not turn, refer to Control Circuit Testing.
     
    If voltage reads 12.5 volts or greater and starter motor turns very slowly, refer to Feed Circuit Test.
     

  12.  

Control Circuit Test

The starter control circuit components should be tested in the order in which they are listed, as follows:



Starter Relay-Refer to Starter Relay Diagnosis and Testing.
 
Starter Solenoid-Refer to Starter Motor Diagnosis and Testing.
 
Ignition Switch-Refer to Ignition Switch and Key Lock Cylinder
 
Clutch Pedal Position Switch-If equipped with manual transmission, refer to Clutch Pedal Position Switch, Clutch.
 
Park/Neutral Position Switch-If equipped with automatic transmission, refer to Park/Neutral Position Switch, Transmission.
 
Wire harnesses and connections
 

Feed Circuit Test

The starter feed circuit test (voltage drop method) will determine if there is excessive resistance in high-amperage feed circuit.

When performing these tests, it is important to remember that voltage drop is giving an indication of resistance between two points at which voltmeter probes are attached. Example: When testing resistance of positive battery cable, touch voltmeter leads to positive battery cable clamp and cable connector at starter solenoid.

If you probe positive battery terminal post and cable connector at starter solenoid, you are reading combined voltage drop in positive battery cable clamp-to terminal post connection and positive battery cable.

The following operation will require a voltmeter accurate to 0.10 volt. Before performing tests, be certain that following procedures are accomplished:



Battery is fully-charged and load-tested.
 
Fully engage parking brake.
 
If equipped with manual transmission, place gearshift selector lever in Neutral position and block clutch pedal in fully depressed position. If equipped with automatic transmission, place gearshift selector lever in Park position.
 
Verify that all lamps and accessories are turned off.
 
To prevent a gasoline engine from starting, remove Automatic Shut Down (ASD) relay. To prevent a diesel engine from starting, remove Fuel Pump Relay. These relays are located in Power Distribution Center (PDC). Refer to label on PDC cover for relay location.
 

  1. Connect positive lead of voltmeter to negative battery cable terminal post. Connect negative lead of voltmeter to negative battery cable clamp .
  2.  
  3. Rotate and hold ignition switch in START position.
  4.  
  5. Observe voltmeter. If voltage is detected, correct poor contact between cable clamp and terminal post.
    NOTE
    Certain diesel equipped models use dual batteries. If equipped with dual battery system, procedure must be performed twice, once for each battery.

  6.  
  7. Connect positive lead of voltmeter to positive battery terminal post. Connect negative lead of voltmeter to battery positive cable clamp . Rotate and hold ignition switch in START position. Observe voltmeter. If voltage is detected, correct poor contact between cable clamp and terminal post. Note: Certain diesel equipped models use dual batteries.
  8.  
  9. If equipped with dual battery system, this procedure must be performed twice, once for each battery.
  10.  
  11. Connect voltmeter to measure between battery positive terminal post and starter solenoid battery terminal stud . Rotate and hold ignition switch in START position. Observe voltmeter. If reading is above 0.2 volt, clean and tighten battery cable connection at solenoid. Repeat test. If reading is still above 0.2 volt, replace faulty positive battery cable.
    NOTE
    Certain diesel equipped models use dual batteries. If equipped with dual battery system, this procedure must be performed on driver side battery only.

  12.  
  13. Connect voltmeter to measure between negative battery terminal post and a good clean ground on engine block . Rotate and hold ignition switch in START position. Observe voltmeter. If reading is above 0.2 volt, clean and tighten negative battery cable attachment on engine block. Repeat test. If reading is still above 0.2 volt, replace faulty negative battery cable. Note: Certain diesel equipped models use dual batteries. If equipped with dual battery system, this procedure must be performed twice, once for each battery.
  14.  
  15. Connect positive lead of voltmeter to starter housing. Connect negative lead of voltmeter to negative battery terminal post . Rotate and hold ignition switch in START position. Observe voltmeter.
    NOTE
    Certain diesel equipped models use dual batteries. If equipped with dual battery system, this procedure must be performed on driver side battery only.



    If reading is above 0.2 volt, correct poor starter to engine block ground contact.
     

  16.  
  17. If equipped with dual battery system (certain diesel equipped models), connect positive lead of voltmeter to positive battery cable clamp on battery located on left side of vehicle. Connect negative lead of voltmeter to positive battery terminal post on battery located on right side of vehicle. Rotate and hold ignition switch in START position. Observe voltmeter.

    If reading is above 0.2 volt, clean and tighten battery cables at both batteries. Repeat test.
     
    If reading is still above 0.2 volt, replace faulty positive battery cable.
     

  18.  

 
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