Mazda Trucks 1972-1986 Repair Guide

Starter

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The Mazda starter is a 4-brush, 4-field, 4-pole wound unit. Engine cranking occurs when the starter solenoid (mounted on the starter) in energized through the ignition switch. The solenoid shifts the starter pinion into mesh with the flywheel ring gear. At the same time, the main contacts of the solenoid are closed and the battery current is directed to the starter causing the armature to rotate. After the engine starts, the starter is disengaged when the ignition switch is returned to the RUN position. This opens the circuit to the starter solenoid and the solenoid return spring causes the shift lever to disengage the starter drive from the flywheel ring gear.

The diesel and the Mistubishi-built engines use gear reduction starters. They are similarly constructed, but feature a gearing function which allows them greater cranking torque.

DIAGNOSIS



Starter Won't Crank The Engine
  1. Dead battery.
  2.  
  3. Open starter circuit, such as:
    1. Broken or loose battery cables.
    2.  
    3. Inoperative starter motor solenoid.
    4.  
    5. Broken or loose wire from ignition switch to solenoid.
    6.  
    7. Poor solenoid or starter ground.
    8.  
    9. Bad ignition switch.
    10.  

  4.  
  5. Defective starter internal circuit, such as:
    1. Dirty or burnt commutator.
    2.  
    3. Stuck, worn or broken brushes.
    4.  
    5. Open or shorted armature.
    6.  
    7. Open or grounded fields.
    8.  

  6.  
  7. Starter motor mechanical faults, such as:
    1. Jammed armature end bearings.
    2.  
    3. Bad bearings, allowing armature to rub fields.
    4.  
    5. Bent shaft.
    6.  
    7. Broken starter housing.
    8.  
    9. Bad starter drive mechanism.
    10.  
    11. Bad starter drive or flywheel-driven gear.
    12.  

  8.  
  9. Engine hard or impossible to crank, such as:
    1. Hydrostatic lock, water in combustion chamber.
    2.  
    3. Crankshaft seizing in bearings.
    4.  
    5. Piston or ring seizing.
    6.  
    7. Bent or broken connecting rod.
    8.  
    9. Seizing of connecting rod bearings.
    10.  
    11. Flywheel jammed or broken.
    12.  

  10.  

Starter Spins Freely, Won't Engage

  1. Sticking or broken drive mechanism.
  2.  
  3. Damaged ring gear.
  4.  

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



1,586cc, 1,796cc, 1,970cc and 1,998cc Engines
  1. Raise the hood and disconnect the battery ground cable.
  2.  
  3. Remove the carburetor air cleaner and air intake tube.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the battery cable from the starter solenoid battery terminal.
  6.  
  7. Pull the ignition switch wire from the solenoid terminal.
  8.  
  9. Raise and support the truck on jackstands.
  10.  
  11. Working under the truck, remove the two starter attaching bolts, washers and nuts.
  12.  
  13. Tilt the drive end of the starter and remove the starter by working it out below the emission system hoses.
  14.  

To install:
  1. Install the starter and two bolts, washers and nuts.
  2.  
  3. Connect the ignition switch wire to the solenoid terminal.
  4.  
  5. Connect the battery cable to the solenoid battery terminal.
  6.  
  7. Install the carburetor air cleaner and air intake tube.
  8.  
  9. Connect the ground cable to the battery.
  10.  
  11. Lower the truck to the ground and check the operation of the starter.
  12.  

2,209cc Engine

  1. Disconnect the battery ground (negative) cable from the battery.
  2.  
  3. Raise and support the front end on jackstands.
  4.  
  5. Tag and remove the wires connected to the starter motor. Tagging the wires helps when reinstalling the starter motor.
  6.  
  7. Loosen and remove the two mounting bolts, make sure to support the weight of the starter motor.
  8.  
  9. Before installation of the motor, be sure to clean the mating surfaces of both the starter and the engine block.
  10.  
  11. Place the starter motor into position. Secure it with the mounting bolts. Connect the cables and wiring harness.
  12.  

Rotary Engine

There are two possible locations for the starter motor; one is the lower right-hand side of the engine and the other is on the upper right-hand side.

  1. Remove the ground cable from the negative (-) battery terminal.
  2.  
  3. If the truck is equipped with the lower mounted starter, remove the gravel shield from underneath the engine.
  4.  


CAUTION
Be extremely careful not to contact the hot exhaust pipe, while working underneath the car.

  1. Remove the battery cable from the starter terminal.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the solenoid leads from the solenoid terminals.
  4.  
  5. Remove the starter securing bolts and withdraw the starter assembly.
  6.  
  7. Installation is the reverse of the above steps.
  8.  

BRUSH REPLACEMENT



  1. Remove the starter. Remove the two screws attaching the brush end bearing cover and remove the bearing cover.
  2.  
  3. Remove the through-bolts.
  4.  
  5. Remove the C-washer, washer and spring from the brush end of the armature shaft.
  6.  
  7. Pull the brush end cover from the starter frame.
  8.  
  9. Unsolder the two brushes from the field terminals and slide the brush holder from the armature shaft.
  10.  
  11. Cut the two brush wires at the brush holder and solder two new brushes to the brush holder.
  12.  
  13. Install the brush holder on the armature shaft and install the brushes in the brush holder.
  14.  
  15. Install the brush end cover on the starter frame and be sure that the ear tabs of the brush holder are aligned with the through-bolt holes.
  16.  
  17. Install the through-bolts.
  18.  
  19. Install the rubber gasket, spring, washer and C-washer on the armature shaft.
  20.  
  21. Install the brush end bearing cover on the brush end cover and install the two screws. If the brush holder tabs are not aligned with the through-bolts, the bearing cover screws cannot be installed.
  22.  

SOLENOID REPLACEMENT



  1. Remove the starter from the truck.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the field strap from the solenoid terminal.
  4.  
  5. Remove the two solenoid attaching screws.
  6.  
  7. Disengage the solenoid plunger from the shift fork and remove the solenoid.
  8.  
  9. Install the solenoid on the drive end housing, making sure that the solenoid plunger hook is engaged with the shift fork.
  10.  
  11. Apply 12v to the solenoid S terminal and measure the clearance between the starter drive and the stop-ring retainer. It should be 2.0-5.0mm (0.0787-0.1969 in.). If not, remove the solenoid and adjust the clearance by inserting an adjusting shim between the solenoid body and drive end housing.
  12.  
  13. Check the solenoid for proper operation and install the starter.
  14.  
  15. Check the operation of the starter.
  16.  

OVERHAUL 1,586cc, 1,796cc, 1,970cc and 1,998cc Engines



See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the starter used on 1972-76 engines



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2: Exploded view of the starter used on 1979-81 engines



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of the direct drive starter used on 1982-86 gasoline engines



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 4: Exploded view of the starter used on diesel engines



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 5: Exploded view of the gear reduction type starter used on some gasoline engines

  1. Remove the starter from the truck.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the field strap from the solenoid.
  4.  
  5. Remove the screws attaching the solenoid to the drive end housing. Disengage the solenoid plunger hook from the shift fork and remove the solenoid.
  6.  
  7. Remove the shift fork pivot bolt, nut and lockwasher.
  8.  
  9. Remove the through-bolts and separate the drive end housing from the starter frame. At the same time, disengage the shift fork from the drive assembly.
  10.  
  11. Remove the two screws attaching the brush end bearing cover to the brush end cover.
  12.  
  13. Remove the C-washer, washer and spring from the brush end of the armature shaft.
  14.  
  15. Pull the brush end cover from the starter frame.
  16.  
  17. Slide the armature from the starter frame and brushes.
  18.  
  19. Slide the drive stop-ring retainer toward the armature and remove the stop-ring. Slide the retainer and drive assembly off the armature shaft.
  20.  
  21. Remove the field brushes from the brush holder and separate the brush holder from the starter frame.
  22.  
  23. Position the drive assembly on the armature shaft.
  24.  
  25. Position the drive stop-ring retainer on the armature shaft and install the drive stop-ring. Slide the stop-ring retainer over the stop-ring to secure the stop-ring on the shaft.
  26.  
  27. Position the armature in the starter frame. Install the brush holder on the armature and starter frame. Install the brushes in the brush holder.
  28.  
  29. Install the drive end housing on the armature shaft and starter housing. Engage the shift fork with the starter drive assembly as you move the drive end housing toward the starter frame.
  30.  
  31. Install the brush end cover on the starter frame making sure that the rear tabs of the brush holder are aligned with the through-bolt holes.
  32.  
  33. Install the through-bolts.
  34.  
  35. Install the rubber washer, spring, washer and C-washer on the armature shaft at the brush end. Install the brush end bearing cover on the brush end cover and install the attaching screws. If the brush end cover is not properly positioned, the bearing cover screws cannot be installed.
  36.  
  37. Align the shift fork with the pivot bolt hole and install the pivot bolt, lockwasher and nut. Tighten the nut securely.
  38.  
  39. Position the solenoid on the drive end housing. Be sure that the solenoid plunger hook is engaged with the shift fork.
  40.  
  41. Install the two solenoid retaining screws and washers.
  42.  
  43. Apply 12v to the solenoid S terminal (ground the M terminal) and check the clearance between the starter drive and the stop-ring retainer. The clearance should be 2.0-5.0mm (0.0787-0.1969 in.). If not, the solenoid plunger is not properly adjusted. The clearance can be adjusted by inserting an adjusting shim between the solenoid body and drive end housing.
  44.  
  45. Install the field strap and tighten the nut.
  46.  
  47. Install the starter. Check the operation of the starter.
  48.  

2,209cc Engine

  1. Remove the wire connecting the starter solenoid to the starter.
  2.  
  3. Remove the two screws holding the solenoid and, pulling out, unhook it from the engagement lever.
  4.  
  5. Remove the two through bolts in the end of the starter and remove the two bracket screws. Pull off the rear bracket.
  6.  

Since the conical spring washer is contained in the rear bracket, be sure to take it out.

  1. Remove the yoke and brush holder assembly while pulling the brush upward.
  2.  
  3. Pull the armature assembly out of the mounting bracket.
  4.  
  5. On the side of the armature mounting bracket there is a small dust shield held on by two screws, remove the shield. Remove the snapring and washer located under the shield.
  6.  
  7. Remove the remaining bolts in the mounting bracket and separate the reduction case.
  8.  

Several washers will come out of the reduction case when you separate it. These adjust the armature end-play: do not lose them.

  1. Remove the reduction gear, lever and lever spring from the front bracket.
  2.  
  3. Use a brass drift or a deep socket to knock the stopper ring on the end of the shaft in toward the pinion. Remove the snapring. Remove the stopper, pinion and pinion shaft assembly.
  4.  
  5. Remove the ball bearings at both ends of the armature.
  6.  

The ball bearings are pressed into the front bracket and are not replaceable. Replace them together with the bracket. Inspect the pinion and spline teeth for wear or damage. If the pinion drive teeth are damaged, visually check the engine flywheel ring gear. Check the flywheel ring gear by looking through the starter motor mounting hole. It will be necessary to turn the engine over by hand to completely inspect the ring gear. Check the starter brushes for wear. Their service limit length is 11.5mm (0.4528 in.). Replace if necessary.

  1. Be sure to replace all the adjusting and thrust washers that you removed. When replacing the rear bracket, fit the conical spring pinion washer with its convex side facing out. Make sure that the brushes seat themselves on the commutator. Assemble the starter.
  2.  

 
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