See Figure 1
See Figures 2 and 3
The recommended coolant for all vehicles covered by this manual is a 50/50 mixture of ethylene glycol antifreeze and water for year-round use. Choose an aluminum compatible, good quality antifreeze with water pump lubricants, rust inhibitors and other corrosion inhibitors along with acid neutralizers.
See Figures 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8
Any time you have the hood open, glance at the coolant recovery tank to make sure it is properly filled. Top off the cooling system using the recovery tank and its markings as a guideline. If you top off the system, make a note of it to check again soon. A coolant level that consistently drops is usually a sign of a small, hard to detect leak, though in the worst case it could be a sign of an internal engine leak (blown head gasket/cracked block-... check the engine oil for coolant contamination). In most cases, you will be able to trace the leak to a loose fitting or damaged hose (and you might solve a problem before it leaves you stranded). Evaporating ethylene glycol antifreeze will leave small, white (salt like) deposits, which can be helpful in tracing a leak.
At least annually or every 15,000 miles (24,000 km), all hoses, fittings and cooling system connections should be inspected for damage, wear or leaks. Hose clamps should be checked for tightness, and soft or cracked hoses should be replaced. Damp spots, or accumulations of rust or dye near hoses or fittings indicate possible leakage. These must be corrected before filling the system with fresh coolant. The pressure cap should be examined for signs of deterioration and aging. The fan belt and/or other drive belt(s) should be inspected and adjusted to the proper tension. Refer to the information on drive belts found earlier in this section. Finally, if everything looks good, obtain an antifreeze/coolant testing hydrometer in order to check the freeze and boil-over protection capabilities of the coolant currently in your engine. Old or improperly mixed coolant should be replaced.
At least once every 3 years or 36,000 miles (48,000 km), the engine cooling system should be inspected, flushed and refilled with fresh coolant. If the coolant is left in the system too long, it loses its ability to prevent rust and corrosion. If the coolant has too much water, it won't protect against freezing.
If you experience problems with your cooling system, such as overheating or boiling-over, check the simple before expecting the complicated. Make sure the system can fully pressurize (are all the connections tight/is the radiator cap on properly, is the cap seal intact-). Ideally, a pressure tester should be connected to the radiator opening and the system should be pressurized and inspected for leaks. If no obvious problems are found, use a hydrometer antifreeze/coolant tester (available at most automotive supply stores) to check the condition and concentration of the antifreeze in your cooling system. Excessively old coolant or the wrong proportions of water and coolant will hurt the coolant's boiling and freezing points.Check the Radiator Cap
See Figure 9
While you are checking the coolant level, check the radiator cap for a worn or cracked gasket. If the cap doesn't seal properly, fluid will be lost and the engine will overheat. Worn caps should be replaced with new ones.
See Figure 10
Periodically, clean any debris-leaves, paper, insects, etc.- from the radiator fins. Pick the large pieces off by hand. The smaller pieces can be washed away with water pressure from a hose.
Carefully straighten any bent radiator fins with a pair of needle-nosed pliers. Be careful; the fins are very soft. Don't wiggle the fins back and forth too much. Straighten them once and try not to move them again.
DRAINING, FLUSHING & REFILLING
See Figures 11, 12, 13 and 14
A complete drain and refill of the cooling system at least every 30,000 miles (48,000 km) or 3 years will remove the accumulated rust, scale and other deposits. The recommended coolant for most late model vehicles is a 50/50 mixture of ethylene glycol and water for year-round use. Choose a good quality antifreeze with water pump lubricants, rust inhibitors and other corrosion inhibitors along with acid neutralizers.
Before opening the radiator petcock, spray it with some penetrating lubricant.
- Drain the existing antifreeze and coolant. Open the radiator and engine drains (petcocks) or disconnect the bottom radiator hose at the radiator outlet. The engine block drain plugs can also be temporarily removed to drain coolant, but they are often hard to get at and it is not really necessary for this procedure.
- Close the petcock or reconnect the hose (and install any block drain plugs which may have been removed), then fill the system with water.
- Add a can of quality radiator flush.
- Idle the engine until the upper radiator hose gets hot.
- Drain the system again.
- Repeat this process until the drained water is clear and free of scale.
- Close all petcocks and connect any loose hoses.
- If equipped with a coolant recovery system, flush the reservoir with water and leave empty.
Determine the capacity of the coolant system, then properly refill the cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of fresh coolant and water, as follows:
- Fill the radiator with coolant until it reaches the radiator filler neck seat.
- Start the engine and allow it to idle until the thermostat opens (the upper radiator hose will become hot).
- Turn the engine OFF and refill the radiator until the coolant level is at the filler neck seat.
- Fill the engine coolant overflow tank with coolant to the FULL HOT mark, then install the radiator cap.
- If available, install a pressure tester and check for leaks. If a pressure tester is not available, run the engine until normal operating temperature is reached (allowing the system to naturally pressurize), then check for leaks.
- Check the level of protection with an antifreeze/coolant hydrometer.