Mitsubishi Pick-ups and Montero 1983-1995 Repair Guide

Starter

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DIAGNOSIS



Starter Won't Crank The Engine
  1. Dead battery.
  2.  
  3. Open starter circuit, such as:
    1. Broken or loose battery cables.
    2.  
    3. Inoperative starter motor solenoid.
    4.  
    5. Broken or loose wire from ignition switch to solenoid.
    6.  
    7. Poor solenoid or starter ground.
    8.  
    9. Bad ignition switch.
    10.  

  4.  
  5. Defective starter internal circuit, such as:
    1. Dirty or burnt commutator.
    2.  
    3. Stuck, worn or broken brushes.
    4.  
    5. Open or shorted armature.
    6.  
    7. Open or grounded fields.
    8.  

  6.  
  7. Starter motor mechanical faults, such as:
    1. Jammed armature end bearings.
    2.  
    3. Bad bearings, allowing armature to rub fields.
    4.  
    5. Bent shaft.
    6.  
    7. Broken starter housing.
    8.  
    9. Bad starter drive mechanism.
    10.  
    11. Bad starter drive or flywheel-driven gear.
    12.  

  8.  
  9. Engine hard or impossible to crank, such as:
    1. Hydrostatic lock, water in combustion chamber.
    2.  
    3. Crankshaft seizing in bearings.
    4.  
    5. Piston or ring seizing.
    6.  
    7. Bent or broken connecting rod.
    8.  
    9. Seizing of connecting rod bearings.
    10.  
    11. Flywheel jammed or broken.
    12.  

  10.  

Starter Spins Freely, Won't Engage
  1. Sticking or broken drive mechanism.
  2.  
  3. Damaged ring gear.
  4.  

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figure 1

The starter motor is located on either the lower right hand (passenger) or left hand (driver) side of the engine, bolted to the transmission housing with two mounting bolts.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  

Removal and installation of the starter motor will require access from both the top and bottom of the engine compartment.



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Fig. Fig. 1: Common starter location and installation-the starter is a fairly heavy component, be careful when lifting it out of the vehicle

  1. Apply the parking brake and block the rear wheels.
  2.  
  3. Raise the front of the vehicle with a floor jack, using the proper frame positions.
  4.  
  5. Support the vehicle on the frame or transmission crossmember, with jackstands. Before working under the vehicle, make sure the vehicle is stable on the jackstands. If it is not, reposition the jackstands so that it is.
  6.  
  7. Label and disconnect all wiring connectors at the starter.
  8.  
  9. Slowly loosen the two starter mounting bolts until they are loose enough to take out by hand. Since the starter motor is uncommonly heavy for its size, it is important to support it well with one hand, while removing the two mounting bolts with the other hand. If the starter is not adequately supported, it could fall causing injury. Remove the starter from the vehicle.
  10.  

To install:
  1. Clean the surfaces of the starter motor flange and the flywheel housing where the starter attaches.
  2.  

  1. Reinstall the starter and install the retaining bolts. Tighten the bolts to 16-23 ft. lbs. (22-31 Nm).
  2.  
  3. Connect the wiring to the starter, making sure the terminals and connectors are clean and tight.
  4.  
  5. Lower the truck to the ground
  6.  
  7. Connect the negative battery cable.
  8.  

SOLENOID REPLACEMENT



See Figures 2, 3 and 4

Under some circumstances, the solenoid or magnetic switch may fail. This can be indicated by a failure of the starter to engage or produce adequate power. To test solenoid failure, disconnect the heavy starter motor wire at the M terminal on the solenoid. Run a jumper wire from the battery (+) terminal to the S terminal of the solenoid. If possible, use a remote starter control with a switch built into it. If this is not available, touch the wire to the S terminal briefly but do not leave the solenoid engaged for more than 10 seconds.



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Fig. Fig. 2: Solenoid terminals and wiring



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Fig. Fig. 3: Solenoid and shim



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Fig. Fig. 4: To measure pinion gap or pinion travel, the solenoid must be momentarily energized

If the solenoid now engages in a positive manner, inspect the wiring and ignition switch for defects. (You have proven that the solenoid works if it gets the correct message.) If not, the solenoid should be replaced. You can test the solenoid switch itself by pulling the coil wire out of the distributor cap, having someone engage the starter, and then measuring the voltage at both the B and M terminals of the solenoid ( M terminal wire connected). If voltage is close to battery voltage at the B terminal, but drops significantly at the M terminal with the starter turning, the solenoid switch is bad and the solenoid unit will have to be replaced.

  1. Remove the starter from the vehicle as previously described.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the starter motor wire at the M terminal of the solenoid.
  4.  

  1. Remove the screw(s) from the front end of the solenoid. Disengage the solenoid plunger from the yoke inside the front of the starter and then remove the solenoid and the shims located between the solenoid and the starter front frame. Note the number and position of these shims-they are important and will be needed during reassembly. If you're replacing the solenoid, make sure you get extra shims.
  2.  

To install:
  1. Install the solenoid and tighten all of the mounting screws, making sure the plunger engages the drive yoke. Install the same number of shims.
  2.  
  3. Energize the solenoid by running jumper wires-including a switch if possible-from the (+) terminal of a 12 volt battery to the S terminal of the solenoid and from the (-) terminal of the battery to the M terminal. Make certain the field coil wire is disconnected from the M terminal. Quickly measure (in 10 seconds or less) the clearance between the front of the pinion gear and the stop in front of it in the starter front frame. De-energize the solenoid before it overheats. The pinion gear should be pushed back against the drive mechanism when you do this.On reduction gear starters you'll have to measure the distance the pinion gear assembly travels when you shift it back and forth. Use a flat feeler gauge; correct clearance is 0.020-0.079 in. (0.50-2.00mm). Change the number of shims between the solenoid and starter frame to correct the clearance if necessary. Adding shims decreases the clearance, and vice-versa.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect all test wiring hook-ups. Connect the field coil wire to the M terminal and reinstall the starter. Make certain the matching faces of the starter and engine are clean; any grit or grease can act as a shim and change the position of the starter relative to the engine.
  6.  

STARTER OVERHAUL



Brush Replacement

See Figures 5 and 6

Brush replacement requires a soldering gun or iron and the ability to use it effectively and neatly.

  1. Remove the starter from the vehicle as previously described.
  2.  
  3. Remove the M terminal nut, and disconnect the field coil (large) wire at the solenoid.
  4.  
  5. Remove the two through-bolts and two Phillips screws from the rear starter bracket. Remove the rear bracket.
  6.  



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Fig. Fig. 5: The rear bracket is secured by bolts and screws



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Fig. Fig. 6: Note that the solder is flush with the outer surface. Any overflow can cause binding when the brush is installed

  1. Pry the retaining springs back, slide the two brushes out of the brush holder and pull the brush holder off of the rear of the starter.
  2.  
  3. Inspect the brushes for excess wear. There is a manufacturer's symbol (usually the Mitsubishi diamonds) stamped on the side of each. If the brush is worn to the bottom of the emblem it should be replaced.
  4.  
  5. To replace the brush, it must be crushed with a pair of pliers to crack it where the wiring pigtail passes through the brush. Be careful not to damage the wiring pigtail in doing this. Use sandpaper to sand the end of the pigtail smooth. Also sand the outer surface of the last 0.25 in. (6mm) or so of the pigtail wire until it is bright and free of corrosion.
  6.  

To install:
  1. Insert the pigtail into the hole in the new brush until the flat end of the pigtail just reaches the opposite end of the hole in the brush. Insert the wire from the unmarked side of the brush. The brush and pigtail must be brought to just the right temperature for the solder to run in between the brush and pigtail. Make sure solder does not get onto the outer surface of the brush, as this could cause it to bind in the brush holder later.
  2.  
  3. Install the brushes into the holders.
  4.  
  5. Assemble the rear case of the starter and install bolts and screws. Connect the field coil wire to the M terminal of the solenoid.
  6.  
  7. Reinstall the starter.
  8.  

Drive Replacement

The starter drive may need to be replaced if the starter motor turns but does not engage properly. If, in removing the drive, damage to the starter pinion gear is noted, the flywheel ring gear should also be inspected. If there is significant damage to the ring gear, the flywheel will have to be replaced, too.

When diagnosing apparent starter problems, test the battery first. A low battery or weak connections can prevent the required amount of current from getting to the starter motor. Also check the solenoid before condemning the starter drive itself; a solenoid that does not engage properly may cause the same symptoms.

DIRECT DRIVE STARTER

See Figure 7

  1. Remove the starter and remove the solenoid.
  2.  

  1. Remove the 2 through-bolts and 2 screws from the rear bracket. Remove the rear bracket.
  2.  
  3. Pry back the retaining rings and slide the 2 brushes out of the brush holder. Remove the brush holder and the yoke assembly.
  4.  
  5. Remove the washer from the rear of the armature. Remove the field coil assembly from the front frame. Remove the spring retainer, spring, and spring seat from the starter front frame.
  6.  
  7. Separate the armature from the front bracket by first pulling the armature back out of the front bearing and then shifting the armature so the starter drive is pulled out of the yoke. Make sure you don't lose the washer located in the front frame.
  8.  
  9. Invert the armature so the starter drive is on top and rest the rear of the armature on a solid surface. Use a deep well socket wrench that is just slightly larger than the diameter of the armature shaft to press the snap-ring collar back. Install the socket over the top of the shaft and then press it downward or tap it very lightly to force the ring downward. Once the snap-ring is exposed, use snap-ring pliers to open it until it will slide upward, out of the groove and off the shaft. Pull the starter drive and snap-ring collar upward and off the armature shaft.
  10.  
  11. With the starter disassembled, do not immerse parts in cleaning solvent. The yoke and field coil assembly will be damaged. Wipe the parts with a clean cloth. The overrun clutch is packed with lubricant which will be washed out by any solvent or fluid.
  12.  
  13. Use a micrometer or caliper to measure the diameter of the commutator. If below the limit, the commutator must be replaced.
  14.  

To install:
  1. Lightly coat the front of the armature shaft with high temperature grease. Install the starter drive, snap-ring collar, and snap-ring. Make sure the snap-ring seats in its groove. Then use a puller to pull the snap-ring collar up and over the snap-ring until the bottom of the collar touches the snap-ring.
  2.  
  3. Place the washer in position in the front frame. Insert the armature through the lever and yoke. Make certain the armature is correctly seated in the bearing.
  4.  
  5. Install the spring seat, spring and spring retainer.
  6.  
  7. Install the field coil assembly to the front frame. Place the washer on the rear of the armature.
  8.  
  9. Install the brush holder and yoke assemblies and install the brushes.
  10.  
  11. Position the rear bracket and install the 2 screws and 2 through-bolts.
  12.  
  13. Install the solenoid and connect the field coil wire.
  14.  

REDUCTION GEAR STARTER

See Figure 8 through 13

  1. Remove the starter from the vehicle as described above. Remove the solenoid.
  2.  
  3. Remove the two through-bolts and two Phillips screws from the rear starter bracket. Remove the rear bracket.
  4.  

  1. Pry the retaining springs back and slide the two brushes out of the brush holder. Pull the brush holder off the rear of the starter. Remove the field coil (yoke) assembly from the front frame. Remove the armature.
  2.  
  3. Remove the pinion shaft end cover from the center frame. Measure the clearance between the spacer and center cover and record it. If the pinion shaft is replaced, you'll have to insert or subtract spacer washers until the clearance is the same as that recorded. Use a screwdriver to remove the retaining clip and then remove the washers. Remove the retaining bolt and then separate the center frame from the front frame.
  4.  
  5. Remove the spring retainer and spring for the yoke from the front frame. Then remove the washer, reduction gear, shift yoke lever, and two lever supports.
  6.  
  7. Turn the front frame so the pinion gear is at the top and support it securely. Use a socket that fits tightly over the pinion shaft to force the snap-ring collar (stop ring) downward. Tap the socket lightly at the top or use a press to do this. Use a small prytool to work the snap-ring out of its groove and remove it from the shaft (a pair of small snapring pliers will make this procedure much easier). Remove the collar. Remove the pinion and the spring behind it from the shaft.
  8.  



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Fig. Fig. 7: An exploded view of a direct drive starter



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Fig. Fig. 8: An exploded view of a reduction drive starter



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Fig. Fig. 9: Diesel engine starter is similar, but has more power

  1. Pull the lever and pinion shaft assembly out of the rear of the front frame. Replace the pinion if its teeth are damaged (check the flywheel ring gear as well). Replace the overrunning clutch if the pinion gear is damaged or if the one-way action of the clutch is not precise.
  2.  
  3. Do not immerse parts in cleaning solvent. The yoke and field coil assembly will be damaged. Wipe the parts with a clean cloth. The overrun clutch is packed with lubricant which will be washed out by any solvent or fluid.
  4.  
  5. Use a micrometer or caliper to measure the diameter of the commutator and compare to the specifications chart. If below the limit, the commutator must be replaced.
  6.  

To install:
  1. Lightly coat the front of the armature shaft with high temperature grease. Install the pinion shaft, spring, gear and stop ring. Install the snapring and use a puller to seat the stop ring over the snapring.
  2.  
  3. Place the washer in position in the front frame. Insert the armature through the lever and yoke. Make certain the armature is correctly seated in the bearing.
  4.  
  5. Install the lever and pinion shaft assembly with the reduction gear into the rear of the front frame. Make certain all the springs, spacers and washers are present and in the correct order. When the clearance is correct, install the cover and its small screw.
  6.  
  7. Fit the center frame onto the shaft and install the washer and retaining clip. Note that the clearance must be corrected by changing the thickness or number of washers if the overrunning clutch and pinion shaft assembly have been replaced. Double check the clearance and install or remove shims as necessary.
  8.  
  9. Install the armature into the yoke (field coil). Install the brush holder and install the brushes, making sure they are properly seated and do not bind in the holders.
  10.  
  11. Install the rear bracket and the small screws. Assemble the motor to the drive and install the through-bolts.
  12.  
  13. Install the solenoid and connect the field coil wire to the M terminal.
  14.  
  15. Reinstall the starter.
  16.  



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Fig. Fig. 10: Pressing back the snapring collar



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Fig. Fig. 11: Measuring commutator diameter-take measurements at 2 or 3 points and use smallest diameter as reference



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Fig. Fig. 12: Record the clearance at the rear of the pinion shaft before disassembly



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Fig. Fig. 13: Use a small puller to bring the stop ring over the snapring

 
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