Saturn Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1991-1998 Repair Guide

Engine

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



In the process of removing the engine, you will come across a number of steps which call for the removal of a separate component or system, such as disconnect the exhaust system or remove the radiator. In most instances, a detailed removal procedure can be found elsewhere in this guide.

It is virtually impossible to list each individual wire and hose which must be disconnected, simply because so many different model and engine combinations have been manufactured. Careful observation and common sense are the best possible approaches to any repair procedure.

Removal and installation of the engine can be made easier if you follow these basic points:



If you have to drain any of the fluids, use a suitable container.
 
Always tag any wires or hoses and, if possible, the components they came from before disconnecting them.
 
Because there are so many bolts and fasteners involved, store and label the retainers from components separately in muffin pans, jars or coffee cans. This will prevent confusion during installation.
 
After unbolting the transaxle, always make sure it is properly supported.
 
If it is necessary to disconnect the air conditioning system, have this service performed by a qualified technician using a recovery/recycling station. If the system does not have to be disconnected, unbolt the compressor and set it aside.
 
When unbolting the engine mounts, always make sure the engine is properly supported. When removing/installing the engine, make sure that any lifting devices are properly attached to the engine. It is recommended that if your engine is supplied with lifting hooks, your lifting apparatus be attached to them.
 
Remove the engine from its compartment slowly, checking that no hoses, wires or other components are still connected.
 
After the engine is clear of the compartment, place it on an engine stand or workbench.
 
After the engine has been removed, you can perform a partial or full teardown of the engine using the procedures outlined in this guide.
 

Factory Recommended Procedure

See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

The manufacturer recommends that the engine and transaxle be removed as a complete assembly. Disconnect the cradle and lower the entire powertrain assembly, instead of lifting it out of the vehicle. Both the SOHC and DOHC engines are removed or installed in the same manner.

  1. Properly disable the SIR system, if equipped. Disconnect the negative and then the positive battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Drain the engine coolant from the radiator and engine block into a suitable clean container.
  4.  


CAUTION
When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant may be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Properly relieve the fuel system pressure as directed in Fuel System of this repair guide.
  2.  
  3. Remove the complete air cleaner/intake duct assembly, as applicable.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect and label the following electrical plugs and vacuum lines, as applicable:
    1. The coolant temperature sensor(s).
    2.  
    3. Oxygen sensor and clip at the transaxle front mount bracket.
    4.  
    5. Idle Air Control (IAC) valve.
    6.  
    7. The ignition coil module connector(s).
    8.  
    9. Throttle Position Sensor (TPS).
    10.  
    11. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor.
    12.  
    13. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) solenoid.
    14.  
    15. Brake booster vacuum hose from the booster or intake manifold.
    16.  
    17. Disconnect the 2 ground connectors from the transaxle attachment studs at the rear side of the cylinder block.
    18.  
    19. Fuel injector electrical connectors.
    20.  

  6.  
  7. Disconnect the following automatic or manual transaxle electrical connectors. If access is difficult, wait until the vehicle is safely raised and supported, then unplug the connections from underneath the vehicle:
    1. The 3 neutral safety switch connectors.
    2.  
    3. Valve body actuator connection.
    4.  
    5. Turbine speed sensor.
    6.  
    7. Temperature sensor.
    8.  
    9. For manual transaxles only, the reverse light switch.
    10.  
    11. The 2 gear shift (PRNDL switch) connectors.
    12.  

  8.  
  9. Disconnect the accelerator cable assembly.
  10.  
  11. Separate the fuel supply and return lines at their connectors. On 1991-94 models, utilize fuel line disconnect service tool SA9157E or equivalent. Plug the lines to prevent fuel contamination or loss. The lines may be tied to the master cylinder lines to help prevent fuel spillage and to keep them out of the way.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the upper radiator hose and the cylinder head outlet and the de-aeration hose at the engine.
  14.  
  15. Remove the serpentine drive belt and if equipped, remove the air conditioning compressor from its brackets and with the hoses attached. Support the compressor from the front crossbar.
  16.  

It is not necessary to discharge the A/C compressor during engine removal, but be careful not to kink, damage or rupture the refrigerant lines.

  1. If equipped, disconnect the automatic transaxle cooler lines at the transaxle by pinching the plastic connector tabs and carefully pulling back on the lines. Plug the openings to prevent fluid loss or contamination.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the automatic transaxle shifter cable or the manual shifter cables from the transaxle.
  4.  
  5. If equipped with a manual transaxle, remove the 2 hydraulic slave cylinder retaining nuts from the clutch housing studs, then slide the cylinder and bracket assembly from the studs. Rotate the clutch actuator 1 / 4 turn counterclockwise while pushing toward the housing to disengage the bayonet connector and remove it from the clutch housing. Support the clutch hydraulic system to the battery tray; being sure not to kink or pinch the hydraulic lines.
  6.  
  7. Using a length of an appropriate wire, tie the radiator, condenser and fan to the front crossbar. Route the wire around the 2 fan shroud supports and the crossbar.
  8.  
  9. Raise and support the front end of the vehicle safely.
  10.  
  11. Remove the front wheels and remove the fasteners connecting the side and front fender shields to the cradle.
  12.  
  13. Remove the brake caliper bracket attaching bolts (2 on each side) and hang the caliper assemblies from the shock tower springs using wire. Do not hang the assembly by the brake hose or damage to the brake hydraulic system may occur. The springs and shocks will remain with the body when the powertrain is lowered.
  14.  
  15. Disconnect the struts from the knuckles on each side of the vehicle (2 bolts per side). This will allow the knuckle and hub assembly to remain with the powertrain cradle when lowered. The stabilizer bar will remain attached to the cradle and the lower control arms.
  16.  
  17. Using a suitable hose clamp tool, disconnect the lower radiator and heater return hoses from the engine. Disconnect the heater inlet hose at the front of the dash or the engine.
  18.  
  19. Disconnect the steering shaft and pressure switch connectors at the gear, as applicable.
  20.  
  21. Disconnect the front exhaust pipe at the manifold, catalytic converter and powertrain stiffening bracket.
  22.  
  23. For 1991 vehicles, remove the powertrain stiffening bracket bolts, except the 3 bolts holding the torque resistor bracket to the transaxle.
  24.  
  25. Remove the flywheel cover and torque converter bolts, if equipped.
  26.  
  27. Remove the alternator and starter shields.
  28.  
  29. Label and disconnect all the remaining electrical and vacuum connectors from the following components:
    1. Unplug the connectors from the starter solenoid and the battery feed.
    2.  
    3. The alternator field and battery feed connectors.
    4.  
    5. Oil pressure sensor.
    6.  
    7. Knock sensor.
    8.  
    9. Crankshaft position sensor.
    10.  
    11. If equipped, the EVO solenoid.
    12.  
    13. Vehicle speed sensor.
    14.  
    15. Canister purge solenoid.
    16.  
    17. Powertrain Control Module (PCM) and Oxygen sensor.
    18.  
    19. If equipped, the ABS wheel sensor connector grounds.
    20.  

  30.  
  31. Unclip the brake lines from the rear side of the cradle.
  32.  
  33. Carefully remove the electrical harness from the engine and transaxle, then lay the electrical harness on top of the underhood junction block and battery cover.
  34.  
  35. For 1992-98 vehicles with a torque axis mount system, place a 1 in. x 1 in. x 2 in. long block of wood between the torque strut and cradle to ease removal and installation of the torque engine mount. Remove the 3 right side upper engine torque axis to front cover nuts and the 2 mount to midrail bracket nuts, allowing the powertrain to rest on the block of wood.
  36.  

Placing a block of wood under the torque axis mount prior to removing the upper mount will allow the engine to rest on the wood, thus preventing the engine from shifting. If the engine is not to be removed from the cradle, this will allow you to install the engine and the upper mount without jacking or raising the engine.

  1. Place a powertrain support dolly under the cradle. Use two 4 in. x 4 in. x 36 in. pieces of wood to support the cradle on the dolly.
  2.  
  3. Remove the 2 right side front engine mount torque strut bracket-to-cradle nuts.
  4.  
  5. Remove the 4 cradle attaching bolts and carefully lower the complete powertrain assembly from the vehicle. Verify that all necessary components are disconnected and free before complete removal.
  6.  
  7. Attach the 2 washers, located between the cradle and body, to the cradle. They must be repositioned and installed during cradle installation.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the spark plug wires at the ignition module.
  10.  
  11. If applicable, remove the power steering pump and bracket. Support the assembly, in an upright position, from the cradle or the steering gear.
  12.  
  13. Install a suitable engine lifting device to the service support brackets.
  14.  
  15. Remove the front mount assembly and disconnect the motion restrictor bracket, if applicable.
  16.  
  17. Place a 1 / 2 in. x 1 in. x 3 in. block of wood under the axle shaft and remove the starter support bracket bolt, intake manifold support brace (on DOHC engines), and 3 axle shaft bracket support bolts. Allow the bracket to rotate rearward. Lift the engine slightly for clearance, as necessary.
  18.  
  19. For 1991 vehicles, remove the front engine mount assembly and disconnect the motion restrictor cable used with the DOHC engine and a manual transaxle.
  20.  
  21. For 1992-98 vehicles with a torque axis mount system, place a 4 in. x 4 in. x 6 in. long block of wood under the transaxle housing for support.
  22.  
  23. For 1992-98 vehicles, remove the engine strut bracket and torque strut from the front of the engine as an assembly. Lift the engine slightly as necessary for removal.
  24.  
  25. Remove the 4 transaxle attaching bolts/studs and separate the assembly. Manual transaxles will require the engine to be moved about 4 in. (100mm) forward in the cradle to disengage the input shaft.
  26.  
  27. Carefully lift the engine off the cradle.
  28.  

To install:
  1. Installation of the automatic transaxle assembly is the reverse of removal. However, please note the following important steps:
  2.  
  3. If installing a manual transaxle, align the yellow dot on the clutch pressure plate near the mark on the flywheel. Use clutch alignment tool SA9145T or equivalent to align the disk and input shaft, then tighten the pressure plate bolts to 19 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  4.  
  5. If installing an automatic transaxle, the yellow dot on the torque converter must be in the 6 o'clock position when the first flexplate to torque converter bolt is tightened.
  6.  
  7. Tighten the lower transaxle-to-engine bolts to 96 ft. lbs. (130 Nm) and the upper transaxle-to-engine bolts to 66 ft. lbs. (90 Nm) and the stiffening bracket-to-powertrain fasteners to 40 ft. lbs. (54 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Tighten the front engine mount-to-engine bolts to 41 ft. lbs. (55 Nm). For the 1991 DOHC engine with manual transaxle, tighten the motion restrictor bracket to 40 ft. lbs. (54 Nm).
  10.  
  11. For 1991 vehicles, tighten the front engine mount-to-cradle nut to 52 ft. lbs. (70 Nm).
  12.  
  13. For 1992-98 vehicles, tighten the engine mount torque strut-to-cradle bracket fasteners to 52 ft. lbs. (70 Nm). Hand-tighten the cradle fasteners, but do not torque until the upper midrail mount is installed.
  14.  
  15. Tighten the axle shaft bracket fasteners to 41 ft. lbs. (55 Nm) and the starter bracket to 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm).
  16.  
  17. Carefully lift the powertrain and cradle into position. Make sure the radiator grommets are correctly aligned and that the 2 washers are reinstalled between the cradle and body at each rear cradle attachment position. If necessary, use two 3 / 16 in. x 18 in. long guide pins in the forward cradle holes (located next to the attaching holes) to help align the cradle. Tighten the cradle to body fasteners to 151 ft. lbs. (205 Nm).
  18.  
  19. Tighten the steering shaft U-joint bolt to 35 ft. lbs. (47 Nm).
  20.  
  21. Tighten the starter solenoid connector to 44 inch lbs. (5 Nm).
  22.  
  23. Tighten the alternator and starter battery connectors to 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm).
  24.  
  25. Install the following components, if previously removed:
    1. Tighten the oil pressure sensor to 26 ft. lbs. (35 Nm).
    2.  
    3. Tighten the knock sensor to 133 inch lbs. (15 Nm).
    4.  
    5. Tighten the crankshaft position sensor mounting fastener(s) to 80 inch lbs. (9 Nm).
    6.  
    7. Tighten canister purge valve mounting screw to 22 ft. lbs. (30 Nm).
    8.  

  26.  
  27. Connect the wiring harness PCM ground and tighten to 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm).
  28.  
  29. Connect the wiring harness to the transaxle case/engine block and tighten to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  30.  
  31. Tighten the engine stiffening bracket bolts to 35 ft. lbs. (47 Nm).
  32.  
  33. Tighten the exhaust pipe-to-intake manifold fasteners to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm), the pipe-to-stiffener bracket fasteners to 35 ft. lbs. (47 Nm), the pipe-to-support bracket fasteners to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm) and the pipe-to-catalytic converter fasteners to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  34.  
  35. Tighten the cylinder block drain plug to 27 ft. lbs. (36 Nm), then close the radiator drain.
  36.  
  37. Tighten the steering knuckle-to-strut attachment bolts to 148 ft. lbs. (200 Nm).
  38.  
  39. Tighten the brake caliper assembly bolts to 81 ft. lbs. (110 Nm).
  40.  
  41. If equipped with a manual transaxle, tighten the hydraulic clutch slave cylinder fasteners to 19 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  42.  
  43. Tighten the A/C compressor-to-front bracket bolts to 40 ft. lbs. (54 Nm) and the compressor-to-rear bracket bolts to 22 ft. lbs. (30 Nm).
  44.  
  45. For 1992-98 vehicles equipped with a torque axis mount system, tighten the 2 engine mounts-to-midrail bracket nuts to 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm). Tighten the torque axis mount-to-front cover nuts uniformly to 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm).
  46.  
  47. For 1992-98 vehicles, tighten the strut bracket-to-cradle nuts to 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm).
  48.  
  49. If equipped with automatic transaxle, tighten the torque converter-to-flexplate bolts to 52 ft. lbs. (70 Nm). Tighten the dust cover fasteners to 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm).
  50.  
  51. Tighten the wheel lugs, in a crisscross pattern to 103 ft. lbs. (140 Nm).
  52.  
  53. Lower the vehicle to the ground.
  54.  
  55. Apply a drop of clean engine oil to the male ends of the fuel line connectors and attach the line quick connect fittings. Make sure the lines are not kinked or damaged.
  56.  

Check the upper cooling module grommets for binding or misalignment. The module retaining pins must be centered in the grommets supported by the brackets. If the grommets are pinched, loosen the brackets and reposition them. It is extremely important that the cooling module be able to move freely.

  1. Thoroughly inspect the transaxle and engine compartment area to be sure that all wires, hoses and lines have been connected. Also inspect to make sure that all components and fasteners have been properly installed.
  2.  
  3. Connect the positive, then the negative battery cables.
  4.  
  5. Fill the engine cooling system, then check all engine and transaxle fluids, add or fill as necessary.
  6.  
  7. Prime the fuel system by cycling the ignition ON for 5 seconds and OFF for 10 seconds a few times without cranking the engine. Start the engine and check for leaks.
  8.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Unfasten the ground connectors from the transaxle attachment studs



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2: Remove the 2 caliper bracket bolts and the 2 strut-to-knuckle attaching bolts in order to free the knuckle and hub assembly



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: For 1991 vehicles, remove the powertrain stiffening bracket, but do not remove the 3 bolts attaching the torque restrictor bracket to the transaxle

  1. Perform a short road test and check the engine again for leaks. Make sure the cooling system is filled to the surge tank FULL COLD line.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 4: Position a 1/2 in. x 1 in. x 3 in. block of wood under the axle shaft for support



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 5: Place a 4 in. x 4 in. x 6 in. long block of wood under the transaxle housing for support

Alternative Procedure

The following procedure applies only to Saturn vehicles equipped with an automatic transaxle. For vehicles equipped with a manual transaxle, the engine should be removed following the factory recommended procedure.

It may be possible to remove the engine on manual transaxle-equipped vehicles in a similar manner, but the engine will most likely not clear the input shaft of the transaxle; in this case, the complete engine/transaxle assembly must be removed. In order to do that, you must remove any components which may inhibit the transaxle, such as the brake master cylinder and booster, air cleaner housing, battery tray, etc.

  1. Properly disable the SIR system, if equipped. Disconnect the negative and then the positive battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Remove the hood. refer to Body & Trim .
  4.  
  5. Drain the engine coolant from the radiator and engine block into a suitable clean container.
  6.  


CAUTION
When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant may be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Remove the radiator and fan assembly. Refer to the procedures in this section.
  2.  
  3. Properly relieve the fuel system pressure, as described in Fuel System of this repair guide.
  4.  
  5. Remove the complete air cleaner/intake duct assembly, as applicable.
  6.  
  7. Detach and label the following electrical connections and vacuum lines, as applicable:
    1. Coolant temperature sensor(s).
    2.  
    3. Oxygen sensor and clip at the transaxle front mount bracket.
    4.  
    5. Idle Air Control (IAC) valve.
    6.  
    7. Ignition coil module connector(s).
    8.  
    9. Throttle Position Sensor (TPS).
    10.  
    11. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor.
    12.  
    13. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) solenoid.
    14.  
    15. Brake booster vacuum hose from the booster or intake manifold.
    16.  
    17. 2 ground connectors from the transaxle attachment studs at the rear of the cylinder block.
    18.  
    19. Fuel injector electrical connectors.
    20.  

  8.  
  9. Disconnect the accelerator cable assembly.
  10.  
  11. Separate the fuel supply and return lines at their connectors. On 1991-94 models, utilize fuel line disconnect service tool SA9157E or equivalent. Plug the lines to prevent fuel contamination or loss. The lines may be tied to the master cylinder lines to help prevent fuel spillage and to keep them out of the way.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the upper radiator hose and cylinder head outlet, and the de-aeration hose at the engine.
  14.  
  15. Remove the serpentine drive belt and, if equipped, remove the air conditioning compressor from its brackets with the hoses attached. Support the compressor from the front crossbar.
  16.  

It is not necessary to discharge the A/C compressor during engine removal, but be careful not to kink, damage or rupture the refrigerant lines.

  1. Raise and support the front end of the vehicle safely.
  2.  
  3. Remove the passenger side front wheel and remove the fasteners connecting the side and front fender shields to the cradle.
  4.  
  5. Remove the crankshaft pulley.
  6.  
  7. Using a suitable hose clamp tool, remove the lower radiator hose and disconnect the heater return hoses from the engine. Disconnect the heater inlet hose at the front of the dashboard or engine.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the front exhaust pipe at the manifold, catalytic converter and powertrain stiffening bracket.
  10.  
  11. Remove the powertrain stiffening bracket bolts. On 1991 vehicles, do not remove the 3 bolts holding the torque resistor bracket to the transaxle.
  12.  
  13. Remove the flywheel cover and torque converter bolts.
  14.  
  15. Remove the alternator and starter, as described in Engine Electrical .
  16.  
  17. Label and disconnect all the remaining electrical and vacuum connectors from the following components:
    1. Oil pressure sensor.
    2.  
    3. Knock sensor.
    4.  
    5. Crankshaft position sensor.
    6.  
    7. EVO solenoid (if equipped).
    8.  
    9. Canister purge solenoid.
    10.  
    11. Powertrain Control Module (PCM) and oxygen sensor.
    12.  
    13. ABS wheel sensor connector grounds (if equipped and necessary).
    14.  

  18.  
  19. Carefully position the electrical harness away from the engine and transaxle.
  20.  
  21. For 1992-98 vehicles with a torque axis mount system, place a 1 in. x 1 in. x 2 in. long block of wood between the torque strut and cradle to ease removal and installation of the torque engine mount. Remove the 3 right side upper engine torque axis-to-front cover nuts and the 2 mount-to-midrail bracket nuts, allowing the powertrain to rest on the block of wood.
  22.  

Placing a block of wood under the torque axis mount prior to removing the upper mount will allow the engine to rest on the wood, thus preventing the engine from shifting. If the engine is not to be removed from the cradle, this will allow you to install the engine and the upper mount without jacking or raising the engine.

  1. If applicable, remove the power steering pump and bracket. Support the assembly out of the way, in an upright position.
  2.  
  3. Place a 1 / 2 in. x 1 in. x 3 in. block of wood under the axle shaft and remove the starter support bracket bolt, intake manifold support brace (on DOHC engines), and 3 axle shaft bracket support bolts. Allow the bracket to rotate rearward. Lift the engine slightly for clearance, as necessary.
  4.  
  5. Attach a suitable lifting device to the engine service support brackets and carefully raise the hoist to relieve the engine weight from its mounts.
  6.  
  7. Remove the 2 right side front engine mount torque strut bracket-to-cradle nuts.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the spark plug wires at the ignition module.
  10.  
  11. Support the transaxle assembly with a floor jack.
  12.  
  13. Remove the front mount assembly and disconnect the motion restrictor bracket, if applicable.
  14.  
  15. For 1992-98 vehicles with a torque axis mount system, place a 4 in. x 4 in. x 6 in. long block of wood under the transaxle housing for support.
  16.  
  17. For 1992-98 vehicles, remove the engine strut bracket and torque strut from the front of the engine as an assembly. Lift the engine slightly as necessary for removal.
  18.  
  19. Remove the 4 transaxle attaching bolts/studs and separate the transaxle assembly.
  20.  
  21. Carefully lift the engine from the vehicle.
  22.  

To install:
  1. Installation of the engine is the reverse of the removal procedure. However, please note the following steps:
  2.  
  3. Before lowering the engine into the vehicle, ensure that the torque converter in the transaxle is fully seated.
  4.  
  5. Position one of the bolt holes on the torque converter facing straight down. Also, rotate the engine so as to position one of the flywheel-to-torque converter bolt holes facing straight down.
  6.  
  7. When mating the engine to the transaxle, ensure that the locating dowels are fully seated.
  8.  
  9. Install the engine-to-transaxle bolts. Then, install the motor mounts. Tighten all fasteners to the proper torque specifications. Refer to the specification charts in this section.
  10.  
  11. After all hoses, lines, and connections are installed, fill the engine and radiator with the proper type and quantity of fluids, then check the transaxle and power steering fluid levels. Adjust as necessary.
  12.  

 
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