Toyota Camry and Avalon 1997-2000

Fuel Injector(s)

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Fig. Cross-sectional view of the fuel injector


CAUTION
Observe all applicable safety precautions when working around fuel. Whenever servicing the fuel system, always work in a well ventilated area. Do not allow fuel spray or vapors to come in contact with a spark or open flame. Keep a dry chemical fire extinguisher near the work area. Always keep fuel in a container specifically designed for fuel storage; also, always properly seal fuel containers to avoid the possibility of fire or explosion.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
5S-FE Engine

NOTE
Be sure this procedure is done in a well ventilated area.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Relieve the fuel pressure.
  4.  
  5. Remove the cylinder head cover by performing the following steps;
  6.  
  7. Remove the ignition wires.
  8.  
  9. Detach the Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) hose from the intake manifold.
  10.  
  11. Remove the PCV hose from the cylinder head cover.
  12.  
  13. Detach the engine wire clamp from the mounting bolt of the No.2 timing belt cover.
  14.  
  15. Remove the cylinder head cover.
  16.  
  17. Detach the four injector connectors.
  18.  
  19. Remove the bolts that hold the fuel delivery pipe to the cylinder head.
  20.  
  21. Detach the fuel delivery pipe from the injectors.
  22.  
  23. Remove the injectors.
  24.  


NOTE
Use caution when handling the injectors. They are very sensitive devices that may be damaged very easily if dropped.

  1. Remove the four (4) insulators (all vehicles except those sold in California) and the two (2) spacers from the cylinder head.
  2.  
  3. Remove the O-rings, insulators, and grommets from each injector.
  4.  
  5. Remove the O-rings and grommets from each injector, except California.
  6.  

To install:



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Fig. Position the fuel injector O-rings as shown



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Fig. Install the new insulators into the cylinder head



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Fig. Turn the injector to install it



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Fig. Install the fuel delivery pipe bolts



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Fig. Position the fuel injector connector in the upward position



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Fig. Attach the fuel injector connectors to the appropriate injectors. No.1 and No.3 connectors are brown. No.2 and No.4 are gray.



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Fig. Install the valve cover and hoses. Attach the PCV hoses (b) and (c). Connect the wire clamp at (d).

  1. Install the injectors and the fuel delivery pipe by placing a new insulator and grommet to each injector.
  2.  


NOTE
Always apply a thin coating of gasoline onto the new fuel injector O-rings before installing them.

  1. Install the new injector O-rings onto the fuel injectors.
  2.  
  3. Slide new spacers and insulators into the cylinder head.
  4.  
  5. Install the injector into the fuel delivery pipe by turning it left and right.
  6.  
  7. Position the fuel injector connector upward.
  8.  
  9. Install the injectors and fuel delivery pipe assembly into the cylinder head.
  10.  
  11. Temporarily install the bolts that hold the fuel delivery pipe to the cylinder head.
  12.  
  13. Have a MVAC certified tech evacuate and recharge the A/C system.
  14.  


NOTE
The injectors must rotate smoothly once secured in the cylinder head. If they do not, you most likely have the injector spacers or O-rings installed wrong.

  1. Position the injector connector upward.
  2.  
  3. Torque the bolts holding the fuel delivery pipe to the cylinder head to 9 ft. lbs. (13 Nm).
  4.  
  5. Attach the four fuel injector wiring harness connectors.
  6.  
  7. Install the cylinder head cover.
  8.  
  9. Check the fuel system for leaks. Repair as necessary.
  10.  
  11. Test drive the vehicle if no leaks have been detected.
  12.  
  13. Re-check the fuel system for leaks again after you have driven the vehicle.
  14.  

1MZ-FE Engine


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Fig. Disconnect the throttle and accelerator cables



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Fig. Place rags under any fuel hoses being disconnected



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Fig. Pull all of the hoses from the fuel rail



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Fig. Remove the end pipe attaching both of the injector rails



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Fig. The pipe contains a union bolt and two washers



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Fig. Lift the rail and remove the spacers



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Fig. Remove the injector with O-rings from the manifold



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Fig. Never reuse old O-rings when installing the old injector



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Fig. Remember to remove the grommets too



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Fig. The other side of the injector has two O-rings


NOTE
Be sure this procedure is done in a well ventilated area.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Relieve the fuel pressure.
  4.  


CAUTION
Work must be started approximately 90 seconds or longer after the negative battery cable has been disconnected, if equipped with an air bag.

  1. Remove the air cleaner hose.
  2.  
  3. Remove the air intake chamber/hose assembly.
  4.  
  5. Detach the fuel injector connectors.
  6.  
  7. Detach the air assist hoses and pipe from the intake manifold.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the No.1 fuel pipe once you have removed the fuel hose clamp.
  10.  
  11. Remove the No.1 fuel pipe from the fuel filter outlet.
  12.  
  13. Loosen and remove the 5 bolts then remove the fuel injector delivery pipe and injector assembly.
  14.  
  15. Slide the 4 spacers out of the inside of the intake manifold.
  16.  
  17. Remove the 6 injectors from the fuel delivery pipe.
  18.  
  19. Pull off the 2 O-rings and the 2 grommets from each injector.
  20.  

To install:

  1. Install the new insulator and grommet to each injector.
  2.  
  3. Apply a light coat of oil to the new O-rings and install them to each injector.
  4.  
  5. Apply a light coat of oil where the delivery pipe touches and O-ring of the injector.
  6.  
  7. Push the injector into the fuel delivery pipe while you twist it side to side. This twisting action will help work the injector into the new O-ring which may not be very supple. Repeat this process to all 6 injectors.
  8.  
  9. Position the fuel injector connector up and outward.
  10.  
  11. Place the 4 spacers on the intake manifold.
  12.  
  13. At the point where the intake manifold touches the O-ring of the injector, apply a light film of grease or oil.
  14.  
  15. Push the fuel delivery pipes together with the 6 injectors in their correct positions on the intake manifold.
  16.  
  17. Install the fuel delivery pipe bolts only hand tight for now.
  18.  
  19. Temporarily install the bolt that holds the No.1 fuel pipe to the intake manifold.
  20.  


NOTE
The injectors must rotate smoothly once installed. If they do not, you most likely installed the O-rings incorrectly.

  1. Face the fuel injector connector outward.
  2.  
  3. Torque the bolts that hold the fuel delivery pipe to the intake manifold to 7 ft. lbs. (10 Nm).
  4.  
  5. Torque the bolt that holds the No.1 fuel pipe to the intake manifold to 14 ft. lbs. (19 Nm).
  6.  
  7. Attach the fuel pipe. You must align the white painted marks on the No.1 fuel pipe.
  8.  
  9. Attach the No.1 fuel pipe hose to the fuel filter.
  10.  
  11. Attach the fuel hose clamp to the fuel filter until it make a click sound. Once installed, give the clamp a tug to ensure it is securely attached.
  12.  
  13. Install the air assist hose and pipe.
  14.  
  15. Attach the fuel injector connectors.
  16.  
  17. Install the air intake chamber assembly.
  18.  
  19. Attach the air cleaner hose.
  20.  
  21. Check for any fuel leaks.
  22.  

TESTING

The easiest way to test the operation of the fuel injectors is to listen for a clicking sound coming from the injectors while the engine is running. This is accomplished using a mechanic's stethoscope, or a long screwdriver. Place the end of the stethoscope or the screwdriver (tip end, not handle) onto the body of the injector. Place the ear pieces of the stethoscope in your ears, or if using a screwdriver, place your ear on top of the handle. An audible clicking noise should be heard; this is the solenoid operating. If the injector makes this noise, the injector driver circuit and computer are operating as designed. Continue testing all the injectors this way.


CAUTION
Be extremely careful while working on an operating engine, make sure you have no dangling jewelry, extremely loose clothes, power tool cords or other items that might get caught in a moving part of the engine.

All Injectors Clicking

If all the injectors are clicking, but you have determined that the fuel system is the cause of your driveability problem, continue diagnostics. Make sure that you have checked fuel pump pressure as outlined. An easy way to determine a weak or unproductive cylinder is a cylinder drop test. This is accomplished by removing one spark plug wire at a time, and seeing which cylinder causes the least difference in the idle. The one that causes the least change is the weak cylinder.

If the injectors were all clicking and the ignition system is functioning properly, remove the injector of the suspect cylinder and bench test it. This is accomplished by checking for a spray pattern from the injector itself. Install a fuel supply line to the injector (or rail if the injector is left attached to the rail) and momentarily apply 12 volts DC and a ground to the injector itself; a visible fuel spray should appear. If no spray is achieved, replace the injector and check the running condition of the engine.

One Or More Injectors Are Not Clicking


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Fig. Unplug the fuel injector connector



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Fig. Probe the two terminals of a fuel injector to check it's resistance



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Fig. Plug the correct "noid" light directly into the injector harness connector



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Fig. If the correct "noid" light flashes while the engine is running, the injector driver circuit inside the PCM is working

If one or more injectors are found to be not operating, testing the injector driver circuit and computer can be accomplished using a "noid" light. First, with the engine not running and the ignition key in the OFF position, remove the connector from the injector you plan to test, then plug the "noid" light tool into the injector connector. Start the engine and the "noid" light should flash, signaling that the injector driver circuit is working. If the "noid" light flashes, but the injector does not click when plugged in, test the injector's resistance. resistance should be between 13.4-14.2 ohms @ 68°F (20°C).

If the "noid" light does not flash, the injector driver circuit is faulty. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Unplug the "noid" light from the injector connector and also unplug the PCM. Check the harness between the appropriate pins on the harness side of the PCM connector and the injector connector. Resistance should be less than 5.0 ohms; if not, repair the circuit. If resistance is within specifications, the injector driver inside the PCM is faulty and replacement of the PCM will be necessary.

On-Vehicle Inspection
INJECTOR OPERATION
  1. On V6 engines, remove the V-bank cover.
  2.  
  3. Start the engine.
  4.  
  5. Position the probe of the sound scope (or finger tip) under the base of the injector connector and have an assistant alternately increase the engine rpm and return it to idle.
  6.  
  7. Listen or feel for a change in the operating sound of the injector. The change should be proportional to the increase in engine rpm.
  8.  
  9. If no sound is heard or if the injector sound is unusual, check the connector and wiring, injector, resistor or the signal from the ECU.
  10.  

INJECTOR RESISTANCE

Disconnect the wiring from the injector. With an ohmmeter, measure the resistance between the injector terminals. The resistance should be approximately 13.4-14.2 ohms @ 68°F (20°C) for all engines. If the resistance is not as specified, replace the injector. Reconnect the injector connector.

Off-Vehicle Inspection
INJECTOR VOLUME TEST

CAUTION
To avoid personal injury, do not smoke or use any type of open flame when testing the injectors!

  1. Remove the injector(s) from the vehicle and set aside.
  2.  
  3. Place a rag under the "banjo" fitting and, disconnect the fuel hose from the fuel filter outlet. Remove the gaskets and replace them with new ones.
  4.  
  5. Connect a hose and union (SST 09628-41045) to the fuel filter outlet connection with the new gaskets and tighten the union bolt.
  6.  
  7. Remove the fuel pressure regulator.
  8.  
  9. Connect the fuel return hose to the pressure regulator with the service union with a set of new gaskets and tighten the union bolt.
  10.  
  11. Install a new O-ring onto injector.
  12.  
  13. Connect the special tool to the injector with the service union and clamp the union and the tool to the injector with the service clamp.
  14.  
  15. Connect a length of rubber or vinyl hose to the injector tip to prevent fuel splashing and overspray.
  16.  
  17. Place the injector into a graduated cylinder with metric increments and connect the negative battery cable.
  18.  
  19. Turn the ignition switch ON , but DO NOT start the engine.
  20.  
  21. With a jumper wire, short the +B and FP terminals of the check connector on all engines except 1MZ-FE.
  22.  
  23. On the 1MZ-FE engine, connect the positive and negative leads from the battery to the fuel pump connector.
  24.  
  25. Connect wire (SST 09842-30070) to the injector and the battery for 15 seconds.
  26.  
  27. Measure the volume injected into the cylinder during the 15 second period. The volume should be 3.4-4.5 cu. inch (5464cc) for the 3.0L engine, 3.4-4.2 cu inch (56-69 cm) on 1MZ-FE engines or 2.73.4 cu. inch (60-73 cubic cm) for all other engines. If all the injectors were tested, there should be no less than 0.3-0.4 cu. in. (5-6cc) difference between each injector.
  28.  
  29. If the actual volume does not agree with the specified volume, replace the injector.
  30.  
  31. Proceed to the "Check Leakage Rate" test.
  32.  

LEAKAGE RATE
  1. Leaving everything as it was from the injection test, disconnect the service tool test probes from the battery.
  2.  
  3. Check the injector tip for leakage for a period of one minute. An acceptable leakage rate is one drop.
  4.  
  5. If the leakage exceeds this amount, replace the injector.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the negative battery cable and remove the all the test equipment.
  8.  
  9. Install the injector(s).
  10.  

 
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