Toyota Celica 1986-1993 Repair Guide

Camshaft and Bearings

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION




CAUTION
If the vehicle has an air bag, you must wait at least 30 seconds after disconnecting the battery before doing any work. The SRS has a built-in backup which will allow the system to remain energized for a period of time after the power is disconnected.

2S-E Engines

The camshaft is located in the camshaft housing, which serves as the bearing surface for the camshaft.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Remove the valve cover and the timing belt, using the proper procedures.
  4.  
  5. Loosen the camshaft housing bolts gradually in the sequence shown in Cylinder Head Removal and Installation procedure.
  6.  


WARNING
If the bolts are loosened out of sequence, warpage of the camshaft housing could occur.

  1. Position a small prybar between the cylinder head and camshaft housing projections and separate the camshaft housing from the cylinder head.
  2.  
  3. Once separated, lift the housing from the engine and place it on a clean work bench.
  4.  
  5. Using a spanner wrench, hold the camshaft pulley stationary and remove the pulley set bolt. Remove the pulley.
  6.  
  7. Inspect the camshaft thrust clearance as follows:
    1. Mount a dial indicator (of recent calibration) to the pulley end of the camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Preload the dial indicator and zero it.
    4.  
    5. Move the camshaft back and forth by hand and record the thrust clearance. The standard thrust clearance is 0.0031-0.0090 in. (0.08-0.23mm). Maximum thrust clearance is 0.0138 in. (0.35mm).
    6.  
    7. If the thrust is greater than the maximum limit, replace the camshaft and/or the camshaft housing.
    8.  

  8.  
  9. Remove the five bolts that attach the oil seal retainer to the housing. Remove the oil seal retainer and O-ring. Discard the O-ring.
  10.  



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Fig. Fig. 1 Removing camshaft from camshaft housing2S-E engine

  1. With a slight twisting motion, slowly withdraw the camshaft from the camshaft housing. This must be done slowly to avoid damaging the housing.
  2.  
  3. With a gasket scraper and cleaning solvent, remove the old sealing material from the housing and head contact surfaces.
  4.  
  5. Inspect the camshaft and camshaft housing.
  6.  

To install:

  1. Good maintenance practice suggests that whenever a seal is removed or disturbed, it should be replaced. Replace the camshaft oil seal as follows:
    1. Tap the old seal from the retainer with a screwdriver and hammer.
    2.  
    3. Install the new seal by pressing it in with the proper size deep well socket.
    4.  
    5. Lubricate the new seal with multi-purpose grease.
    6.  

  2.  
  3. Slowly insert the camshaft into the housing.
  4.  
  5. Clean the retainer bolts thoroughly with a wire brush to remove all the old sealant, grease or dirt.
  6.  
  7. Apply sealant to the last two or three threads of the bolt end.
  8.  
  9. Place the new O-ring into the retainer and attach the retainer with the five bolts. Tighten the bolts to 82 inch lbs. (9.3 Nm).
  10.  
  11. Remove any oil or grease from the camshaft pulley and then install it as previously detailed.
  12.  
  13. Apply a bead of sealant to the camshaft housing contact surface. Do NOT use too much sealant. The sealant hardens within 3 minutes after application. If the sealant hardens, it must be removed and re-applied.
  14.  
  15. Place the camshaft housing onto the cylinder head. Install the camshaft housing bolts. Tighten the bolts in three passes to 11 ft. lbs. (15 Nm) in the sequence shown in Cylinder Head Removal and Installation.
  16.  
  17. Install the valve cover and timing belt, using the proper procedures. Connect the negative battery cable. Start and warm up the engine. Inspect for leaks. Adjust the ignition timing and the idle speed.
  18.  

3S-FE and 5S-FE Engines
  1. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Remove the valve cover and the timing belt, using proper procedures.
  2.  


WARNING
Being that the thrust clearance on both the intake and exhaust camshafts is small, the camshafts must be kept level during removal. If the camshafts are removed without being kept level, the camshaft may be caught in the cylinder head causing the head to break or the camshaft to seize.

  1. To remove the exhaust camshaft proceed as follows:
    1. Set the knock pin of the intake camshaft at 10-45° BTDC of camshaft angle. This angle will help to lift the exhaust camshaft level and evenly by pushing No. 2 and No. 4 cylinder camshaft lobes of the exhaust camshaft toward their valve lifters.
    2.  
    3. Secure the exhaust camshaft sub-gear to the main gear using a service bolt. The manufacturer recommends a bolt 0.63-0.79 in. (16-20mm) long with a thread diameter of 6mm and a 1mm thread pitch. When removing the exhaust camshaft be sure that the torsional spring force of the sub-gear has been eliminated.
    4.  
    5. Remove the No. 1 and No. 2 rear bearing cap bolts and remove the cap. Uniformly loosen and remove bearing cap bolts No. 3 to No. 8 in several passes and in the proper sequence. Do NOT remove bearing cap bolts No. 9 and 10 at this time. Remove the No. 1, 2, and 4 bearing caps.
    6.  
    7. Alternately loosen and remove bearing cap bolts No. 9 and 10. As these bolts are loosened check to see that the camshaft is being lifted out straight and level.
    8.  
    9. Remove the No. 3 bearing cap and exhaust camshaft from the engine.
    10.  

  2.  


WARNING
If the camshaft is not lifting out straight and level retighten No. 9 and 10 bearing cap bolts. Reverse the order of Steps c through a and reset the intake camshaft knock pin to 10-45° BTDC and repeat Steps a through c again. Do NOT attempt to pry the camshaft from its mounting.



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Fig. Fig. 2 Exhaust camshaft removal sequence3S-FE and 5S-FE engines



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Fig. Fig. 3 Intake camshaft removal sequence3S-FE and 5S-FE engines



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Fig. Fig. 4 Intake camshaft installation3S-FE and 5S-FE engines



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Fig. Fig. 5 Intake camshaft bearing cap locations3S-FE and 5S-FE engines



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Fig. Fig. 6 Intake camshaft bearing cap bolt tightening sequence3S-FE and 5S-FE engines

  1. To remove the intake camshaft, proceed as follows:
    1. Set the knock pin of the intake camshaft at 80-115° BTDC of camshaft angle. This angle will help to lift the intake camshaft level and evenly by pushing No. 1 and No. 3 cylinder camshaft lobes of the intake camshaft toward their valve lifters.
    2.  
    3. Remove the No. 1 and No. 2 front bearing cap bolts and remove the front bearing cap and oil seal. If the cap will not come apart easily, leave it in place without the bolts.
    4.  
    5. Uniformly loosen and remove bearing cap bolts No. 3 to No. 8 in several phases and in the proper sequence. Do NOT remove bearing cap bolts No. 9 and 10 at this time. Remove No. 1, 3, and 4 bearing caps.
    6.  
    7. Alternately loosen and remove bearing cap bolts No. 9 and 10. As these bolts are loosened and after breaking the adhesion on the front bearing cap, check to see that the camshaft is being lifted out straight and level.
    8.  
    9. Remove the No. 2 bearing cap with the intake camshaft from the engine.
    10.  

  2.  


WARNING
If the camshaft is not lifting out straight and level retighten No. 9 and 10 bearing cap bolts. Reverse Steps b through d, than start over from Step b. Do NOT attempt to pry the camshaft from its mounting.



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Fig. Fig. 7 Exhaust camshaft installation3S-FE and 5S-FE engines



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Fig. Fig. 8 When engaging the intake and exhaust camshafts, use the timing marks for alignment, not the assembly marks3S-FE and 5S-FE engines



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Fig. Fig. 9 Exhaust camshaft bearing cap locations3S-FE and 5S-FE engines

To install:

  1. Before installing the intake camshaft, apply multi-purpose grease to the thrust portion of the camshaft.
  2.  
  3. To install the intake camshaft, proceed as follows:
    1. Position the camshaft at 80-115° BTDC of camshaft angle on the cylinder head.
    2.  
    3. Apply sealant to the front bearing cap.
    4.  
    5. Coat the bearing cap bolts with clean engine oil.
    6.  
    7. Tighten the camshaft bearing caps evenly and in several passes to 14 ft. lbs. (19 Nm) in the proper sequence.
    8.  

  4.  
  5. To install the exhaust camshaft, proceed as follows:
    1. Set the knock pin of the camshaft at 10-45° BTDC of camshaft angle.
    2.  
    3. Apply multipurpose grease to the thrust portion of the camshaft.
    4.  
    5. Position the exhaust camshaft gear with the intake camshaft gear so that the timing marks are in alignment with one another. Be sure to use the proper alignment marks on the gears. Do NOT use the assembly reference marks.
    6.  
    7. Turn the intake camshaft clockwise or counterclockwise little by little until the exhaust camshaft sits in the bearing journals evenly without rocking the camshaft on the bearing journals.
    8.  
    9. Coat the bearing cap bolts with clean engine oil.
    10.  
    11. Tighten the camshaft bearing caps evenly and in several passes to 14 ft. lbs. (19 Nm). Remove the service bolt from the assembly.
    12.  

  6.  
  7. Install the valve cover and timing belt, using the proper procedures.
  8.  
  9. Start the engine and check for leaks.
  10.  
  11. Adjust the valves and the ignition timing.
  12.  

3S-GE and 3S-GTE Engines
  1. Disconnect the negative battery terminal.
  2.  
  3. Remove the timing belt, camshaft sprockets and valve covers, using the proper procedures.
  4.  
  5. Loosen and remove the camshaft bearing caps, in several stages, in the order shown. Lift out the camshafts and the oil seal.
  6.  


WARNING
When removing the camshaft bearing caps, keep them in the proper order.

To Install:



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Fig. Fig. 1 0Camshaft bolt removal sequence3S-GE and 3S-GTE engines



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Fig. Fig. 1 1Positioning the camshafts for installation3S-GE and 3S-GTE engines



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Fig. Fig. 1 2Applying seal packing to No. 1 bearing cap3S-GE and 3S-GTE engines



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Fig. Fig. 1 3Installing camshaft bearing caps3S-GE and 3S-GTE engines

  1. Position the camshafts into the cylinder head so that the No. 1 cam lobes are facing outward.
  2.  
  3. Apply silicone seal packing to the outer edge of the mating surface on the No. 1 bearing cap only. Position the bearing caps over each journal with the arrows pointing forward and the proper order from the front to the rear.
  4.  
  5. Lightly coat the cap bolt threads with engine oil.
  6.  
  7. Tighten them in several stages, in the sequence shown, to 14 ft. lbs. (19 Nm).
  8.  



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Fig. Fig. 1 4Camshaft bolt installation sequence3S-GE and 3S-GTE engines



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Fig. Fig. 1 5Installing camshaft oil seal3S-GE and 3S-GTE engines

  1. Coat the inside of a new oil seal with grease and carefully tap it onto the camshaft with a drift (SST No. 09223-50010) or equivalent.
  2.  
  3. Reverse the remaining removal procedures to complete installation.
  4.  

4A-FE Engine

WARNING
Due to the relatively small amount of camshaft thrust clearance, the camshaft must be held level during removal. If the camshaft is not level on removal, the portion of the head receiving the thrust may crack or be damaged.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery terminal.
  2.  
  3. Remove the timing belt and valve cover, using the proper procedures.
  4.  
  5. Set the intake camshaft so the knockpin is slightly above the top of the cylinder head.
  6.  



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Fig. Fig. 1 6Setting knockpin to remove intake camshaft4A-FE engine



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Fig. Fig. 1 7Securing the intake camshaft sub-gear to the drive gear4A-FE engine



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Fig. Fig. 1 8Intake camshaft bolt removal sequence4A-FE engine

  1. Remove the intake No. 1 bearing cap.
  2.  
  3. Secure the intake camshaft sub-gear to the drive gear with a service bolt to eliminate any torsional spring force.
  4.  
  5. Loosen the remaining bearing caps a little at a time, in the proper sequence and remove the intake camshaft. If the camshaft cannot be lifted out straight and level, retighten the bolts in the No. 3 bearing cap and loosen them a little at a time with the gear pulled up.
  6.  



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Fig. Fig. 1 9Remove the intake camshaft by loosening the No. 3 cap and pulling up on the gear to avoid binding4A-FE engine



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Fig. Fig. 2 0Setting knockpin to remove exhaust camshaft4A-FE engine



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Fig. Fig. 2 1Exhaust camshaft bolt removal sequence4A-FE engine



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Fig. Fig. 2 2Applying seal packing to cylinder head4A-FE engine



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Fig. Fig. 2 3Exhaust camshaft bolt torque sequence4A-FE engine

  1. Turn the exhaust camshaft so the knock pin is slightly counterclockwise from the vertical axis of the camshaft.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 2 5Engaging the intake camshaft gear to the exhaust camshaft gear, matching the installation marks4A-FE engine



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Fig. Fig. 2 6Intake camshaft bolt torque sequence4A-FE engine

  1. Remove the exhaust No. 1 bearing cap.
  2.  
  3. Loosen the remaining bearing caps a little at a time, in the proper sequence and remove the exhaust camshaft. If the camshaft can not be lifted out straight and level, retighten the bolts in the No. 3 bearing cap and loosen them a little at a time with the gear pulled up.
  4.  

To install:

  1. Position the exhaust camshaft into the cylinder head as it was removed.
  2.  
  3. Apply seal packing to the cylinder head as shown.
  4.  
  5. Position the bearing caps over each journal so the arrows point forward, lightly oil the bolt threads, then tighten the bolts gradually, in the proper sequence to 9 ft. lbs. (13 Nm).
  6.  
  7. Apply grease to the seal lip and tap in the seal with a driver.
  8.  
  9. Set the intake camshaft so the knockpin is slightly above the top of the cylinder head.
  10.  
  11. Apply grease to the thrust portion of the camshaft.
  12.  
  13. Engage the intake camshaft gear to the exhaust camshaft gear by matching the assembly installation marks on each gear.
  14.  


WARNING
Do NOT use the timing marks, which are also on each gear.

  1. Roll down the intake camshaft onto the bearing journals while engaging gears with each other. Install the 4 rear bearing caps in their original locations.
  2.  
  3. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the cap bolt threads, then install the bolts, torquing them in the proper sequence to 9 ft. lbs. (13 Nm). Remove the service bolt.
  4.  
  5. Install the intake No. 1 bearing cap and bolts evenly to 9 ft. lbs. (13 Nm).
  6.  
  7. Installation of the remaining components is the reverse of the removal procedure.
  8.  

INSPECTION



Checking Camshaft Runout

Camshaft runout should be checked when the camshaft has been removed from the engine. An accurate dial indicator is needed for this procedure. Measure the camshaft bearing journal runout by placing the camshaft on V blocks and rotating the camshaft by hand. If the runout exceeds the limit, replace the camshaft (See Engine Rebuilding Specification Chart).



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Fig. Fig. 2 7Checking camshaft runoutCelica



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Fig. Fig. 2 8Checking camshaft lobe heightCelica



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Fig. Fig. 2 9Checking camshaft journal diameterCelica



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Fig. Fig. 3 0Checking camshaft housing bore diameter2S-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 3 1Laying Plastigage® on camshaft journal3S-GE engine shown



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Fig. Fig. 3 2Measuring Plastigage® to determine oil clearance3S-GE engine shown



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Fig. Fig. 3 3Checking camshaft thrust clearance3S-GE engine shown

Checking Camshaft Lobe Height

Use a micrometer to check camshaft (lobe) height, making sure the anvil and the spindle of the micrometer are positioned directly on the heel and tip of the camshaft lobe. If the cam lobe height is less than minimum (See Camshaft Specification Chart), replace the camshaft.

Checking Camshaft Journals and Bearings
2S-E ENGINE

The camshaft housing serves as the bearing surface on the 2S-E engine. While the camshaft is still removed from the housing, the camshaft bearing journals should be measured with a micrometer. Compare the measurements with those listed in the Camshaft Specifications chart in this section. If the measurements are less than the limits listed in the chart, the camshaft and possibly the housing will require replacement, since the camshaft runs directly on the housing surface; no actual bearings or bushings are used, so no oversize bearings or bushings are available.

Using an inside dial gauge or inside micrometer, measure the inside diameter of the camshaft bores (the camshaft mounts that are integrally cast as part of the housing. The inside diameter of the bores should be as follows:



No. 1: 1.8307-1.8317 in. (46.500-46.525mm)
 
No. 2: 1.8209-1.8218 in. (46.250-46.275mm)
 
No. 3: 1.8110-1.8120 in. (46.000-46.025mm)
 
No. 4: 1.8012-1.8022 in. (45.750-45.775mm)
 
No. 5: 1.7913-1.7923 in. (45.500-45.525mm)
 
No. 6: 1.7815-1.7825 in. (45.250-45.275mm)
 

The camshaft journal oil clearances are listed in the Camshaft Specifications chart in this section. Simply subtract the journal diameter from the inside diameter. If clearances are off, the housing must be replaced (again, because oversize bearings or bushings are not available).

EXCEPT 2S-E ENGINE

Measure the bearing oil clearance by placing a piece of Plastigage® on each bearing journal. Replace the bearing caps, using the proper procedures, and tighten the bolts to the proper torque.


WARNING
Do NOT turn the camshaft.

Remove the caps and measure each piece of Plastigage®. If the clearance is greater than the values on the Camshaft Specifications chart, check or replace the camshaft. If necessary, replace the bearing caps and cylinder head as a set.

Check the camshaft bearings for flaking and scoring. If the bearings show any signs of damage, replace the bearing caps and the cylinder head as a set.

Checking Camshaft End-Play

After the camshaft has been installed, end-play should be checked. The camshaft sprocket should not be installed on the cam. Use a dial gauge to check the end-play, by moving the camshaft forward and backward in the cylinder head. End-play specifications should be as noted in the Camshaft Specifications Chart.

 
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