REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
Before removing the crankshaft, check main bearing clearances as described under Main Bearing Clearance Check below.
- Remove the piston and connecting rod assemblies following the procedure in this section.
- Check crankshaft thrust clearance (end play) before removing the crank from the block. Using a prybar, pry the crankshaft the extent of its travel forward, and measure thrust clearance at the center main bearing (No. 4 bearing on 6 cylinder engines, No. 3 on 4 cylinder engines) with a feeler gauge. Pry the crankshaft the extent of its rearward travel, and measure the other side of the bearing. If clearance is greater than that specified, the thrust washers must be replaced (see main bearing installation, below).
- Using a punch, mark the corresponding main bearing caps and saddles according to position: one punch on the front main cap and saddle, two on the second, three on the third, etc. This ensures correct reassembly.
- Remove the main bearing caps after they have been marked.
- Remove the crankshaft form the block.
- Follow the crankshaft inspection, main bearing clearance checking and replacement procedures below before reinstalling the crankshaft.
Crankshaft inspection and servicing should be handled exclusively by a reputable machinist, as most of the necessary procedures require a dial indicator and fixing jig, a large micrometer, and machine tools such as a crankshaft grinder. While at the machine shop, the crankshaft should be thoroughly cleaned (especially the oil passages). Magnafluxed (to check for minute cracks) and the following checks made: main journal diameter, crank pin (connecting rod journal) diameter, taper and out-of-round, and run-out. Wear, beyond specification limits, in any of these areas means the crankshaft must be reground or replaced.
BEARING CLEARANCE CHECK
Checking main bearing clearances is done in the same manner as checking connecting rod big-end clearances.
- With the crankshaft installed, remove the main bearing cap. Clean all oil form the bearing insert in the cap and from the crankshaft journal, as the Plastigage® material is oil-soluble.
- Lay a strip of Plastigage® along the full width of the bearing cap (or along the width of the crank journal if the engine is out of the car and inverted).
- Install the bearing cap and tighten to specification.
Do not rotate the crankshaft with the Plastigage® installed.
- Remove the bearing cap and determine bearing clearance by comparing the width of the now-flattened Plastigage® with the scale on the Plastigage® envelope. Journal taper is determined by comparing the width of the Plastigage® strip near its ends. Rotate the crankshaft 90 degrees and retest, to determine journal eccentricity.
- Repeat the above for the remaining bearings. If the bearing journal and insert appear in good shape (with not unusual wear visible) and are within tolerances, no further main bearing service is required. If unusual wear is evident and/or the clearances are outside specifications, the bearings must be replaced and the cause of their wear found.
Main bearings can be replaced with the crankshaft both in the engine (with the engine still in the car) and out of the engine (with the engine on a work stand or bench). Both procedures are covered here. The main bearings must be replaced if the crankshaft has been reground; the replacement bearing being available in various undersize increments from most auto parts jobbers or your local Toyota dealer.Engine Out of Car
- Remove the crankshaft from the engine block.
- Remove the main bearing inserts from the bearing caps and from the main bearing saddles. Remove the thrust washers from the No. 3 (4-cylinder engine) or No. 4 (6-cylinder engine) crankshaft journal.
- Thoroughly clean the saddles, bearing caps, and crankshaft.
- Make sure the crankshaft has been fully checked and is ready for reassembly. Place the upper main bearings in the block saddles so that the oil grooves and/or oil holes are correctly aligned with their corresponding grooves or holes in the saddles.
- Install the thrust washers on the center main bearing, with the oil grooves facing out.
- Lubricate the faces of all bearings with clean engine oil, and place the crankshaft in the block.
- Install the main bearing caps in numbered order with the arrows or any other orientation marks facing forward. Tighten all bolts except the center cap bolts in sequence in two or three passes to the specified torque. Rotate the crankshaft after each pass to ensure even tightness.
- Align the thrust bearing by prying the crankshaft the extent of its axial travel several times with a prybar. On last movement hold the crankshaft toward the front of the engine and tighten the thrust bearing cap to specifications. Measure the crankshaft thrust clearance (end play) as previously described in this section. If clearance is outside specifications (too sloppy), install a new set of oversize thrust washers and check clearance again.
- Remove the main bearing caps and keep them in order.
- Make a bearing roll-out pin from a cotter pin as shown.
- Carefully roll out the old inserts from the upper side of the crankshaft journal, noting the positions of the oil grooves and/or oil holes so the new inserts can be correctly installed.
- Roll each new insert into its saddle after lightly oiling the crankshaft-side face of each. Make sure the notches and/or oil holes are correctly positioned.
- Replace the bearing inserts in the caps with new inserts. Oil the face of each, and install the caps in numbered order with the arrows or other orientation marks facing forward. Tighten the bolts to the specified torque in two or three passes in the sequence shown.