8R-C AND 18R-C ENGINES
The 8R-C/18R-C family of four cylinder engines was used in the Mark II and the Corona in the early nineteen seventies.
The engine has an overhead cam, and aluminum head and a cast iron block. Displacement of the 8R-C engine is 1,858cc and was enlarged to 1,980cc (in 1972) to become the 18R-C engine.
20R AND 22R ENGINES
The 20R (2,189cc) four cylinder, overhead cam engine was introduced in 1975 and used in the Corona. Features included:
A gear driven oil pump
Single timing chain
Hemispherical combustion chambers
With an eye on the future, Toyota designed the engine to help control emissions by casting EGR and air injection passages in the aluminum head.
The 22R engine was introduced in 1981. Based on the 20R, the new engine has a displacement of 2,367cc, a higher compression ratio as well as other refinements which contribute to even better fuel economy than before.
2M, 4M, 4M-E AND 5M-E ENGINES
The M family of engines is the most sophisticated in the Toyota line. Their basic design is similar to that used in some European luxury cars, which they rival in smoothness and power.
These six cylinder, overhead cam engines (featuring cross-flow heads and hemispherical combustion chambers) first appeared in the luxury Crown series. The 2M (2.3 liter) engine was used until 1971. In 1971 the 4M (2.6 liter) engine was introduced and used, in various forms, until 1979. The 4M-E engine, used in the 1980 Cressida, featured electronic fuel injection and was replaced in 1981 by the new 5M-E (2.8 liter) electronic fuel injected engine.