Toyota Cressida and Van 1983-1990

Starter

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION





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Fig. Fig. 1 Starter motors are usually secured by two mounting bolts



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Fig. Fig. 2 When unbolting the starter, it may be easier to use an extension on the wrench



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Fig. Fig. 3 Lower the starter from the engine

  1. Disconnect the negative (ground) cable from the battery.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the wires/cables connected to the starter motor.
  4.  
  5. On some models it may be necessary to remove the air cleaner, splash shields or linkage that is in the way of easy access to the starter motor.
  6.  
  7. Loosen and remove the starter motor mounting nuts/bolts while supporting the motor.
  8.  
  9. Remove the starter motor.
  10.  
  11. Installation is in the reverse order of removal.
  12.  

OVERHAUL





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Fig. Fig. 4 Exploded view of a common starter motors components

Disassembly

The starter must be removed from the vehicle in order to perform this operation.

  1. Disconnect the field coil lead from the solenoid terminal.
  2.  
  3. Remove the 2 through bolts. Pull out the field frame with the armature from the solenoid switch assembly.
  4.  
  5. Remove the O-ring. Remove the 2 screws that retain the starter housing, clutch assembly and gears.
  6.  
  7. Using a magnet, remove the steel ball from the clutch shaft hole.
  8.  
  9. Remove the 2 screws and end cover from the field frame. Remove the O-rings from the field frame and screws.
  10.  
  11. Using a suitable tool, hold the spring back and disconnect the brush from the brush holder. Disconnect the 4 brushes and remove the brush holder.
  12.  
  13. Remove the armature from the field frame.
  14.  

Inspection
ARMATURE COIL


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Fig. Fig. 5 Check the continuity of the starter motors armature coil

  1. To inspect the commutator for an open circuit do the following:
  2.  
    1. Using an ohmmeter, check that there is continuity between the segments of the commutator.
    2.  
    3. If there is no continuity between any segment, replace the armature.
    4.  

  3. To inspect the commutator for a proper ground, do the following:
  4.  
    1. Using an ohmmeter, check that there is no continuity between the commutator and the armature coil core.
    2.  
    3. If there is continuity, replace the armature.
    4.  


COMMUTATOR


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Fig. Fig. 6 Using a vernier caliper, measure the commutator diameter



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Fig. Fig. 7 Check that the undercut depth is clean and free of foreign material. Smooth out the edge. If the depth is less than minimum, correct it using a hacksaw blade

  1. Inspect the commutator for dirty and burnt surfaces. If the surface is dirty or burnt, correct it with sandpaper (No. 400 grit) or on a lathe.
  2.  
  3. Inspect the commutator diameter by using vernier calipers to measure it.
  4.  
    1. The standard diameter is 30mm.
    2.  
    3. The minimum diameter is 29mm.
    4.  

  5. If the diameter is less than minimum, replace the armature.
  6.  
  7. Check that the undercut depth is clean and free of any foreign materials. Smooth out the edge:
  8.  
    1. Standard undercut depth is 0.6mm.
    2.  
    3. Minimum undercut depth is 0.2mm.
    4.  

  9. If the undercut depth is less than minimum, correct it with the use of a hacksaw blade.
  10.  

FIELD COIL (FRAME)


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Fig. Fig. 8 Inspect the field coil for an open circuit

  1. Inspect the field coil for an open circuit as follows:
  2.  
    1. Using an ohmmeter, check that there is continuity between the lead wire and field coil brush lead.
    2.  
    3. If there is no continuity, replace the field frame.
    4.  

  3. Inspect the field coil for ground as follows:
  4.  
    1. Using an ohmmeter, check that there is no continuity between the field coil end and field frame.
    2.  
    3. If there is continuity, repair or replace the field frame.
    4.  


BRUSHES


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Fig. Fig. 9 Using an ohmmeter, make sure there is no continuity between the starter brush holders

  1. Using vernier calipers, measure the brush length:
  2.  
    1. Standard length is 15.5mm.
    2.  
    3. Minimum length is 10.0mm.
    4.  

  3. If the brush length is less than minimum, replace the brush holder and field frame.
  4.  
  5. Check the brush springs for weakness and replace as necessary.
  6.  
  7. Inspect the brush holder insulation as follows:
  8.  
    1. Using an ohmmeter check that there is no continuity between the positive and the negative brush holders.
    2.  
    3. If there is no continuity, repair or replace the brush holder.
    4.  


CLUTCH AND GEARS


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Fig. Fig. 10 Rotate the starter pinion gear clockwise to check for freedom of movement; the gear should lock up when you turn it counterclockwise

  1. Check the gear teeth on the pinion gear, idle gear and clutch assembly for wear or damage.
  2.  
  3. If damaged, replace the gear or clutch assembly.
  4.  
  5. If damaged also check the drive plate ring gear for wear or damage.
  6.  
  7. Inspect the clutch, by rotating the clutch pinion gear clockwise and check that it turns it freely. Try to rotate the clutch pinion gear counterclockwise and check that it locks. If, necessary replace the clutch assembly.
  8.  

BEARINGS


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Fig. Fig. 11 Spin the bearings of the starter to check for resistance

  1. Inspect the bearings by turning each bearing by hand while applying inward force. If resistance is felt or is the bearing sticks, replace the bearing.
  2.  
  3. If it is necessary to remove the bearing, use a suitable bearing puller and remove the bearing.
  4.  
  5. Take the new bearing and press it onto the shaft.
  6.  

SOLENOID SWITCH


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Fig. Fig. 12 Perform the pull-in coil open circuit test



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Fig. Fig. 13 Perform the hold-in coil open circuit test

  1. Perform the pull-in coil open circuit test to the solenoid as follows:
  2.  
    1. Using an ohmmeter, check that there is continuity between terminals 50 and C.
    2.  
    3. If there is no continuity, replace the solenoid.
    4.  

  3. Perform the hold-in coil open circuit test to the solenoid as follows:
  4.  
    1. Using an ohmmeter, check that there is no continuity between terminals 50 and the solenoid body.
    2.  
    3. If there is no continuity, replace the solenoid.
    4.  


Assembly


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Fig. Fig. 14 Placing the armature into the starter field frame

  1. Apply high temperature grease to lubricate the bearings and then install the armature assembly into the field frame.
  2.  
  3. Place the brush holder on the armature. Using a suitable tool, hold the brush spring back and install the brush into the brush holder. Install all 4 brushes. Make sure to check that the positive lead wires are not grounded.
  4.  
  5. Place a new O-ring in position on the field frame. Install the new O-rings to the end cover mount screws.
  6.  
  7. Install the end cover to the field frame with the 2 screws.
  8.  
  9. Apply grease to the steel ball. Insert the steel ball in the clutch shaft holes.
  10.  
  11. Apply grease to the return spring, clutch assembly, idle gear and bearing.
  12.  
  13. Insert the return spring into the solenoid switch hole. Please the following parts in position on the starter housing:
  14.  
    1. Clutch assembly.
    2.  
    3. Pinion gear.
    4.  
    5. Idle gear.
    6.  
    7. Bearing.
    8.  

  15. Assemble the starter housing and solenoid switch assembly and install the 2 screws.
  16.  
  17. Place a new O-ring in position on the field frame. Align the protrusion of the field frame with the cut-out of the solenoid switch assembly.
  18.  
  19. Install the 2 through bolts. Connect the lead wire to the solenoid switch terminal C and install the nut.
  20.  

TESTING



Starter Performance


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Fig. Fig. 15 Perform the starter pull-in test



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Fig. Fig. 16 Perform the no-load performance test

These tests must be performed within 3-5 seconds to avoid burning out the coil.

  1. Perform the pull-in test as follows:
  2.  
    1. Disconnect field coil lead wire from the terminal C.
    2.  
    3. Connect the battery to the solenoid as shown in the illustration.
    4.  
    5. Check that the clutch pinion gear moves outward. If the clutch pinion gear does not move, replace the solenoid assembly.
    6.  

  3. Perform the hold-in test as follows:
  4.  
    1. While the starter is connected to the battery as done in the pull-in test. With the clutch gear out, disconnect the negative lead from terminal C. Check that the pinion remains out.
    2.  
    3. If the clutch pinion returns inward, replace the solenoid assembly.
    4.  

  5. Inspect the clutch pinion gear return as follows:
  6.  
    1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the switch body. Check that the clutch pinion gear returns inward.
    2.  
    3. If the clutch pinion gear does not return, replace the solenoid switch assembly.
    4.  

  7. Perform a no-load performance test as follows:
  8.  
    1. Connect a ammeter and battery to the starter as shown in the illustration.
    2.  
    3. Check that the starter rotates smoothly and steadily with the pinion gear moving out. Check that the ammeter reads 90 amps or less at 11.5 volts.
    4.  


Starter Relay


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Fig. Fig. 17 Perform the starter relay continuity test



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Fig. Fig. 18 Perform the starter relay operation test

The starter relay is located in the following positions on the following models.



1986 Cressida-the starter relay is located in the engine relay block, of the engine compartment.
 
1987-88 Cressida-the starter relay is located behind the passenger's side kick panel.
 
1989-90 Cressida-the starter relay is located behind the driver's side kick panel.
 
1986-89 Van-the starter relay is located on the left side of the engine compartment.
 

  1. To check the relay continuity, use an ohmmeter and check for continuity between terminals 1 and 3 .
  2.  
  3. Check that there is no continuity between terminals 2 and 4 .
  4.  
  5. If the continuity is not as specified, replace the relay.
  6.  
  7. Inspect the relay operation by applying battery voltage across terminals 1 and 3 .
  8.  
  9. Using an ohmmeter, check that there is continuity between terminals 2 and 4 .
  10.  
  11. If operation is not as specified, replace the relay.
  12.  

 
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