Toyota Pick-ups/Land Cruiser/4Runner 1970-1988

Cylinder Head

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



8R-C and 18R-C Engines

See Figures 1 and 2


CAUTION
Do not perform this procedure on a warm engine.

  1. Disconnect the battery and drain the cooling system.
  2.  

  1. Remove the air cleaner assembly from its bracket, complete with its attendant hoses.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly-8R-C and 18R-C engines



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Fig. Fig. 2: Torque sequence for 8R-C and 18R-C cylinder head bolts--tighten to specified torque in three passes--loosen the bolts in the reverse of the order shown here, in two passes

  1. Detach the accelerator cable from its support on the cylinder head cover and also from the carburetor throttle arm.
  2.  
  3. Remove the choke cable and fuel lines from the carburetor.
  4.  
  5. Remove the water hose bracket from the cylinder head cover.
  6.  
  7. Unfasten the water hose clamps and remove the hoses from the water pump and the water valve. Detach the heater temperature control cable from the water valve.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the PCV line from the cylinder head cover.
  10.  
  11. Remove the vacuum lines from the distributor vacuum unit. Remove the lines which run from the vacuum switching valve to the various emission control system components on the cylinder head. Disconnect the EGR lines (1974 California only).
  12.  
  13. Remove the fuel and vacuum lines from the carburetor.
  14.  
  15. Remove the pipes from the automatic choke stove.
  16.  
  17. Tag and unfasten the wires from the spark plugs. Remove the spark plugs.
  18.  
  19. Remove the cylinder head cover retaining bolts, and withdraw the cover.
  20.  

Use a clean cloth, placed over the timing cover opening, to prevent anything from falling down into it.

  1. Remove the radiator upper hose from the cylinder head water outlet.
  2.  
  3. Remove the outlet elbow and thermostat.
  4.  
  5. Unfasten the downpipe clamp from the exhaust manifold. Remove the manifold from the head.
  6.  
  7. Remove the valve rocker assembly mounting bolts and the oil delivery pipes. Withdraw the valve rocker shaft assembly.
  8.  


CAUTION
When removing the rocker shaft securing bolts, loosen them in two or three stages.

  1. Remove the timing gear from the camshaft. Support it so that the chain does not fall down into the cover.
  2.  
  3. Remove the camshaft bearing caps and withdraw the camshaft. Remove the camshaft bearings.
  4.  

Temporarily assemble the bearings and caps to keep them with their mates. Be sure to keep the bearings in proper order.

  1. Remove the gear from the timing chain. Support the timing chain so that it does not fall into the cover.
  2.  
  3. Loosen the head bolts in two or three stages, in the sequence illustrated. Lift the head assembly off the block.
  4.  


CAUTION
Do not try to slide the head off the block as it is held in place by dowels.

To install:
  1. Remove any water from the cylinder head bolt holes.
  2.  
  3. Clean the mating surfaces of the cylinder head and block. Use liquid sealer around the oil holes on the head and cylinder block. Do not get sealer in the holes.
  4.  
  5. Lower the cylinder head on to the block.
  6.  


CAUTION
Do not slide the head across the block because of the dowels located on the block.

  1. Tighten the cylinder head bolts in the proper sequence (see the diagram) and in three or four stages. Tighten them to the specifications given in the Torque Specifications chart.
  2.  
  3. Install each lower bearing half into the seat from which it was removed.
  4.  
  5. Place the camshaft in the cylinder head.
  6.  
  7. Install each bearing into the cap from which it was removed.
  8.  
  9. Install the camshaft bearing caps on the head, in their numbered sequence, with the numbers facing forward. Tighten to 12-17 ft. lbs.
  10.  
  11. First, check the camshaft bearing clearance and end-play, using Plastigage®.
  12.  

This is checked in the same manner that connecting rod and crankshaft bearings are checked. For the procedure see the appropriate sections later in this section.The oil clearance should be 0.025-0.050mm; the end-play should be 0.043-0.167mm.

  1. Crank the engine so that the No. 1 piston is at TDC of its compression stroke.
  2.  
  3. Align the mark on the timing chain with the dowel hole on the camshaft timing gear and the stamped mark on the camshaft.
  4.  

All three marks should be aligned so that they are facing upward.

  1. Install the valve rocker assembly. Tighten its securing bolts to 12-17 ft. lbs., working from the center to the ends, and in two or three stages.
  2.  
  3. Attach the oil delivery pipe to the valve rocker assembly and camshaft bearing caps. Tighten their securing bolts to 11-16 ft. lbs.
  4.  
  5. Adjust the valve clearance as outlined in Engine Performance and Tune-up , to the following cold specifications:

    Intake - 0.18mm
     
    Exhaust - 0.33mm
     

  6.  

20R and 22R Engines

See Figures 3 through 25


CAUTION
Do not perform this operation on a warm engine.

  1. Disconnect the battery.
  2.  
  3. Remove the three exhaust pipe flange nuts and separate the pipe from the manifold.
  4.  
  5. Drain the cooling system (both radiator and block). If the coolant is to be reused, place a large, clean container underneath the drains.
  6.  

  1. Remove the air cleaner assembly, complete with hoses, from the carburetor.
  2.  

Cover the carburetor with a clean shop cloth so that nothing can fall into it.

  1. Mark all vacuum hoses to aid installation and disconnect them. Remove all linkages, fuel lines, etc., from the carburetor, cylinder head, and manifolds. Remove the wire supports.
  2.  
  3. Mark the spark plug leads and disconnect them from the plugs.
  4.  
  5. Matchmark the distributor housing and block. Disconnect the primary lead and remove the distributor. Installation will be easier if you leave the cap and leads in place.
  6.  
  7. Unfasten the four 14mm nuts which secure the cam cover.
  8.  
  9. Remove the rubber camshaft seals. Turn the crankshaft until the No. 1 piston is at TDC on its compression stroke. Match mark the timing sprocket to the cam chain, and remove the semi-circular lug. Using a 19mm wrench, remove the cam sprocket bolt. Slide the distributor drive gear and spacer off the cam and wire the cam sprocket in place.
  10.  
  11. Remove the timing chain cover 14mm bolt at the front of the head. This must be done before the head bolts are removed.
  12.  
  13. Remove the cylinder head bolts in the order shown below. Improper removal could cause head damage.
  14.  
  15. Using pry bars applied evenly at the front and the rear of the valve rocker assembly, pry the assembly off its mounting dowels.
  16.  
  17. Lift the head off its dowels. Do NOT pry it off. Support the head on a workbench.
  18.  
  19. Drain the engine oil from the crankcase after the head has been removed, because the oil will become contaminated with coolant while the head is being removed.
  20.  

To install:
  1. Apply liquid sealer to the front corners of the block and install the head gasket.
  2.  
  3. Lower the head over the locating dowels. Do not attempt to slide it into place.
  4.  
  5. Rotate the camshaft so that the sprocket aligning pin is at the top. Remove the wire and hold the cam sprocket. Manually rotate the engine so that the sprocket hole is also at the top. Wire the sprocket in place again.
  6.  
  7. Install the rocker arm assembly over its positioning dowels.
  8.  
  9. Tighten the cylinder head bolts evenly, in three stages and in the order shown, under Torque Sequences, to a specified torque of 52-63 ft. lbs.
  10.  
  11. Install the timing chain cover bolt and tighten it to 7-11 ft. lbs.
  12.  
  13. Remove the wire and fit the sprocket over the camshaft dowel. If the chain won't allow the sprocket to reach, rotate the crankshaft back and forth, while lifting up on the chain and sprocket.
  14.  
  15. Install the distributor drive gear and tighten the crankshaft bolt to 51-65 ft. lbs.
  16.  
  17. Set the No. 1 piston at TDC of its compression stroke and adjust the valves as outlined in Engine Performance and Tune-up .
  18.  
  19. After completing valve adjustment, rotate the crankshaft 352°, so that the 8° BTDC mark on the pulley aligns with the pointer.
  20.  
  21. Install the distributor.
  22.  
  23. Install the spark plugs and leads.
  24.  
  25. Make sure that the oil drain plug is installed. Fill the engine with oil after installing the rubber cam seals. Pour the oil over the distributor drive gear and the valve rockers.
  26.  
  27. Install the rocker cover and tighten the bolts to 8-11 ft. lbs.
  28.  
  29. Connect all the vacuum hoses and electrical leads which were removed during disassembly. Install the spark plug lead supports. Fill the cooling system. Install the air cleaner.
  30.  
  31. Tighten the exhaust pipe-to-manifold flange bolts to 25-33 ft. lbs.
  32.  
  33. Reconnect the battery. Start the engine and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. Check and adjust the timing and valve clearance. Adjust the idle speed and mixture. Road test the vehicle.
  34.  



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Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly-20R engine



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Fig. Fig. 4: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly-22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 5: Matchmark the camshaft sprocket to the camshaft chain--set No. 1 cylinder to TDC-20R, 22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 6: Use a 19mm wrench on the camshaft sprocket bolt-20R, 22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 7: Do not allow the camshaft chain to slip off the sprocket and fall into the lower end when removing the camshaft sprocket-20R, 22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 8: Remove the front cover bolt before removing the cylinder head bolts-20R, 22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 9: Cylinder head bolt loosening sequence-20R, 22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 10: Apply liquid sealer to the corners of the cylinder block-20R, 22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 11: Rotate the camshaft so that the pin is at top-20R, 22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 12: Cylinder head bolt torque sequence-20R, 22R, 22R-E and 22R-TE engines



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Fig. Fig. 13: Remove all external brackets before removing the cylinder head assembly



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Fig. Fig. 14: Disconnect and tag all electrical connectors before removing the cylinder head assembly



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Fig. Fig. 15: Remove the distributor assembly before removing the cylinder head assembly



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Fig. Fig. 16: Remove the distributor and fuel pump drive gear assembly before removing the cylinder head assembly



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Fig. Fig. 17: Wire timing chain and gear before removing the cylinder head assembly



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Fig. Fig. 18: Removing the cylinder head assembly bolts in correct sequence--note location and length



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Fig. Fig. 19: Removing the camshaft brackets in correct sequence--keep all parts in the order



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Fig. Fig. 20: Remove all necessary components before removing the cylinder head



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Fig. Fig. 21: Removing water hoses for cylinder head removal



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Fig. Fig. 22: Removing the cylinder head assembly



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Fig. Fig. 23: Always replace the cylinder head gasket--install the new gasket in the correct position



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Fig. Fig. 24: Install cylinder head cover seal (rear)



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Fig. Fig. 25: Install cylinder head cover seal (front)

22R-E and 22R-TE Engines

CAUTION
Never perform this operation on a hot engine.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Drain the coolant from the radiator and the cylinder block. Drain the engine oil.
  4.  

  1. Remove the turbocharger on the 22R-TE.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect and remove the air cleaner hose on the 22R-E.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the oxygen sensor wire. Remove the three nuts attaching the manifold to the exhaust pipe and then separate the two.
  6.  
  7. Remove the oil dipstick.
  8.  
  9. Remove the distributor with the spark plug leads attached.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect the upper radiator hose and the two heater hoses where they attach to the engine and then position them out of the way.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the actuator cable, the accelerator cable and the throttle cable for the automatic transmission at their bracket.
  14.  
  15. Tag and disconnect the following:
    1. Both PCV vacuum hoses
    2.  
    3. Brake booster hose
    4.  
    5. Actuator hose (if equipped with cruise control)
    6.  
    7. Air control valve hoses
    8.  
    9. Air control valve.
    10.  

  16.  
  17. Tag and disconnect the EGR vacuum modulator hoses and then remove the modulator itself along with the bracket.
  18.  
  19. Tag and disconnect the following:
    1. Green and brown BVSV hoses
    2.  
    3. Vacuum advance hoses
    4.  
    5. The two air valve hoses; one at the throttle body, the other at the air chamber
    6.  
    7. Air control valve hose (if equipped with air conditioning)
    8.  
    9. Pressure regulator hose at the air chamber
    10.  
    11. Cold start injector pipe and wire
    12.  
    13. Throttle position sensor wire.
    14.  

  20.  
  21. Remove the bolt holding the EGR valve to the air chamber. Disconnect the chamber from the stay. Remove the air chamber-to-intake manifold bolts and then lift off the chamber with the throttle body.
  22.  
  23. Disconnect the fuel return hose.
  24.  
  25. Tag and disconnect the following:
    1. Water temperature sender gauge wire
    2.  
    3. Temperature sensor wire
    4.  
    5. Start injection time switch wire
    6.  
    7. Fuel injector wires.
    8.  

  26.  
  27. Remove the pulsation damper. Remove the bolt holding the fuel hose to the delivery pipe and then disconnect and remove the fuel hose.
  28.  
  29. Disconnect the wire and hose and then remove the air valve from the intake manifold.
  30.  
  31. Disconnect the by-pass hose at the intake manifold on the 22R-E. On the 22R-TE, disconnect the oil cooler hose at the manifold.
  32.  
  33. If equipped with power steering, remove the pump and position it out of the way without disconnecting the hydraulic lines.
  34.  
  35. Remove the four nuts and then remove the cylinder head cover.
  36.  

Be sure to cover the oil return hole in the cylinder head with a clean rag to prevent anything form falling in.

  1. Remove the rubber camshaft seals. Turn the crankshaft until the No. 1 piston is at TDC of its compression stroke. Matchmark the timing sprocket to the timing chain and then remove the semi-circular plug. Using a 19mm wrench, remove the camshaft sprocket bolt. Slide the distributor drive gear and spacer off the camshaft and wire the cam sprocket in place.
  2.  
  3. Remove the timing chain cover bolt in front of the cylinder head.
  4.  

This must be done BEFORE the cylinder head bolts are removed.

  1. Remove the cylinder head bolts gradually, in two or three stages, in the order shown.
  2.  


CAUTION
Removing the head bolts in the improper order could cause damage to the aluminum cylinder head.

  1. Using pry bars applied evenly at the front and rear of the rocker arm assembly, pry the assembly off of its mounting dowels.
  2.  
  3. Lift the cylinder head off of its mounting dowels, DO NOT pry it off. Support the head on a workbench.
  4.  
  5. To install, follow Steps 15-31 of the 20R and 22R installation procedure and refer to the illustrations.
  6.  

When installing the camshaft sprocket onto the camshaft, if the chain does not seem long enough, wiggle the chain back and forth slightly while pulling up on the chain and sprocket.

1L, 2L and 2L-T Engines

See Figures 26, 27, 28 and 29

  1. Disconnect the cables from both batteries.
  2.  
  3. Remove the air cleaner assembly.
  4.  
  5. Drain the cooling system and remove the radiator, shroud, and radiator hoses.
  6.  

  1. If the vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, remove the compressor drive belt and unbolt the compressor from its mounting brackets. Tie the compressor out of the way. Do not remove the refrigerant lines.
  2.  
  3. Remove the engine cooling fan, pulley, and drive belt.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the heater hoses at the engine and move the hoses aside.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the cables which are positioned above the valve cover and move the cables aside.
  8.  
  9. Remove the valve cover and upper front engine cover.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect and remove the glow plugs.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the fuel injection lines at the injectors and the injection pump. Remove the lines.
  14.  
  15. Remove the fuel injectors. Arrange the injectors so that they may be reinstalled in their original locations.
  16.  
  17. Unbolt and remove the intake manifold assembly. Also remove the water outlet housing from the cylinder head.
  18.  
  19. Unbolt the exhaust manifold from the cylinder head. Secure the manifold in a position away from the cylinder head.
  20.  
  21. Disconnect the fuel feed line at the injection pump and plug the line.
  22.  
  23. Using a wrench on the center crankshaft pulley bolt, rotate the engine (clockwise only) until the TDC mark on the pulley is aligned with the pointer. Check that the valves on the number one cylinder are closed (rocker arms loose). If the valves are not closed, rotate the engine 360° and again align the TDC mark with the pointer.
  24.  
  25. Remove the crankshaft pulley using a puller.
  26.  
  27. Remove the timing belt cover from the front of the engine and the timing belt guide from the front of the crankshaft timing gear.
  28.  
  29. Remove the timing belt idler pulley. If the timing belt is to be reused, mark the belt and all timing gears to indicate their relationships. Remove the timing belt.
  30.  
  31. Remove the timing gear from the camshaft, using a puller.
  32.  
  33. Remove the camshaft oil seal retainer.
  34.  
  35. Gradually loosen the rocker shaft support nuts, working from the ends towards the center. Remove the rocker shaft and arms as an assembly.
  36.  
  37. Gradually remove the cylinder head bolts in the reverse order of the installation torque sequence.
  38.  
  39. Remove the cylinder head from the engine
  40.  

To install:
  1. Clean the mating surfaces of the cylinder block and head, and use a NEW head gasket during installation.
  2.  
  3. DO NOT rotate the engine while the cylinder head is removed.
  4.  
  5. Install the cylinder head, tighten the bolts in the order shown, in several stages, to the correct torque specification.
  6.  
  7. Torque the cylinder head bolts gradually, following the head bolt tightening sequence.
  8.  
  9. Align the timing marks according to the illustration accompanying the Timing Belt Removal & Installation procedure.
  10.  
  11. Install all remaining components in the reverse order the of removal procedure.
  12.  
  13. Replenish the cooling system with the proper type and quantity of coolant.
  14.  
  15. Check for leaks after the engine has been started.
  16.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 26: Cylinder head bolt loosening sequence-1L,2L and 2L-T engines



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Fig. Fig. 27: Cylinder head bolt torque sequence-1L,2L and 2L-T engines



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Fig. Fig. 28: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly-1L and 2L engines



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Fig. Fig. 29: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly-2L-T engine

F and 2F Engines

See Figures 30, 31 and 32

  1. Disconnect the battery and drain the cooling system.
  2.  

  1. Remove the air cleaner assembly from its bracket, complete with its attendant hoses.
  2.  
  3. Detach the accelerator cable from its support on the cylinder head cover and also from the carburetor throttle arm.
  4.  
  5. Remove the choke cable and fuel lines from the carburetor.
  6.  
  7. Remove the water hose bracket from the cylinder head cover.
  8.  
  9. Unfasten the water hose clamps an remove the hoses from the water pump and the water valve. Detach the heater temperature control cable from the water valve.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect the PCV line from the cylinder head cover.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the vacuum lines, which run from the vacuum switching valve, at the various components of the emission control system.
  14.  
  15. Drain the engine oil. Unfasten the oil lines from the oil filter and remove the filter assembly from the manifold.
  16.  
  17. Detach the vacuum valve solenoid wire from the coil.
  18.  
  19. Disconnect any remaining lines from the carburetor and remove the carburetor from the manifold.
  20.  
  21. Unfasten the alternator adjusting link and then remove the drive belt and the alternator.
  22.  
  23. Disconnect the distributor vacuum line from the distributor. Remove the wire from its supports on the head.
  24.  
  25. Disconnect the carburetor fuel line from the fuel pump. Remove the line.
  26.  
  27. Disconnect the spark plug and coil cables, after marking their respective locations.
  28.  
  29. Unfasten the primary wire from the distributor. Remove the distributor clamp bolts and withdraw the distributor.
  30.  
  31. Remove the oil gauge sending unit.
  32.  
  33. Remove the coil from its bracket on the cylinder head.
  34.  
  35. Remove the fuel pump.
  36.  
  37. Remove the oil filter tube clamping bolt from the valve lifter (side) cover. Drive the oil filler tube out of the cylinder block
  38.  
  39. Remove the combination intake/exhaust manifold from the cylinder block.
  40.  
  41. Take off the cylinder head cover and its gasket.
  42.  
  43. Unfasten the oil delivery union, spring, and sleeve from the valve rocker shafts.
  44.  
  45. Unfasten the securing nuts and bolts from the valve rocker shaft supports. Withdraw the rocker assembly.
  46.  
  47. Withdraw the pushrods from their bores. Be sure to keep them in the same order in which they were removed.
  48.  
  49. Remove the valve lifter (side) cover and gasket.
  50.  
  51. Withdraw the valve lifters from the block.
  52.  

The valve lifters should be kept, with their respective pushrods, in the sequence in which they were removed.

  1. Unfasten the oil delivery union from the oil feel pipe.
  2.  
  3. Loosen the cylinder head bolts in two or three stages and in the order illustrated above.
  4.  
  5. Lift off the cylinder head and the gasket.
  6.  

To install:
  1. Clean the gasket mounting surfaces of both the cylinder head and block.
  2.  
  3. Place a new head gasket over the dowels on the block.
  4.  
  5. Lower the cylinder head on to the block.
  6.  
  7. Tighten the bolts, in stages, an in the sequence illustrated, to the specified torque.
  8.  
  9. Install the oil feed pipe.
  10.  
  11. Place each valve lifter in the original position from which it came.
  12.  

Do not interchange valve lifters.

  1. Perform Step 36 for the pushrods, being careful to mate each pushrod with its original lifter.
  2.  
  3. Install the valve rocker assembly, oil delivery union, spring and connecting sleeve in the head. Tighten the rocker assembly support nuts and bolts to the following torque specifications, in several stages:
  4.  



10mm nuts and bolts: 24-30 ft. lbs.
 
8mm bolts: 14-22 ft. lbs.
 

  1. Adjust the valves, as outlines above, to the following cold specifications (each piston TDC of its compression stroke):
  2.  



Intake: 0.20mm
 
Exhaust: 0.36mm
 

Adjust the valve clearance again after the engine is assembled and warmed up.

  1. The rest of the cylinder head installation is performed in the reverse order of the removal procedure.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 30: Cylinder head bolt loosening sequence-F and 2F engines



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Fig. Fig. 31: Cylinder head bolt torque sequence-F and 2F engines



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Fig. Fig. 32: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly-F and 2F engines

3F-E Engines

See Figures 33 and 34

  1. Drain the coolant.
  2.  

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Scribe matchmarks around the hood hinges and then remove the hood.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the accelerator and throttle cables.
  6.  
  7. Remove the air intake hose, air flow meter and air cleaner cap.
  8.  
  9. Unbolt the power steering pump and position it out of the way without disconnecting the hydraulic lines.
  10.  
  11. Unbolt the air conditioning compressor and position it out of the way without disconnecting the refrigerant lines.
  12.  
  13. Remove the power steering pump and air conditioning compressor brackets.
  14.  
  15. Disconnect the high tension cords from the spark plugs and the coil.
  16.  
  17. Disconnect and remove the heater water (oil cooler) pipe.
  18.  
  19. Disconnect the upper radiator hose.
  20.  
  21. Disconnect and plug the fuel lines.
  22.  
  23. Raise the vehicle and disconnect the exhaust pipe at the manifold.
  24.  
  25. Remove the air pump.
  26.  
  27. Remove the fuel delivery pipe along with the fuel injectors.
  28.  
  29. Remove the air injection manifold.
  30.  
  31. Remove the intake and exhaust manifolds.
  32.  
  33. Disconnect the water by-pass hose at the water outlet and then remove the outlet.
  34.  
  35. Remove the spark plugs.
  36.  
  37. Remove the cylinder head cover and its gasket.
  38.  
  39. Loosen the eight bolts and four nuts that attach the rocker shaft assembly in several stages and then remove the rocker shaft.
  40.  
  41. Remove the twelve pushrods - be sure they are kept in the order in which they were removed!
  42.  
  43. Loosen the cylinder head bolts in several stages, in the opposite order of the tightening sequence. Remove the air pump bracket and engine hanger.
  44.  


CAUTION
Removing the head bolts in the improper order could cause damage to the aluminum cylinder head.

  1. Lift the cylinder head off of its mounting dowels, DO NOT pry it off. Support the head on a workbench.
  2.  

To install:
  1. Install the cylinder head on the cylinder block using a new gasket.
  2.  
  3. Lightly coat the threads of the cylinder head bolts with engine oil and then instal them into the head. Tighten them in several stages, in the order shown.
  4.  
  5. Install the pushrods in the order that they were removed.
  6.  
  7. Position the rocker shaft assembly on the cylinder head and align the rocker arm adjusting screws with the heads of the pushrods. Tighten the mounting bolts with a 12mm head to 17 ft. lbs. (24 Nm); tighten the bolts with a 14mm head to 25 ft. lbs. (33 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Adjust the valve clearance and install the spark plugs.
  10.  
  11. Install the cylinder head and tighten the cap nuts to 78 inch lbs. (8.8 Nm).
  12.  
  13. Install the water outlet and connect the by-pass hose. Tighten the bolts to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  14.  
  15. Install the intake and exhaust manifolds using a new gasket. Make sure the front mark on the gasket is towards the front of the engine.
  16.  
  17. Install the heat insulators and the manifold stay.
  18.  
  19. Install the air injection manifold and tighten the union nuts and clamp bolts to 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm).
  20.  
  21. Install the fuel injector/delivery pipe assembly.
  22.  
  23. Install the air pump and connect the air hose.
  24.  
  25. Connect the exhaust pipe to the manifold. Use a new gasket and tighten the bolts to 46 ft. lbs. (62 Nm).
  26.  
  27. Connect the fuel lines and the upper radiator hose.
  28.  
  29. Install the heater water pipe.
  30.  
  31. Connect the high tension cords.
  32.  
  33. Install the air conditioning compressor and the power steering pump. Remember to adjust the belt tension later.
  34.  
  35. Install the air intake hose, the air flow meter and the air cleaner cap.
  36.  
  37. Connect and adjust the accelerator and throttle cables.
  38.  
  39. Connect the battery cable, fill the engine with coolant, start the engine and check for any leaks. Road test the vehicle.
  40.  



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Fig. Fig. 33: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly-3F-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 34: Cylinder head bolt torque sequence-3F-E engine

3VZ-E Engine

See Figures 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 and 44

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Remove the air cleaner hose and case.
  4.  
  5. Drain the engine coolant.
  6.  


CAUTION
When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by the ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Remove the radiator.
  2.  
  3. Unbolt the power steering pump and position it out of the way with the hoses still attached.
  4.  
  5. Remove all drive belts and then remove the fluid coupling and fan pulley.
  6.  
  7. Tag and disconnect all wires and connectors that will interfere with cylinder head removal.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the following hoses:
    1. Power steering air hoses
    2.  
    3. Brake booster hose
    4.  
    5. Cruise control vacuum hose
    6.  
    7. Charcoal canister has at the canister
    8.  
    9. VSV vacuum hose.
    10.  

  10.  
  11. Disconnect the accelerator, throttle and cruise control cables.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the clutch release cylinder hose (manual transmission only).
  14.  
  15. Disconnect the two heater hoses and the two fuel lines.
  16.  
  17. Remove the left side scuff plate and disconnect the O 2 sensor and then remove the front exhaust pipe.
  18.  
  19. Remove the timing belt as detailed later in this section.
  20.  
  21. Remove the distributor with the spark plug leads attached; position it out of the way.
  22.  
  23. Remove the air intake chamber.
  24.  
  25. Disconnect the connectors and then remove the engine wire.
  26.  
  27. Remove the Nos. 2 and 3 fuel pipes.
  28.  
  29. Remove the No. 4 timing belt cover.
  30.  
  31. Remove the No. 2 idler pulley and the No. 3 timing belt cover.
  32.  
  33. Disconnect the hose and remove the water by-pass outlet.
  34.  
  35. Remove the intake manifold.
  36.  
  37. Remove the exhaust crossover pipe.
  38.  

Right side:
  1. Remove the reed valve with the No. 1 air injection manifold.
  2.  
  3. Remove the water by-pass pipe mounting bolt.
  4.  
  5. Remove the cylinder head cover.
  6.  
  7. Remove the camshaft.
  8.  
  9. Loosen the cylinder head bolts in several stages, in the opposite order of the tightening sequence. Remove the air pump bracket and engine hanger.
  10.  


CAUTION
Removing the head bolts in the improper order could cause damage to the aluminum cylinder head.

  1. Lift the cylinder head off of its mounting dowels, DO NOT pry it off. Support the head on a workbench.
  2.  

Left side:
  1. Remove the alternator.
  2.  
  3. Remove the oil dipstick guide tube.
  4.  
  5. Remove the cylinder head cover.
  6.  
  7. Remove the camshaft.
  8.  
  9. Loosen the cylinder head bolts in several stages, in the opposite order of the tightening sequence. Remove the air pump bracket and engine hanger.
  10.  


CAUTION
Removing the head bolts in the improper order could cause damage to the aluminum cylinder head.

  1. Lift the cylinder head off of its mounting dowels, DO NOT pry it off. Support the head on a workbench.
  2.  

To install:
  1. Install the cylinder head on the cylinder block using a new gasket.
  2.  
  3. Lightly coat the threads of the cylinder head bolts with engine oil and then install them into the head. Tighten them in several stages, in the order shown. After the initial tightening, mark the front side the the top of the bolt with paint. Tighten the bolts an additional 90° ( 1 / 4 turn) and check that the mark is now facing the side of the head. Tighten the bolts an additional 90° and check that the mark is now facing the rear of the head. Install the bolt (A) and tighten it to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  4.  
  5. Install the camshaft.
  6.  
  7. Install the alternator and the water by-pass pipe mounting bolt.
  8.  
  9. Install the reed valve with the No. 1 injection manifold.
  10.  
  11. Install the oil dipstick tube.
  12.  
  13. Install the crossover pipe and tighten it to 29 ft. lbs. (39 Nm).
  14.  
  15. Connect the O 2 sensor wire.
  16.  
  17. Install the intake manifold with new gaskets and tighten the mounting bolts to 29 ft. lbs. (39 Nm).
  18.  
  19. Install the water by-pass outlet and tighten the two bolts to 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm).
  20.  
  21. Install the fuel delivery pipes and injectors as detailed in Fuel System .
  22.  
  23. Install the No. 2 idler pulley. Install the Nos. 3 and 4 timing belt covers and tighten the bolts to 74 inch lbs. (8.3 Nm).
  24.  
  25. Install the fuel pipes and tighten the union bolts to 22 ft. lbs. (29 Nm).
  26.  
  27. Install the timing belt.
  28.  
  29. Install the cylinder head covers.
  30.  
  31. Install the engine wire.
  32.  
  33. Install the air intake chamber and tighten the nuts and bolts to 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm).
  34.  
  35. Install the EGR valve and connect all hoses and lines.
  36.  
  37. Install the distributor and the front exhaust pipe.
  38.  
  39. Connect the fuel lines and heater hoses.
  40.  
  41. Connect the clutch release cylinder hose.
  42.  
  43. Install the power steering pump.
  44.  
  45. Connect all cables (and adjust), hoses and wires previously removed.
  46.  
  47. Install the fan pulley, fluid coupling and drive belts.
  48.  
  49. Install the radiator.
  50.  
  51. Install the air cleaner hose, refill the engine with coolant and connect the battery cable.
  52.  



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Fig. Fig. 35: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly (top)-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 36: Exploded view of the cylinder head assembly (lower)-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 37: Cylinder head bolt loosening sequence-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 38: Camshaft bearing cap bolt loosening sequence-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 39: Cylinder head gasket positioning-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 40: Cylinder head bolt torque sequence-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 41: Mark the cylinder head bolt with paint-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 42: Turn the cylinder head bolts an additional 90 degrees-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 43: Camshaft bearing cap bolt torque sequence-3VZ-E engine



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Fig. Fig. 44: Camshaft bearing cap installation-3VZ-E engine

CLEANING AND INSPECTION



See Figures 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 and 51

When the rocker assembly and valve train have been removed from the cylinder head (see Valves and Springs below), set the head on two wooden blocks on the bench, combustion chamber side up. Using a scraper or putty knife, carefully scrape away any gasket material that may have stuck to the head-to-block mating surface when the head was removed. Make sure you DO NOT gouge the mating surface with the tool.

Using a wire brush chucked into your electric drill, remove the carbon in each combustion chamber. Make sure the brush is actually removing the carbon and not merely burnishing it.

Clean all the valve guides using a valve guide brush (available at most auto parts or auto tool shops) and solvent. A fine-bristled rifle bore cleaning brush also works here.

Inspect the threads of each spark plug hole by screwing a plug into each, making sure it screws down completely. Heli-coil® any plug hole that is damaged.


CAUTION
DO NOT hot tank the cylinder head! The head material on most engines is aluminum, which is ruined if subjected to the hot tank solution. Some of the early 8R-C and 18R-C engines were equipped with cast iron heads, which can be hot-tanked (a service performed by most machine shops which immerses the head in a hot, caustic solution for cleaning). To be sure your engine's cylinder head is aluminum, check around its perimeter with a magnet. Your engine has an iron head if the magnet sticks.

Before hot-tanking any overhead cam head, check with the machine shop doing the work. Some cam bearings are easily damaged by the hot tank solution.

Finally, go over the entire head with a clean shop rag soaked in solvent to remove any grit, old gasket particles, etc. Blow out the bolt holes, coolant galleys, intake and exhaust ports, valve guides and plug holes with compressed air.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 45: Do not scratch the cylinder head mating surface when removing the old gasket material



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Fig. Fig. 46: Removing combustion chamber carbon--make sure it is removed and not merely burnished



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Fig. Fig. 47: Check the cylinder head mating surface straightness with a precision straight-edge and a feeler gauge



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Fig. Fig. 48: Check the mating surface widthwise, lengthwise and diagonally



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Fig. Fig. 49: Cleaning the valve guides



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Fig. Fig. 50: Wire brush the top of the cylinder head block



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Fig. Fig. 51: Removing carbon from the piston tops--do not scratch the pistons

RESURFACING



While the head is removed, check the head-to-block mating surface for straightness. If the engine has overheated and blown a head gasket, this must be done as a matter of course. A warped mating surface must be resurfaced (milled); this is done on a milling machine and is quite similar to planing a piece of wood.

Using a precision steel straightedge and a blade-type feeler gauge, check the surface of the head across its length, width and diagonal length as shown in the illustrations. Also check the intake and exhaust manifold mating surfaces and cam cover (all) mating surfaces. If warpage exceed 0.076mm in a 152mm span, or 0.15mm over the total length, the head must be milled. If warpage is highly excessive, the head must be replaced. Again, consult the machine shop operator on head milling limitations.

CYLINDER BLOCK CLEANING



While the cylinder head is removed, the top of the cylinder block and pistons should also be cleaned. Before you begin, rotate the crankshaft until one or more pistons are flush with the top of the block (on the four cylinder engines, you will either have Nos. 1 and 4 up, or Nos. 2 and 3 up). Carefully stuff clean rags into the cylinders in which the pistons are down. This will help keep grit and carbon chips out during cleaning. Using care not to gouge or scratch the block-to-head mating surface and the piston top(s), clean away any old gasket material with a wire brush and/or scraper. On the piston tops, make sure you are actually removing the carbon and not merely burnishing it.

Remove the rags from the down cylinders after you have wiped the top of the block with a solvent soaked rag. Rotate the crankshaft until the other pistons come up flush with the top of the block, and clean those pistons.

Because you have rotated the crankshaft, you will have to re-time the engine following the procedure listed under the Timing Chain/Timing Belt removal.Make sure you wipe out each cylinder thoroughly with a solvent-soaked rag, to remove all traces of grit, before the head is reassembled to the block.

 
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