Toyota Pick-ups/Land Cruiser/4Runner 1989-1996

Carburetor

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See Figure 1

The carburetor is the most complex part of the fuel system. Carburetors vary greatly in construction, but they all operate basically the same way; their job is to supply the correct mixture of fuel and air to the engine in response to varying conditions.

Despite their complexity in operation, carburetors function because of a simple physical principle; the venturi principle. Air is drawn into the engine by the pumping action of the pistons. As the air enters the top of the carburetor, it passes through a venturi, which is nothing more than a restriction in the throttle bore. The air speeds up as it passes through the venturi, causing a slight drop in pressure. This pressure drop pulls fuel from the float bowl through a nozzle into the throttle bore, where it mixes with the air and forms a fine mist, which is distributed to the cylinders through the intake manifold.



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Fig. Fig. 1: The carburetor sits atop an insulator, gasket and heater unit

There are multiple systems (air/fuel circuits) in a carburetor that make it work; the



Float
 
Main Metering
 
Idle
 
Low-Speed
 
Accelerator Pump
 
Power
 
Choke system
 

The way these systems are arranged in the carburetor determines the carburetor's size and shape.

Carburetors all function in the same fashion; larger engines have larger carburetors to move more air and fuel, but the principle is still the same. Older units don't have as many external linkages and controls to manage emissions and driveability, but the principle is still the same.

It's important to remember that carburetors seldom give trouble during normal operation. Other than changing the fuel and air filters and making sure the idle speed is OK at every tune-up, there's not much maintenance you can perform on the average carburetor. Quality of fuel and presence of water in the system will affect the carburetor; dirt particles in the fuel can clog the jets and water causes rust and corrosion. If the vehicle is to be parked or stored for a long period of time, drain the carburetor to prevent the evaporating fuel from gumming up the system.

The carburetors used on Toyota trucks are conventional 2 bbl, downdraft types similar to domestic carburetors. The main circuits are:



Primary-for normal operational requirements
 
Secondary-to supply high speed/high load fuel needs
 
Float-to supply fuel to the primary and secondary circuits
 
Accelerator-to supply fuel for quick and safe acceleration
 
Choke-for reliable starting in cold weather
 
Power valve-for fuel economy
 

ADJUSTMENTS



Fast Idle
OFF THE TRUCK

See Figures 2 and 3

An angle gauge tool is used to properly make this adjustment.

  1. Remove the carburetor.
  2.  
  3. Set the throttle shaft lever to the first step of the fast idle cam. Make certain the choke plate (blade) is completely closed.
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 2: Set the throttle shaft lever to the first step of the fast idle cam

  1. Attach the blade angle tool to the primary throttle blade. Adjust the primary throttle blade angle to 23° (Calif.) or 24.5° (Federal and Canada) from horizontal by turning the fast idle screw.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 3: With the proper angle tool, adjust by turning the fast idle screw

  1. Remove the angle tool from the carburetor and install the carburetor as previously outlined.
  2.  

ON THE TRUCK

See Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7

  1. Start the engine and allow it to reach normal operating temperature.
  2.  
  3. Stop the engine and connect a tachometer to the engine.
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 4: Attach the tachometer test probe to the ignition coil negative terminal

  1. Remove the air cleaner assembly.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect and plug the vacuum hoses for the Hot Air Intake (HAI) and Mixture Control (MC) systems if so equipped. Disconnect and plug the vacuum hose from the choke opener diaphragm and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve; plug the ends.
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 5: Plug the vacuum hose ends that were disconnected



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Fig. Fig. 6: While holding the throttle valve slightly open, push the choke valve closed. Hold it closed as you release the throttle valve



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Fig. Fig. 7: Adjust the fast idle screw to the correct rpm

  1. Make certain that all accessories are switched OFF.
  2.  
  3. Open the throttle valve slightly, push the choke plate fully closed and release the throttle. This sets the carburetor in the fast idle position.
  4.  
  5. Without touching the accelerator pedal, start the engine and read the tachometer. If necessary, adjust the fast idle speed to by turning the fast idle screw. Correct fast idle speed: Federal, 3000 rpm; California, 2600 rpm.
  6.  
  7. Stop the engine. Reconnect the vacuum hoses, disconnect the tachometer and reinstall the air cleaner.
  8.  

Float and Fuel Level

See Figures 8, 9 and 10

Float level adjustments are unnecessary if the fuel level falls within the lines on the sight glass when the engine is running. The sight glass is located on the side of the carburetor and is literally a window to the float bowl. Removing the air cleaner is usually required for access, although it can be done with an extension or dental mirror.

With the carburetor off the engine, there are two float level adjustments which may be made. One is done with the air horn inverted, so that the float is in a fully raised position; the other is with the air horn in an upright position, so that the float falls to the bottom of its travel.

The float level is measured either with a special carburetor float level gauge, which comes with a rebuilding kit, or with a standard wire gauge.



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Fig. Fig. 8: The sight glass is located on the side of the carburetor

  1. Turn the air horn upside down and let the float hang down by its own weight.
  2.  
  3. Using a special float gauge SST 09240-00014 or equivalent, check the clearance between the tip of the float and the flat surface of the air horn. The clearance should be 0.386 in. (9.8mm).
  4.  

This measurement should be made without the gasket on the air horn.

  1. If the float clearance is not within specifications, adjust it by bending the upper (A) float tab.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 9: Bend portion (A) of the float to achieve a 0.386 in. (9.8mm) gap

  1. Lift up the float and check the clearance between the air horn and the float bottom. A Vernier caliper works well for this measurement. The clearance should be 48mm (1.89 inches)
  2.  
  3. If the clearance is not within specifications, adjust it by bending the lower float tab (B).
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 10: Bend portion (B) of the float to set 1.89 in. (48mm) of clearance between the air horn and the float bottom

Choke Unloader

See Figure 11

You will need the use of SST 09240-00014 or its equivalent angle gauge to make any adjustments.

The unloader adjustment is made with the primary throttle valve fully open. With the valve open, check the choke valve angle with a special gauge supplied in the rebuilding kit or with a gauge of the proper angle fabricated out of cardboard. The angle of the choke valve opening should be 45°.



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Fig. Fig. 11: Bend the primary throttle arm 45° from the horizontal plane

To adjust the angle, bend the fast idle lever until the proper measurement is achieved.

Throttle Valve Opening

See Figure 12

You will need the use of SST 09240-00014 or its equivalent angle gauge to make any adjustments.

  1. Check the full opening of the primary and secondary throttle valves.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 12: Adjust by bending the respective first throttle arm levers for the primary (1) and secondary (2)

  1. Adjust by bending the respective first throttle arm levers for the primary (1) and secondary (2). The standard angle should read:

    Primary-90° from the horizontal plane
     
    Secondary-90° from the horizontal plane
     

  2.  

Secondary Touch Angle

See Figure 13

You will need the use of SST 09240-00014 or its equivalent angle gauge to make any adjustments.

  1. Check the primary throttle valve opening at the same time the second throttle valve just starts to open.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 13: Using the angle adjusting tool, check the throttle valve opening at the same time the second throttle valve opens

  1. Standard angle is 59° from the horizontal plane.
  2.  
  3. It is not necessary to adjust the secondary touch angle.
  4.  

Choke Opener

See Figures 14 and 15

  1. Apply vacuum to the choke opener diaphragm.
  2.  
  3. Check that the fast idle cam is releasing to the fourth step. Adjust it by bending the choke opener lever A.
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 14: With vacuum attached to the diaphragm, check that the fast idle cam is released to the fourth step. Adjust by bending the choke opener lever A

  1. Disconnect the vacuum hose.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 15: Disconnect and plug the vacuum hose

  1. Close the choke valve, then set the fast idle lever to the first step.
  2.  
  3. Check that there is clearance between the choke opener lever and the fast idle cam.
  4.  

Choke Breaker
  1. With the engine OFF and the air cleaner removed, apply vacuum to the choke breaker diaphragm.
  2.  
  3. Close the choke by hand, and remove your hand. With an angle gauge, check that the angle of the choke plate is 42° from horizontal.
  4.  
  5. If the angle is incorrect, adjust it by bending the choke breaker link.
  6.  

Idle-Up Diaphragm
  1. Apply vacuum to the idle-up diaphragm.
  2.  
  3. Check the throttle valve opening angle. Adjust by turning the adjusting screw. With an angle gauge, check that the standard angle is 16.5° from the horizontal plane.
  4.  

Air Valve and Metering Needle

See Figure 16

  1. Check that the air valve and metering needle move smoothly together.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 16: Make sure the air valve and metering needle move smoothly together

  1. While the primary throttle valve angle is in idle position, check the air valve opening angle.
  2.  
  3. While the primary throttle valve is at a full opening angle, check that there is clearance between the connecting rod and the stopper.
  4.  

Idle Mixture Screw

See Figures 17 through 25

As stated in Engine Electrical , the mixture adjusting screw (MAS) should be the very last item you try to adjust during tune-up or troubleshooting. The MAS is concealed behind a plug; the plug cannot be removed with the carburetor on the truck. If adjustment is to be done, great care must be taken during removal of the plug; clearances are very tight and damage to the carburetor can occur.

  1. Tag and disconnect all hoses and linkages attached to the carburetor.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 17: Tag and disconnect any hoses or linkages to the carburetor



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Fig. Fig. 18: After plugging all of the carburetor lines, punch a hole in the center of the MAS plug



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Fig. Fig. 19: Be careful, notice how close the screw is when you drill 0.256 in. (6.5mm) into the plug

  1. Remove the carburetor.
  2.  
  3. Plug each carburetor vacuum port to prevent entry of metal particles.
  4.  
  5. Mark the center of the MAS plug with a punch. Drill a 0.256 in. (6.5mm) hole in the center of the plug.
  6.  



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Fig. Fig. 20: Use a small screwdriver to reach into the hole



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Fig. Fig. 21: To remove the MAS plug, use a 0.295 in. (7.5mm) drill bit



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Fig. Fig. 22: Inspect the screw for any damage during removal; if any is found, replace the screw



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Fig. Fig. 23: Fully tighten the adjusting screw, then loosen it 31/2 turns


WARNING
The head of the screw is only 0.04 in. (1mm) below the plug-drill carefully and slowly to avoid damage.

  1. The plug may come out with the drill at this time. If not, use a small screwdriver to reach through the hole and gently turn the adjusting screw all the way in. Do NOT overtighten the screw; just tighten it until it touches bottom.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 24: Location of the idle mixture adjusting screw



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Fig. Fig. 25: The idle speed adjusting screw protrudes from the carburetor

  1. Use a 0.295 in. (7.5mm) drill to force the plug off.
  2.  
  3. Remove the adjusting screw. Inspect the tip for any damage; remove any steel particles. If the drill has damaged the top of the screw, it must be replaced.
  4.  
  5. Reinstall the adjusting screw. Turn it all the way in, just touching bottom.
  6.  
  7. Once the screw has bottomed, turn it out 3 1 / 2 turns.
  8.  
  9. Reinstall the carburetor and air cleaner.
  10.  
  11. Before adjusting idle speed and mixture, ALL the following conditions must be met:
    1. Air cleaner properly installed.
    2.  
    3. Engine running at normal operating temperature.
    4.  
    5. Choke fully opened.
    6.  
    7. All accessories OFF.
    8.  
    9. All vacuum lines connected.
    10.  
    11. Ignition timing correctly set.
    12.  
    13. Transmission in neutral.
    14.  
    15. Fuel level should be approximately centered in float glass.
    16.  
    17. For Calif. vehicles, EBCV off.
    18.  

  12.  
  13. Connect a tachometer.
  14.  
  15. Start the engine.
  16.  
  17. Turn the MAS until the highest possible rpm is achieved.
  18.  
  19. Turn the idle speed adjusting screw until 740 rpm is achieved. The idle speed adjusting screw is located above and to the left (10 o'clock) of the mixture adjusting screw.
  20.  
  21. Repeat Steps 13 and 14 several times. When the idle does not rise no matter how much the MAS is turned, proceed to the next Step.
  22.  
  23. Turn the MAS screw IN to set the idle to 700 rpm.
  24.  
  25. Turn the engine OFF . Remove the air cleaner.
  26.  
  27. Gently tap a new plug into place over the MAS plug. Check and adjust the fast idle speed as described in this section.
  28.  

The method used to set the idle mixture and speed is also known as the Lean Drop Method.

Automatic Choke Inspection

The automatic choke system sets and opens completely automatically, with no input from the accelerator pedal. The driver no longer sets the choke; it is set by the expansion or contraction of the bimetal coil. Refer to Driveability & Emission Controls , Emission Controls, for complete inspection procedures.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Loosen the radiator drain plug and drain the coolant into a suitable container.
  4.  


CAUTION
When draining coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain coolant into a sealable container. Coolant may be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Unscrew the mounting screws and remove the air filter housing. Disconnect all hoses and lines leading from the air cleaner.
  2.  
  3. Tag and disconnect all fuel, vacuum, coolant and electrical lines or hoses leading from the carburetor.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the accelerator linkage from the carburetor. On trucks equipped with an automatic transmission, disconnect the throttle cable linkage running from the transmission.
  6.  
  7. Remove the four carburetor mounting bolts and lift off the carburetor and its gasket.
  8.  

Cover the manifold opening with a clean rag to prevent objects from falling into the engine.

To install:
  1. Install the carburetor, tighten the mounting bolts and reconnect all linkages.
  2.  
  3. Connect the vacuum and fuel lines; connect the wiring harness.
  4.  
  5. Install the air cleaner assembly, making sure it is correctly seated on the carburetor.
  6.  
  7. Refill the coolant. Connect the negative battery cable.
  8.  
  9. Start the engine and check for any leaks. Check the float level.
  10.  

OVERHAUL



See Figures 26 and 27

Efficient carburetion depends on careful cleaning and inspection during overhaul, since dirt, gum, water, or varnish in or on the carburetor parts are often responsible for poor performance.

Overhaul your carburetor in a clean, dust-free area. Carefully disassemble the carburetor, referring often to the exploded views. Keep all similar and look-alike parts segregated during disassembly and cleaning to avoid accidental interchange during assembly.



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Fig. Fig. 26: Exploded view of the carburetor-USA (including California)



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Fig. Fig. 27: Exploded view of the carburetor-Canada

Carburetor overhaul kits are recommended for each overhaul. These kits contain all gaskets and new parts to replace those that deteriorate most rapidly. Failure to replace all parts supplied with the kit (especially gaskets) can result in poor performance and a leaks.

The following procedure is organized so that only one group of components is worked on at a time. This will help eliminate confusion of parts or sub-assemblies on the bench. Always keep parts in order; take great care not to lose small parts or clips.

Disassembly
AIR HORN

See Figures 28 through 32

  1. Remove the carburetor.
  2.  
  3. To release the terminal from the connector, pry up on the locking lugs with a flat-bladed tool, then pull out the terminals.
  4.  
  5. Loosen the screw and remove the metering needle.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the fast idle linkage and air valve connecting rod.
  8.  
  9. Remove the 5 air horn screws and lift the air horn from the body. Remove the gasket and discard it.
  10.  
  11. Remove the pivot pin and the float with the needle valve.
  12.  
  13. Loosen the retainer screw for the power piston. Hold the piston, rotate the retainer, then remove the piston and spring.
  14.  
  15. Remove the 3 screws holding the outer vent control valve and remove the valve.
  16.  



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Fig. Fig. 28: Pry up on the locking lugs and pull out the terminals



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Fig. Fig. 29: Loosen the screw, then remove the metering needle



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Fig. Fig. 30: Remove the 5 retaining screws and lift the air horn from the body



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Fig. Fig. 31: Loosen the retainer screw for the power piston. Hold the piston and rotate the retainer, then remove the piston and spring



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Fig. Fig. 32: Remove the three mounting screws for the outer vent control valve

CARBURETOR BODY

See Figures 33 through 39

  1. Using a set of carburetor wrenches or special tool 09922-00010, remove the following:

    slow jet (1)
     
    power valve (2)
     
    metering needle guide (3)
     
    secondary main jet (4)
     
    plug (5)
     
    primary main jet (6)
     

  2.  

Use the illustration to help you.

  1. Remove the fuel cut solenoid from the carburetor body.
  2.  
  3. At the accelerator pump, remove the 4 screws. Remove the pump housing, diaphragm and spring.
  4.  
  5. Remove the auxiliary acceleration pump.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the linkage and remove the idle-up diaphragm.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the choke opener link; remove the choke opener.
  10.  
  11. Remove the three screws and separate the body from the flange (lowest portion).
  12.  



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Fig. Fig. 33: Note the positions of the various items: (1) slow jet, (2) power valve, (3) metering needle guide, (4) secondary main jet, (5) plug, and (6) primary main jet



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Fig. Fig. 34: The fuel cut solenoid is located on the side of the carburetor



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Fig. Fig. 35: Four screws mount the accelerator pump on the side of the carburetor



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Fig. Fig. 36: Three screws mount the auxiliary accelerator pump on the side of the carburetor



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Fig. Fig. 37: Remove the small clip holding the diaphragm linkage



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Fig. Fig. 38: A small clip also holds the choke opener linkage



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Fig. Fig. 39: Remove the three screws, then separate the body from the flange (lowest portion)

Cleaning and Testing

See Figures 40 through 46

  1. Clean all the cast metal parts with a soft brush and carburetor solvent. Clean any carbon from around the throttle plates. Blow out all jets and passages with compressed air.
  2.  
  3. Inspect the following:

    pivot pin for scratches and excessive wear (1)
     
    float for a broken lip or wear in the pivot pin holes (2)
     
    spring for any breaks or deformation (3)
     
    plunger (5) and needle valve (4) for wear or damages
     
    strainer for breaks or rust (6)
     

  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 40: Exploded view of the float and needle valve

  1. Inspect the power piston. Make sure it moves smoothly.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 41: Using your finger, gently push the power piston to check for binding

  1. Check for any faulty opening and closing action of the power valve.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 42: Push the end of the power valve as shown to check for any hesitation in movement

  1. Test the fuel cut solenoid. Connect the wire leads to the battery terminals; you should feel a distinct click inside the solenoid as power is connected and disconnected at the battery. If this click is not felt, replace the solenoid. Replace the O-ring.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 43: Attach the wire leads to a battery; a click should be heard from the solenoid valve when the power is connected and disconnected

  1. Inspect the outer vent control valve for damaged valve or valve seat. Check the valve for smoothness of motion. Connect the wire leads to the battery terminals; you should feel a distinct click inside the valve as power is connected and disconnected at the battery. If this click is not felt, replace the solenoid.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 44: Pushing the rod of the outer vent control valve, check for smoothness in the movement

  1. Inspect the choke breaker diaphragm by applying vacuum to the diaphragm. The vacuum should not drop immediately and the choke should open slightly as vacuum is applied.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 45: Attach a vacuum gauge to the choke breaker diaphragm

  1. Use an ohmmeter to check choke heater resistance. Resistance should be 20-22 ohms at 68°F (20°C). Resistance will vary with temperature; use good judgment when interpreting test results.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 46: Testing the choke heater resistance with an ohmmeter between the terminal and the heater housing

  1. Inspect the choke opener and idle-up diaphragms. Apply vacuum to the diaphragm; vacuum should not drop immediately and the linkages should move when vacuum is applied.
  2.  

Assembly
BODY

See Figures 47 through 53

  1. Place a new gasket in position on the flange; install the body and tighten the 3 screws.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 47: After placing a new gasket on the flange, tighten the three screws

  1. Install the auxiliary accelerator pump. First, install the diaphragm with outer gasket, then the spring, cover and screws.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 48: Install the auxiliary accelerator pump pieces in this order: (a) diaphragm, (b) spring, (c) cover, (d) screws

  1. Install the acceleration pump beginning with the spring, then the diaphragm, cover, boot and screws.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 49: Install the acceleration pump pieces in this order: (a) spring, (b) diaphragm with the outer gasket, (c) cover, (d) boot, (e) screws

  1. Install the choke opener and connect the linkage.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 50: Needlenose pliers should be used to install the small clip on the linkage

  1. Install the idle up diaphragm and connect the linkage.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 51: There is also a small C-clip on the diaphragm linkage

  1. Install the fuel cut solenoid. Always use a new gasket and new O-ring.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 52: The solenoid valve screws into the carburetor; be sure to use a new O-ring

  1. Install the following:

    primary main jet (1) over a new gasket
     
    plug (2) over a new gasket
     
    secondary main jet (3)
     
    metering needle guide (4)
     
    power valve (5)
     

  2.  
  3. Place a new O-ring on the slow jet, then using SST 09922-00010 or equivalent, install the slow jet (6).
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 53: Location of the primary main jet (1), plug (2), secondary main jet (3), metering needle guide (4), power valve (5), and slow jet (6)

AIR HORN

See Figures 54 through 61

  1. On the air horn, install the outer vent control valve with a new gasket.
  2.  
  3. Place the power piston spring and piston into the bore. While pushing the piston, rotate the retainer over the piston and tighten the retaining screw.
  4.  
  5. In the fuel inlet, install a new gasket and the valve seat. Install the needle valve onto the seat. Insert the lip of the float under the wire of the needle valve. Install the float and secure it with the pivot pin.
  6.  
  7. Adjust the float level, using the procedure listed separately in this section.
  8.  
  9. Put a new gasket on the body and install the air horn. When installing the screws, make certain to install the external components held by the screws such as the inlet bracket, number plate and wire clamps.
  10.  
  11. Connect the fast idle link and air valve connecting rods.
  12.  
  13. Install the metering needle with a collar. Hook the spring end into the hole. Insert the washer and tighten the screw.
  14.  
  15. Push in the terminal until it is securely locked in the connector plug. Pull on the wire to confirm that it is secure.
  16.  
  17. Adjust the carburetor on the bench, using the various procedures listed in this section.
  18.  
  19. Install the carburetor.
  20.  
  21. Attach all tagged hoses to the unit.
  22.  
  23. Start the engine, then make final adjustments as necessary.
  24.  



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Fig. Fig. 54: Tighten the three mounting screws on the outer vent control valve



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Fig. Fig. 55: Place the power piston spring and piston into the bore. While pushing the piston, rotate the retainer over the piston and tighten the retaining screw



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Fig. Fig. 56: Install the float and needle valve



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Fig. Fig. 57: Bend portion (A) of the float to 0.386 in. (9.8mm)



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Fig. Fig. 58: Bend portion (B) of the float to 1.89 in. (48mm)



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Fig. Fig. 59: Be sure to place the gasket on the body correctly, to ensure that the screws inserted through the air horn are not obstructed



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Fig. Fig. 60: Install the (1) fuel inlet bracket, (2) number plate, and (3) wire clamp, along with the screws



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Fig. Fig. 61: Tighten the screw after the washer is inserted

 
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