Toyota Pick-ups/Land Cruiser/4Runner 1989-1996

Camshaft and Bearings

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These engines are not equipped with replaceable camshaft bearings.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



3F-E Engines
22R, 22R-E and 3VZ-E
  1. Perform the Cylinder Head Removal procedure (for your engine)far enough to gain access to the camshaft bearing cap bolts. If you are going to remove the head anyway, remove the cam after removing the cylinder head.
  2.  
  3. Prior to removing the camshaft, measure its end-play with a feeler gauge. Consult the Camshaft Specifications Chart for thecorrect end-play. If the end-play is beyond this, replace the head.
  4.  
  5. Remove the bearing cap bolts. Remove the caps. Keep them in order, or mark them.
  6.  
  7. Measure the bearing oil clearance by placing a piece of Plastigage® on each journal. Replace the caps and tighten their bolts to 13-16 ft. lbs. (18-22 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Remove the caps and measure each piece of Plastigage®. if the clearance is greater than 2 in. (0.1mm), replace the head and cam.
  10.  
  11. Lift the camshaft out of the head.
  12.  

To install:
  1. Coat all of the camshaft bearing journals with engine oil.
  2.  
  3. Lay the camshaft in the head.
  4.  
  5. Install the bearing caps in numerical order with their arrows pointing forward (toward the front of the engine) on 4 cylinder engines. On the 3VZ-E, the right bank arrows point forward with No. 1 cap at the front of the engine. The left bank arrows point to the rear with the No. 1 cap at the rear.
  6.  
  7. Install the cap bolts and tighten them in three passes and in the correct order, to 13-16 ft. lbs. (18-22 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Complete the cylinder head installation procedure and/or valve rocker installation.
  10.  

2RZ-FE and 3RZ-FE Engines

See Figures 1 through 5

  1. Remove the timing chain from the engine.
  2.  
  3. Remove the exhaust camshaft by bringing the service bolt hole of the driven sub-gear upwards. Turn the hexagon wrench head portion of the exhaust camshaft with a wrench.
  4.  
  5. Secure the exhaust camshaft sub-gear to the main gear with a service bolt. The thread diameter should be 0.23 in. (6mm) with a thread pitch of 0.04 in. (1.0mm) and a bolt length of 0.63-0.79 in. (16-20mm).
  6.  

When you remove the camshaft, be sure that the torsional spring force of the sub-gear has been eliminated by the above operation.

  1. Uniformly loosen and remove the exhaust bearing cap bolts (10 of them), in several passes. Use the reverse order of the tightening sequence. Remove the 5 bearing caps and the camshaft. Do the same for the intake camshafts.
  2.  

If the camshaft is not being lifted out straight and level, reinstall the No. 3 cap with the 2 bolts. Alternately loosen then remove the bearing cap bolts with the camshaft pulled up. Do not pry on or force the camshaft.

  1. Inspect the camshafts for runout. Inspect the cam lobes and journals. The bearings are part of the cam and should be inspected for flaking or scoring. If the bearings are damaged, replace the caps and the cylinder head as a set. The camshaft journal oil and thrust clearances should be checked.
  2.  

To install:


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Fig. Fig. 1: Install the camshaft with the pin facing upwards



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Fig. Fig. 2: Intake camshaft bearing cap locations



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Fig. Fig. 3: Tighten the intake bearing caps following this order

When installing the camshafts; since the thrust clearance of the shafts is small, the cam must be kept level while it is being installed. If it is not kept level, the portion of the head receiving the shaft thrust may crack or be damaged. This can cause the camshaft to seize or break.

  1. Install the intake camshaft as follows:
    1. Apply multi-purpose grease to the thrust portion of the intake camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Position the intake camshaft with the pin facing upward.
    4.  
    5. Install the bearing caps in their proper locations. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the threads and install the cap bolts. Uniformly tighten the cap bolts in the sequence shown to 12 ft.lbs. (16 Nm).
    6.  

  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 4: Position the exhaust camshaft bearing caps as shown



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Fig. Fig. 5: Tighten the exhaust bearing cap bolts in this order

  1. Install the exhaust camshaft as follows:
    1. Apply engine oil to the thrust portion of the intake camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Engage the exhaust camshaft gear to the intake camshaft gear by matching the timing marks (one and two dots) on each other.
    4.  
    5. Roll down the exhaust camshaft onto the bearing journals while engaging the gears with each other. Install the bearing caps in their proper locations.
    6.  
    7. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the threads and install the cap bolts. Uniformly tighten the cap bolts in the sequence shown to 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm).
    8.  
    9. Remove the service bolt from the driven sub-gear. Check that the intake and exhaust camshafts turn smoothly.
    10.  

  2.  

  1. Set No. 1 cylinder to TDC compression stroke. The crankshaft pulley groove aligns with the 0 mark on timing cover and camshaft timing marks with one dot and two dots will be in a straight line on the cylinder head surface.
  2.  

  1. Install the timing gear. Place the gear over the straight pin of the intake camshaft.
    1. Hold the intake camshaft with a wrench. Install and tighten the bolt to 54 ft. lbs. (74 Nm).
    2.  
    3. Hold the exhaust camshaft and install the bolt and distributor gear. Tighten the bolt to 34 ft. lbs. (46 Nm).
    4.  

  2.  

  1. Install the chain tensioner, using a new gasket (mark toward the front) as follows:
    1. Release the ratchet pawl, fully push in the plunger and apply the hook to the pin so that the plunger cannot spring out.
    2.  
    3. Turn the crankshaft pulley clockwise to provide some slack for the chain on the tensioner side.
    4.  
    5. Push the tensioner by hand until it touches the head installation surface, then install the 2 nuts. Tighten the nuts to 13 ft. lbs. (18 Nm). Check that the hook of the tensioner is not released.
    6.  
    7. Turn the crankshaft to the left so that the hook of the chain tensioner is released from the pin of the plunger, allowing the plunger to spring out and the slipper to be pushed into the chain.
    8.  

  2.  

  1. Check and adjust the valve clearance. Intake valve clearance is 0.006-0.010 inch (0.15-0.25 mm) and exhaust valve clearance is 0.010-0.014 inch (0.25-0.35 mm).
  2.  
  3. Recheck the engine for proper valve timing. Check and adjust the valve clearance.
  4.  
  5. Install the spark plugs and the semi-circular plug.
  6.  
  7. Recheck the engine for proper valve timing. Install the valve cover and engine hangers. Tighten the engine hanger bolts to 30 ft.lbs. (42 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Reinstall all other parts from the timing chain removal. Fill any fluids, start the engine, top off the fluids.
  10.  

5VZ-FE Engine

See Figures 6 through 19

  1. Remove both valve covers.
  2.  
  3. Remove the semi-circular plugs.
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 6: Remove the valve covers from the engine

  1. Remove the right exhaust camshaft as follows:
    1. Bring the service bolt hole of the driven sub-gear upward by turning the hexagon head portion of the exhaust camshaft with a wrench.
    2.  
    3. Align the timing mark (2 dot marks) of the camshaft drive and driven gears by turning the camshaft with a wrench.
    4.  
    5. Secure the exhaust camshaft sub-gear to the driven gear with a service bolt 0.2 in. (6mm) diameter, 0.6 in. (16-20mm) bolt length and 0.4 in. (1.0mm) in thread pitch.
    6.  

  2.  

When removing the camshaft, make sure that the torsional spring force of the sub-gear has been eliminated by the above operation.

    1. Uniformly loosen and remove the bearing cap bolts in several passes, in the sequence shown.
    2.  
    3. Remove the bearing caps and camshaft. Make a note of the bearing cap positions for proper installation.
    4.  




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Fig. Fig. 7: Align the gears by turning the camshaft with a wrench on the flats provided-not the lobes



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Fig. Fig. 8: Use an appropriate size bolt to release the spring force of the sub-gear



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Fig. Fig. 9: Right hand exhaust camshaft bearing cap loosening sequence


WARNING
Do not pry on or attempt to force the camshaft with a tool or other object.

  1. Remove the right hand intake camshaft as follows:
    1. Uniformly loosen and remove the bearing cap bolts in several passes, in the sequence shown.
    2.  
    3. Remove the bearing caps, oil seal and camshaft. Make a note of the bearing cap positions for proper installation.
    4.  

  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 10: Loosen the right hand intake camshaft caps as shown

  1. Remove the left exhaust camshaft as follows:
    1. Align the timing mark (1 dot mark) of the camshaft drive and driven gears by turning the camshaft with a wrench.
    2.  
    3. Secure the exhaust camshaft sub-gear to the driven gear with a service bolt 0.2 in. (6mm) diameter, 0.6 in. (16-20mm) bolt length and 0.4 in. (1.0mm) in thread pitch.
    4.  

  2.  

When removing the camshaft, make sure that the torsional spring force of the sub-gear has been eliminated by the above operation.

    1. Uniformly loosen and remove the bearing cap bolts in several passes, in the sequence shown.
    2.  
    3. Remove the bearing caps and camshaft. Make a note of the bearing cap positions for proper installation.
    4.  




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 11: When aligning the gears, turn the camshaft with the flats provided. Do not place a wrench on the lobes



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Fig. Fig. 12: The spring force of the sub-gear can be overcome by using an appropriate sized bolt



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Fig. Fig. 13: Left hand exhaust camshaft bearing cap loosening sequence

  1. Remove the left hand intake camshaft as follows:
    1. Uniformly loosen and remove the bearing cap bolts in several passes, in the sequence shown.
    2.  
    3. Remove the bearing caps, oil seal and camshaft. Make a note of the bearing cap positions for proper installation.
    4.  

  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 14: The left hand intake camshaft caps must be loosened as shown

To install:
  1. Install the right intake camshaft as follows:
    1. Apply engine oil to the thrust portion of the intake camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Position the intake camshaft at a 90° angle of the timing mar (2 dot marks) on the cylinder head.
    4.  
    5. Install the bearing caps in their proper locations. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the threads and install the cap bolts.
    6.  
    7. Apply a light coat of engine oil on the threads and under the heads of the bearing cap bolts.
    8.  
    9. Uniformly tighten the cap bolts in the sequence shown to 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm).
    10.  

  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 15: Tighten the right side intake camshaft caps as shown

  1. Install the right exhaust camshaft as follows:
    1. Apply engine oil to the thrust portion of the intake camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Align the timing marks (2 dot marks) of the camshaft drive and driven gears.
    4.  
    5. Roll down the exhaust camshaft onto the bearing journals while engaging the gears with each other. Install the bearing caps in their proper locations.
    6.  
    7. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the threads and install the cap bolts.
    8.  
    9. Apply a light coat of engine oil on the threads and under the heads of the bearing cap bolts.
    10.  
    11. Uniformly tighten the cap bolts in the sequence shown to 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm).
    12.  
    13. Remove the service bolt from the driven sub-gear. Check that the intake and exhaust camshafts turns smoothly.
    14.  
    15. Align the timing marks (2 dot mark) of the camshaft drive and driven gears by turning the camshaft with a wrench.
    16.  

  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 16: When installing the exhaust camshaft, make sure the timing marks align



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Fig. Fig. 17: Use this sequence to tighten the right hand exhaust camshaft bearing cap bolts

  1. Install the left intake camshaft as follows:
    1. Apply engine oil to the thrust portion of the intake camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Position the intake camshaft at a 90° angle of the timing mar (1 dot marks) on the cylinder head.
    4.  
    5. Install the bearing caps in their proper locations. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the threads and install the cap bolts.
    6.  
    7. Apply a light coat of engine oil on the threads and under the heads of the bearing cap bolts.
    8.  
    9. Uniformly tighten the cap bolts in the sequence shown to 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm).
    10.  

  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 18: Tightening sequence for the left hand intake camshaft cap bolts

  1. Install the left exhaust camshaft as follows:
    1. Apply engine oil to the thrust portion of the intake camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Align the timing marks (1 dot marks) of the camshaft drive and driven gears.
    4.  
    5. Roll down the exhaust camshaft onto the bearing journals while engaging the gears with each other. Install the bearing caps in their proper locations.
    6.  
    7. Apply a light coat of engine oil to the threads and install the cap bolts.
    8.  
    9. Apply a light coat of engine oil on the threads and under the heads of the bearing cap bolts.
    10.  
    11. Uniformly tighten the cap bolts in the sequence shown to 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm).
    12.  
    13. Remove the service bolt.
    14.  

  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 19: Tighten the left side exhaust camshaft cap bolts in this sequence

  1. Check and adjust the valve clearance.
  2.  
  3. Install the semi-circular plugs.
  4.  
  5. Install the cylinder head covers. Uniformly tighten the bolts in several passes to 53 inch lbs. (6 Nm).
  6.  

1FZ-FE Engine

See Figures 20, 21, 22 and 23

  1. Remove the valve cover.
  2.  
  3. Remove the semi-circular plug from the cylinder head.
  4.  
  5. Remove the spark plugs.
  6.  
  7. Set the No. 1 cylinder to TDC of the compression stroke as follows:
    1. Turn the crankshaft pulley and align its groove with the 0 mark on the timing chain cover.
    2.  
    3. Check that the timing marks (one and two dots) of the camshaft drive and driven gears are in straight line on the cylinder head surface. If not, turn the crankshaft one revolution (360°) and align the marks.
    4.  

  8.  



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Fig. Fig. 20: Turn the crankshaft pulley and align its groove with the 0 mark on the timing chain cover



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Fig. Fig. 21: Check that the marks on the camshaft pulley are aligned



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Fig. Fig. 22: Matchmark the position of the chain on the gear

  1. Remove the chain tensioner.
  2.  
  3. Place matchmarks on the camshaft timing gear and the timing chain and remove the camshaft timing gear.
    1. Hold the intake camshaft with a wrench and remove the bolt and the distributor gear.
    2.  
    3. Remove the camshaft timing gear and chain from the intake camshaft and leave on the slipper and the damper.
    4.  

  4.  

Since the thrust clearance of the camshaft is small, the camshaft must be kept level while it is being removed. If the camshaft is not kept level, the portion of the cylinder head receiving the shaft thrust may crack or be damaged, causing the camshaft to seize or break. To avoid this, the following steps should be carried out.

  1. Remove the exhaust camshaft as follows:
    1. Bring the service bolt hole of the driven sub-gear upward by turning the hexagon wrench head portion of the exhaust camshaft with a wrench.
    2.  
    3. Secure the exhaust camshaft sub-gear to the main gear with a service bolt. When removing the camshaft, make sure that the torsional spring force of the sub-gear has been eliminated by the above operation.
    4.  
    5. Set the timing mark (two dot marks) of the camshaft driven gear at approximately a 35° angle by turning the hexagon wrench head portion of the intake camshaft with a wrench.
    6.  

  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 23: Turn the camshaft by using the flats provided. Do not use the lobes

    1. Lightly push the camshaft towards the rear without applying excessive force.
    2.  
    3. Loosen and remove the No. 1 bearing cap bolts, alternately loosening the left and right bolts uniformly.
    4.  
    5. Loosen and remove the No. 2, No. 3, No. 5 and the No. 7 bearing cap bolts, alternately loosening the left and right bolts uniformly in several passes, in sequence.
    6.  


Do not remove the No. 4 and No. 6 bearing cap bolts at this stage.

    1. Remove the four bearing caps.
    2.  
    3. Alternately and uniformly loosen and remove the No. 4 and the No. 6 bearing cap bolts.
    4.  
    5. If the camshaft is not being lifted out straight and level, retighten the four No. 4 and No. 6 bearing cap bolts. Then reverse the order of the above steps from (g) to (e) and repeat steps from (c) to (h) once again.
    6.  
    7. Remove the two bearing caps and exhaust camshaft. Do not pry on or attempt to force the camshaft with a tool or any other object.
    8.  


  1. Remove the intake camshaft as follows:
    1. Set the timing mark (two dot marks) of the camshaft drive gear at approximately a 25° angle by turning the hexagon wrench head portion of the intake camshaft with a wrench.
    2.  

  2.  

This angle allows the No. 1 and the No. 4 cylinder cam lobes of the intake camshaft to push their valve lifters evenly.

    1. Lightly push the intake camshaft towards the front without applying excessive force.
    2.  
    3. Loosen and remove the No. 1 bearing cap bolts, alternately loosening the left and the right bolts uniformly.
    4.  
    5. Loosen and remove the No. 3, No. 4, No. 6 and the No. 7 bearing cap bolts, alternately loosening the left and right bolts uniformly in several passes in sequence.
    6.  


Do not remove the No. 2 and No. 5 bearing cap bolts at this stage.

    1. Remove the four bearing caps.
    2.  
    3. Alternately and uniformly loosen and remove the No. 2 and the No. 5 bearing cap bolts.
    4.  
    5. If the camshaft is not being lifted out straight and level, retighten the four No. 2 and No. 5 bearing cap bolts. Then reverse the order of the above steps from (e) to (c) and repeat steps from (a) to (f) once again.
    6.  
    7. Remove the two bearing caps and the exhaust camshaft.
    8.  


To install:
  1. Install the intake camshaft as follows:
  2.  

Since the thrust clearance of the camshaft is small, the camshaft must be kept level while it is being installed. If the camshaft is not kept level, the portion of the cylinder head receiving the shaft thrust may crack or be damaged, causing the camshaft to seize or break. To avoid this, the following steps should be carried out.

    1. Apply engine oil to the thrust portion of the intake camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Lightly place the intake camshaft on top of the cylinder head so that the No. 1 and the No. 4 cylinder cam lobes face downward.
    4.  
    5. Lightly push the camshaft towards the front without applying excessive force. Place the No. 2 and the No. 5 bearing caps in their proper location.
    6.  
    7. Temporarily tighten these bearing cap bolts uniformly and alternately in several passes until the bearing caps are snug with the cylinder head.
    8.  
    9. Place the No. 3, No. 4, No. 6, and the No. 7 bearing caps in their proper location. Temporarily tighten these bearing cap bolts, alternately tightening the left and right bolts uniformly.
    10.  
    11. Place the No. 1 bearing cap in its proper location. Check that there is no gap between the cylinder head and the contact surface of the bearing cap.
    12.  
    13. Uniformly tighten the 14 bearing cap bolts in several passes to 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm).
    14.  


  1. Install the exhaust camshaft as follows:
    1. Set the timing mark (two dot marks) of the camshaft drive gear at approximately 35° angle by turning the hexagon wrench head portion of the intake camshaft with a wrench.
    2.  
    3. Apply engine oil to the thrust portion of the exhaust camshaft. Engage the exhaust camshaft gear to the intake camshaft gear by matching the timing marks (two dot marks) on each gear.
    4.  
    5. Roll down the exhaust camshaft onto the bearing journals while engaging the gears with each other. Lightly push the intake camshaft towards the front without applying excessive force.
    6.  
    7. Install the No. 4 and the No. 6 bearing caps in their proper location. Temporarily tighten these bearing cap bolts, alternately tightening the left and right bolts uniformly.
    8.  
    9. Place the No. 2, No. 3, No. 5, and the No. 7 bearing caps in their proper location. Temporarily tighten these bearing cap bolts, alternately tightening the left and right bolts uniformly.
    10.  
    11. Tighten the 14 bearing cap bolts in several passes to 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm).
    12.  
    13. Bring the service bolt installed in the driven sub-gear upward by turning the hexagon wrench head portion of the camshaft with a wrench. Remove the service bolt.
    14.  
    15. Check that the intake and the exhaust camshafts turn smoothly.
    16.  

  2.  

  1. Set the No. 1 cylinder to TDC of the compression stroke as follows:
    1. Turn the crankshaft pulley, and align its groove with the timing mark 0 of the timing chain cover. Turn the camshaft so that the timing marks with one and two dots will be in straight line on the cylinder head surface.
    2.  

  2.  

  1. Install the camshaft timing gear as follows:
    1. Check that the matchmarks on the camshaft timing gear and the timing chain are aligned. Place the gear over the straight pin of the intake camshaft.
    2.  
    3. Align the straight pin of the distributor gear with the straight pin groove of the intake camshaft gear.
    4.  
    5. Hold the intake camshaft with a wrench, install and tighten the bolt to 54 ft. lbs. (74 Nm).
    6.  

  2.  

  1. Install the chain tensioner. Push the tensioner by hand until it touches the head installation surface, then install and tighten the two nuts to 15 ft. lbs. (21 Nm).
  2.  

  1. Check the valve timing as flows:
    1. Turn the crankshaft pulley, and align its groove with the timing mark 0 of the timing chain cover. Always turn the crankshaft clockwise.
    2.  
    3. Check that the timing marks (one and two dots) of the camshaft drive and driven gears are in straight line on the cylinder head surface. If not, turn the crankshaft one revolution (360°) and align the marks.
    4.  

  2.  

  1. Check valve clearance and adjust if necessary.
  2.  
  3. Install the spark plugs.
  4.  
  5. Install the semi-circular plug to the cylinder head.
  6.  
  7. Make sure that the No. 1 cylinder is in TDC of the compression stroke.
  8.  
  9. Install the valve cover.
  10.  

INSPECTION

A dial indicator, micrometer and inside micrometer are all needed to properly measure the camshaft and camshaft housing. If these instruments are available, proceed; if they are not available, have the parts checked at a reputable machine shop. Camshaft specifications are included in the Camshaft Specifications chart in this section.

  1. Using the micrometer, measure the height of each cam lobe. If a lobe height is less than the minimum specified, the lobe is worn and the cam must be replaced.
  2.  

  1. Place the cam in V-blocks and measure its run-out at the center journal with a dial indicator. Replace the cam if run-out exceeds:

    22R and 22R-E-0.0078 in. (0.20mm)
     
    3F-E-0.0118 in. (0.30mm)
     
    All others-0.0024 in. (0.06mm)
     

  2.  

  1. Using the micrometer, measure journal diameter, jot down the readings and compare the readings with those listed in the Camshaft Specifications chart. Measure the housing bore inside diameter with the inside micrometer, and jot the measurements down. Subtract the journal diameter measurement from the housing bore measurement. If the clearance is greater than the maximum listed under Bearing Clearance in the chart, replace the camshaft and/or the housing.
  2.  

 
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