Toyota Tercel 1984-1994 Repair Guide

Cylinder Head

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



3A and 3A-C Engines

See Figures 1 through 8

All wires and hoses should be labelled at the time of removal. Review the complete service procedure before starting this repair. Refer to to the Torque Specification Chart when tightening all attaching bolts and nuts. Always change the oil and oil filter after this repair is finished.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Drain the cooling system.
  4.  
  5. Remove the air cleaner assembly.
  6.  



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Fig. Fig. 1: Before disconnecting vacuum and electrical connections, use tags to identify how they should be reconnected



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Fig. Fig. 2: The cylinder head bolts must be loosened gradually, in several passes, using the correct sequence-3A and 3A-C engines shown

  1. Elevate and safely support the vehicle on jackstands.
  2.  
  3. Drain the engine oil.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the exhaust pipe from the exhaust manifold and the exhaust bracket from the engine.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the hose at the converter pipe, if equipped.
  8.  
  9. If equipped with power steering, loosen the pivot bolt at the power steering pump.
  10.  
  11. Lower the vehicle to the ground.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the accelerator and throttle control cables at the carburetor and bracket.
  14.  
  15. Label and disconnect the wiring at the cowl, the oxygen sensor and the distributor.
  16.  



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Fig. Fig. 3: If the cylinder head is difficult to lift off, use a small prybar between the cylinder head and block partitions. Be careful not to damage any cylinder head or block surfaces



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Fig. Fig. 4: Have an assistant help you lift the cylinder head from the engine block



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Fig. Fig. 5: Place the cylinder head on wooden blocks to prevent damage to the surfaces

  1. Label and disconnect all vacuum hoses.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the fuel hoses at the fuel pump.
  4.  
  5. Remove the upper radiator hose from the engine.
  6.  
  7. Remove the water outlet assembly from the head. Remove the heater hose.
  8.  
  9. If equipped with power steering, remove the adjusting bracket.
  10.  
  11. Label and disconnect the vacuum hoses and spark plug wires at the distributor. Remove the distributor.
  12.  
  13. Remove the PCV valve from the valve cover.
  14.  
  15. Reposition or disconnect the wiring harness running along the head.
  16.  
  17. Remove the upper timing belt cover bolts.
  18.  
  19. Remove the valve cover and its gasket.
  20.  
  21. Remove the water pump pulley bolts and the pulley.
  22.  
  23. Remove the alternator belt.
  24.  
  25. Matchmark the camshaft pulley and the cylinder head so that the marks can be realigned during reinstallation. With chalk or crayon, mark the timing belt with an arrow showing the direction of rotation and mark the belt-to-pulley alignment as well.
  26.  
  27. Loosen the bolt holding the timing belt idler pulley; move the idler to release tension on the belt and snug the bolt to hold the idler in the loosened position.
  28.  
  29. Carefully pull or slide the timing belt off the cam pulley. Do not crimp the belt and do not force it off the pulley with tools.
  30.  
  31. Loosen and remove the head bolts gradually, in three passes and in the order shown in the illustration.
  32.  


WARNING
Head warpage or cracking can occur if the correct removal procedure is not followed.

  1. Remove the cylinder head with the manifolds and carburetor attached. If the head is difficult to lift off, gently pry it up with a suitable tool placed between the head and the projection on the block. If prying is needed, be careful not to score or gouge the mating surfaces of the head and/or the block.
  2.  
  3. Keeping the head upright, place it on wooden blocks on the workbench. If the head is to receive further work, the various external components will need to be removed. If the head is not to be worked on, the mating surface must be cleaned of all gasket and sealant material before reinstallation.
  4.  

To install:
  1. Clean the engine block mating surface of all gasket and sealant material. Use plastic or wooden scrapers to prevent damage to the surfaces. Remove all traces of liquids from the surface and clean out the bolt holes.
  2.  
  3. Install the new head gasket on the block with the sealer facing upwards.
  4.  
  5. Place the head in position and make sure it is properly seated and aligned.
  6.  
  7. Install the cylinder head bolts. Tighten them gradually, in three passes, in the order shown. On the first pass, tighten all the bolts to 14 ft. lbs. (19 Nm). On the second pass the bolts are tightened to 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm) and on the last pass the bolts are tightened to their final setting of 43 ft. lbs. (58 Nm).
  8.  


WARNING
Failure to follow this procedure exactly may cause either premature gasket failure or head damage.



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Fig. Fig. 6: When installing the head, always torque the bolts to specification using several passes of the correct sequence



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Fig. Fig. 7: Cylinder head bolt torque sequence-3A and 3A-C engines. Note that this sequence is different than the removal sequence



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Fig. Fig. 8: Exploded view of the 3A and 3A-C cylinder head and components

  1. Align the camshaft pulley mark(s) made during disassembly with the marks on the head and or block.
  2.  
  3. Install the timing belt onto the cam pulley, being careful not to allow the belt to become mispositioned on the lower (crank) pulley. Handle the belt carefully and avoid getting fluids or lubricants on the belt.
  4.  
  5. Loosen the holding bolt for the timing belt idler pulley and allow it to tension the belt.
  6.  
  7. Turn the crankshaft clockwise through at least two full revolutions; finish the rotation by aligning the timing marks at TDC. Double check that the small triangular mark on the cam pulley is at the top and pointing up.
  8.  
  9. Tighten the bolt for the timing belt idler pulley to 27 ft. lbs. (37 Nm).
  10.  
  11. Check the timing belt tension. Refer to the Timing Belt procedure in this section for details.
  12.  
  13. If the head was disassembled during the repair, adjust the valves at this time. If the head was not disassembled, the valves need not be adjusted.
  14.  
  15. Install the valve cover and the upper timing cover.
  16.  
  17. Install the water pump pulley and bolts; install the alternator belt and adjust it to the correct tension.
  18.  
  19. Correctly position or reconnect the wiring harness running along the head.
  20.  
  21. Install the PCV valve in the valve cover.
  22.  
  23. Correctly install the distributor and connect the wiring, vacuum lines and spark plug wires.
  24.  
  25. Install the power steering adjusting bracket if so equipped.
  26.  
  27. Install the heater hose, the water outlet at the head and connect the upper radiator hose to the engine.
  28.  
  29. Connect the fuel lines to the fuel pump.
  30.  
  31. Observing the labels made earlier, connect the vacuum hoses to their ports. Make sure the hoses fit securely on the fittings and are not crimped or twisted.
  32.  
  33. Connect the wiring at the cowl, the oxygen sensor and the distributor.
  34.  
  35. Connect the accelerator and throttle control cables at the bracket and at the carburetor.
  36.  
  37. Safely raise and support the vehicle on jackstands.
  38.  
  39. If equipped with power steering, tighten the pivot bolt for the pump.
  40.  
  41. Connect the hose at the converter pipe.
  42.  
  43. Connect the exhaust bracket to the engine and connect the exhaust pipe to the manifold.
  44.  
  45. Lower the vehicle to the ground.
  46.  
  47. Install the air cleaner assembly.
  48.  
  49. Change the oil and oil filter.
  50.  
  51. Confirm that the radiator and engine draincocks are closed, then fill the cooling system with the correct amount of coolant. Install the radiator cap.
  52.  
  53. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, untightened nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the engine area.
  54.  
  55. Connect the negative battery cable.
  56.  
  57. Start the engine; during the warm up period, check carefully for any signs of fluid leaks or engine overheating.
  58.  
  59. When the engine has reached normal operating temperature, check the ignition timing and adjust the idle speed as necessary. Road test the vehicle for proper operation.
  60.  

3E and 3E-E Engines

See Figures 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14

All wires and hoses should be labelled or marked at the time of removal. Review the complete service procedure before starting this repair. Refer to the Torque Specifications Chart when tightening all attaching bolts and nuts. Always change the oil and oil filter after this repair is finished.


CAUTION
On models equipped with a Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) or "air bag,'' work must NOT be started until at least 90 seconds have passed from the time the ignition switch is turned to the LOCK position and the negative cable is disconnected from the battery.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Remove the right side under engine splash shield. Relieve the fuel pressure on the 3E-E engine.
  2.  
  3. Drain the engine coolant from the radiator.
  4.  
  5. Remove the power steering pump and bracket (if equipped).
  6.  
  7. On models with A/C and without power steering, remove the idler pulley/bracket.
  8.  



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Fig. Fig. 9: Cylinder head bolt removal sequence for 3E and 3E-E engines

  1. Disconnect the radiator hoses. Disconnect the accelerator and throttle valve cables.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the heater inlet hose. Disconnect and plug the fuel lines. On the 3E-E engines, remove the pulsation damper, then disconnect the fuel inlet and return hoses.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the power brake booster vacuum line from the intake manifold.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the water inlet hose. Disconnect the intake manifold water hose from the intake manifold.
  8.  
  9. Tag (for identification) all vacuum lines, hoses and wires or harnesses to the intake manifold and cylinder head and disconnect them.
  10.  
  11. Remove the evaporative and cold enrichment Vacuum Switching Valves (VSV), if so equipped.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the water by-pass hoses from the carburetor.
  14.  
  15. Disconnect the exhaust pipe from the exhaust manifold.
  16.  
  17. Remove the intake manifold stay bracket and ground strap. Remove the engine wire harness bracket clamp from the intake manifold.
  18.  
  19. Remove the cylinder head cover.
  20.  
  21. Remove the timing belt and camshaft timing pulley.
  22.  
  23. Loosen and remove the head mounting bolts gradually in three passes working from the ends of the cylinder head inward.
  24.  
  25. Lift the head straight up from the engine block.
  26.  
  27. Clean all gasket surfaces.
  28.  

To install:
  1. Service the head as necessary.
  2.  
  3. Install a new cylinder head gasket. Torque the cylinder head mounting bolts in three progressive steps. Torque to 22 ft. lbs. (30 Nm) in the first pass, 36 ft. lbs. (49 Nm) in the second pass and finally for the third pass, tighten the head bolts an additional 90 degrees from the second pass. Tighten the bolts in sequence from the center of the head outwards (refer to the torque sequence illustration).
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 10: The cylinder head bolts should always be tightened gradually in several passes using the correct sequence



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Fig. Fig. 11: Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence for 3E and 3E-E engines



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Fig. Fig. 12: Tightening the cylinder head bolts an additional 90 degrees on 3E and 3E-E engines. This is commonly called the angle torquing method

  1. Adjust the valve clearance if any work was performed on the head.
  2.  
  3. Install the cylinder head cover.
  4.  
  5. Install the intake manifold stay bracket and ground strap.
  6.  
  7. Connect the exhaust pipe to the exhaust manifold. Use two new nuts and torque to specification.
  8.  
  9. Connect the water bypass hose to the carburetor.
  10.  
  11. Install the evaporative and cold enrichment breaker VSVs.
  12.  



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Fig. Fig. 13: Exploded view of the 3E cylinder head and components



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Fig. Fig. 14: Exploded view of the 3E-E cylinder head and components

  1. Connect all vacuum hoses and wires.
  2.  
  3. Connect all heater hoses.
  4.  
  5. Connect the fuel hoses, use new clamps and gaskets as necessary.
  6.  
  7. Attach the accelerator and throttle cables.
  8.  
  9. Connect the radiator hoses.
  10.  
  11. Install the idler pulley bracket, power steering pump bracket and the power steering pump.
  12.  
  13. Install the engine under cover.
  14.  
  15. Fill the radiator with coolant and connect the negative battery cable.
  16.  
  17. Start the engine, then check ignition timing and carburetor adjustments. Roadtest for proper operation.
  18.  

CLEANING AND INSPECTION



See Figures 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21

  1. With the head removed from the car, remove the carburetor, the fuel pump and the intake and exhaust or combination manifolds.
  2.  
  3. Remove the rocker arm assembly (keep all parts in order), following the procedures outlined earlier.
  4.  
  5. Remove and inspect the camshaft and valves, following the procedures outlined later in this Section.
  6.  
  7. Using a wire brush chucked into an electric drill, remove all the carbon from the combustion chambers in the head. Be careful not to scratch the head.
  8.  
  9. Use a gasket scraper and remove all material from the manifold and head surfaces, again being careful not to scratch the surface.
  10.  
  11. Use a valve guide brush or a fine-bristled rifle bore brush with solvent to clean the valve guides.
  12.  
  13. Use a clean cloth and a stiff bristle brush with solvent to thoroughly clean the head assembly. Make sure that no material is washed into the bolt holes or passages. If possible, dry the head with compressed air to remove fluid and solid matter from all the passages.
  14.  

Do not clean the head in a hot tank or chemical bath.

  1. With the head clean and dry, use a precision straight-edge and a feeler gauge to measure the head for warpage. It should not exceed 0.0020 in. (0.05mm). Also measure the warpage on the manifold faces. On 3A and 3A-C engines it should not be greater than 0.0039 in. (0.10mm). On 3E and 3E-E engines it should not exceed 0.0020 in. (0.05mm). Any warpage in excess of the maximum requires replacement of the head.
  2.  
  3. If all is well with the head to this point, it is highly recommended that it be taken to a professional facility such as a machine shop for sophisticated crack testing. The various procedures are much more reliable than simple examination by eye. The cost is reasonable and the peace of mind is well worth the cost. If any cracks are found, the head must be replaced.
  4.  
  5. While the head is being checked, carefully scrape the carbon from the tops of the pistons. Don't scratch the metal of the piston tops and don't damage the cylinder walls. Remove all the carbon and fluid from the cylinder.
  6.  
  7. If repairs are needed to the valves, camshaft or other components, follow the appropriate procedures outlined in this Section.
  8.  



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Fig. Fig. 15: It's a good idea to clean the tops of the pistons while the head is removed



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Fig. Fig. 16: A wire wheel may be used to clean the combustion chambers of carbon deposits



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Fig. Fig. 17: The cylinder head can be checked for cracks using a dye penetrant



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Fig. Fig. 18: Check the cylinder head for warpage on all sides and diagonally; 3A and 3A-C engines shown



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Fig. Fig. 19: On 3E and 3E-E engines, check for warpage at these angles



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Fig. Fig. 20: Checking the cylinder head warpage across the head surface at an angle



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Fig. Fig. 21: Checking for cylinder head warpage straight across the head surface

CYLINDER HEAD RESURFACING



The Toyota cylinder heads for all engines may be resurfaced by a reputable machine shop. Resurfacing is recommended if the engine suffered a massive overheating, such as from a failed head gasket.

The heads are manufactured to be as light as possible; consequently, there is not much excess metal on the face. Any machining must be minimal. If too much metal is removed, the head becomes unusable. A head which exceeds the maximum warpage specification CANNOT be resurfaced. The machine shop will have a list of minimum head thicknesses; at no time may this minimum be exceeded.

 
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