Volkswagen Air Cooled 1949-1969 Repair Guide

Transaxle Assembly

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION





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Fig. Fig. 1 After removing the engine, secure the torque converter (A/T) in place with wire ties (arrows)

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Remove the engine.
  4.  
  5. Make a bracket to hold the torque converter in place. If a bracket is not used, the converter will slide off the transaxle input shaft.
  6.  
  7. Detach the gearshift rod coupling.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the driveshafts at the transaxle end. If the driveshafts are not going to be repaired, it is not necessary to detach the wheel end.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect the drive ATF hoses from the transaxle. Seal the open ends. Disconnect the temperature switch, neutral safety switch, and the back-up light switch.
  12.  
  13. Pull off the vacuum servo hose.
  14.  
  15. Disconnect the starter wiring.
  16.  
  17. Remove the front transaxle mounting nuts.
  18.  
  19. Loosen the rear transaxle mounting bolts. Support the transaxle and remove the bolts.
  20.  
  21. Lower the transaxle and remove it from the car.
  22.  

To install:

  1. With the torque converter bracket still in place, raise the axle into the car.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the nuts for the front transaxle mounting. Insert the rear mounting bolts, but do not tighten them at this time.
  4.  
  5. Replace the vacuum servo hose.
  6.  
  7. Connect the ATF hoses, using new washers. The washers are seals.
  8.  
  9. Connect the temperature switch and starter cables.
  10.  
  11. Install the driveshafts, using new washers. Turn the convex sides of the washers toward the screw head.
  12.  
  13. Align the transaxle so that the inner driveshaft joints do not rub on the frame fork and then tighten the rear mounting bolts.
  14.  
  15. Insert the shift rod coupling, tighten the screw, and secure it with wire.
  16.  
  17. Remove the torque converter bracket, and install the engine.
  18.  
  19. After installing the engine, bleed the ATF lines if return flow has not started after 2-3 minutes.
  20.  

OVERHAUL



Disassembly
  1. Remove the gearshift housing with the inner transaxle shift lever.
  2.  
  3. Remove the hex nuts holding the gear carrier.
  4.  
  5. Remove the transaxle cover and gasket.
  6.  
  7. Take out the locking clip and loosen the roller bearing retaining ring at the pinion gear until it just contacts the ring gear. Special wrench VW 183 is normally used.
  8.  

The transaxle can also be removed with the differential in place.

  1. Press out the transaxle gear unit until the retaining ring touches the case. Alternately loosen the retaining ring and press out the transaxle gear unit until ring has been completely screwed clear of the bearing. Hinged lever VW 281 is required to press out the transaxle. Press out the bearing with the transaxle gear unit. Note the thickness and the number of the drive pinion adjusting shims.
  2.  
  3. Support the gear carrier in a vise. Remove the selector fork clamping screws and remove the first-reverse selector fork.
  4.  
  5. Remove the second-third selector shaft from the fork.
  6.  
  7. Remove the circlip and the dished washer from the main driveshaft. The washer is under tension.
  8.  
  9. Press the main driveshaft out of the gear carrier. Be careful not to damage the splines or the second-third selector fork.
  10.  

Assembly
  1. Check all parts; replace or repair as needed.
  2.  
  3. Engage the second-third selector fork in operating sleeve.
  4.  
  5. Position the pinion shaft and main driveshaft in press. Press the gear carrier onto the main driveshaft, being careful not to damage the splines or jam the second-third selector fork.
  6.  
  7. Install the dished washer and a new circlip on the main driveshaft. Press the circlip down until it snaps into the groove. Squeeze the circlip all round with water pump pliers until it bottoms in the groove.
  8.  
  9. Install the gear carrier and pinion shaft in the setting appliance VW 294b. The pinion adjusting shims, but not the paper gear carrier gasket, must also be installed in the appliance.
  10.  
  11. Screw the retaining ring on the pinion roller bearing and hand-tighten with C-wrench VW 183.
  12.  
  13. Push the selector shaft into the second third fork. Install the clamp screw. Install the first-reverse selector fork and clamp screw.
  14.  
  15. Move the first-reverse lower selector shaft into the first gear detent groove. Slide the operating sleeve and fork over the synchronizer teeth until it is against the first gear. Centralize the fork in the operating sleeve groove and tighten the clamp screw. The selector forks must not rub on the sides of the groove in the sleeve when in either Neutral or a gear position.
  16.  
  17. Select First, Neutral, and Reverse several times while turning the transaxle. Check for clearance between fork and sleeve groove in each position. In Reverse, the sleeve contacts a stop pressed into the hub. If necessary, alter the selector fork setting until there is the same clearance between the sleeve and the gear sleeve and the stop in both end positions. Tighten the clamp screw.
  18.  
  19. Move the upper selector shaft into the detent groove for Third. Adjust the fork as for First-Reverse. Tighten the clamp screw.
  20.  
  21. Check the interlock mechanism. It must not be possible to engage two gears at once. Resume transaxle assembly:
  22.  
  23. Insert the transaxle gear unit with the pinion shims and the gear carrier gasket into the transaxle case. Drive the pinion and mainshaft in with a rubber hammer. On transaxles with the locating screw for pinion shaft bearing, align bearing outer race hole with hole in housing.
  24.  
  25. If the differential is still in place, the pinion bearing retaining ring must be inserted and screwed on while the transaxle gear unit is driven in.
  26.  
  27. Tighten the retaining ring to 108 ft. lbs.
  28.  
  29. Tighten the gear carrier nuts diagonally. Insert the retaining ring locking clip and tighten the screw. On transaxles with the pinion shaft bearing locating screw, insert and align the locking clip so the screw can be installed when the cover is fitted.
  30.  
  31. Insert the gearshift housing and transaxle shift lever with the new gasket. Tighten the nuts.
  32.  
  33. Install the transaxle cover with a new gasket and tighten the screws diagonally. Coat the end of the bearing locating screw with sealing compound and insert the screw.
  34.  

Gear Carrier Details

If difficult shifting was noted, check the selector shaft detent springs. To remove the plugs holding in the springs, cut a 6mm thread in each. Spring free length should be 0.9-1.0 in. The force required to overcome the grooves should be 33-44 lbs.

When using a replacement gear carrier from a four speed manual transmission, the holes for the reverse shift rod must be plugged. Only the old type of gear carrier with the long guide for the first-second shift rod is supplied as a replacement. When using this carrier for the Automatic Stick-shift, the hole for the first-second shift rod must be drilled about 16mm deep from inside with a 16mm dia. drill. If this is not done, the shift rod will probably jam.

Main Driveshaft Disassembly
  1. Remove the thrust washer, third gear, needle bearing, and synchronizer stopring.
  2.  
  3. Press off the needle bearing inner race, clutch gear with operating sleeve, and second gear.
  4.  
  5. Take out the shaft key.
  6.  
  7. Disassemble the clutch gear.
  8.  

Main Driveshaft Assembly
  1. Check the gears, synchronizer teeth, thrust washer, main driveshaft, and key for wear and damage.
  2.  
  3. Press the synchronizer stop-rings onto the gears and measure the clearance between synchronizer ring and gear with a feeler gauge.

    Gear-Installation Clearance-Wear Limit
     
    First-0.043-0.070 in.-0.023in.
     
    Second, Third-0.040-0.075 in.-0.023 in.
     

  4.  
  5. Install the second gear with the needle bearing and synchronizer stop-ring.
  6.  
  7. Install the key.
  8.  
  9. Fit the operating sleeve and clutch gear for the second and third gears together, aligning the marks. Sleeve and clutch gear may be replaced in matched sets only. Install springs with the ends overlapping 120°. The angled spring ends must fully engage over the shift plates.
  10.  
  11. Seat the reassembled clutch gear. The 1mm deep groove on the operating sleeve must point toward third gear and the wide chamber on one side of the clutch gear must be toward the second gear.
  12.  
  13. Heat the inner race of the third gear needle bearing to about 212°F and press it into position.
  14.  
  15. Install the needle bearing, gear with synchronizer stop-ring, and thrust washer for third gear.
  16.  

Drive Pinion Shaft Disassembly
  1. Remove the circlip, while holding third gear down with a press.
  2.  
  3. Press the third gear and needle bearing inner race off together.
  4.  
  5. Take off the spacer spring and remove the second gear circlip. Take off the second gear, first gear with synchronizer ring, first gear needle bearing, clutch gear with operating sleeve, and shim.
  6.  
  7. Unscrew the round nut. Tool VW 293 may be used.
  8.  
  9. Press off the bearing. Remove the operating sleeve, shift plates, and spring from clutch gear.
  10.  

Drive Pinion Shaft Assembly
  1. Check all parts for wear and damage. Second and third gears may be replaced only in pairs. Press the synchronizer ring over the cone on the gear and measure the clearance. Clearances and wear limits are as given in Step 2 under Main Driveshaft Disassembly.
  2.  
  3. Heat the inner races of the double taper roller bearing to about 212°F and install the bearing on the shaft. Allow it to cool to room temperature and press it on with 3 tons pressure.
  4.  
  5. Screw on new round nut and tighten to 159 ft. lbs. Tool VW 293 should be used. Check the bearing turning torque. On used bearings, there should be no end-play. To check the turning torque, install the pinion shaft in the transaxle housing without the shim, fit the retaining ring and tighten it to 108 ft. lbs. (87 ft. lbs. when using VW 183). Turn the pinion with a torque gauge, oiling the bearings lightly with hypoid oil. Turn the pinion rapidly in each direction about 15-20 turns, then take the reading while turning. Turning torque should be 5-18 inch lbs. (0.6-2.0 Nm) for a new bearing or 3-6 inch lbs. (0.3-0.7 Nm) for a used bearing. Peen locking shoulder of round nut into pinion splines at three places 120° apart, using a blunt chisel. Be careful not to crack or burr the shoulder.
  6.  
  7. Find the thickness of shim for round nut as follows: Measure from the end of the pinion gear to the base of the bearing race. This is dimension a. Measure from the end of the pinion gear to the top of the bearing inner race. This is b. Measure from the bearing contact shoulder on the pinion to the upper edge of the shim. This is X. X should be 44.40-44.50mm Shim thickness= XXb-a.
  8.  
  9. Assemble the pinion shaft up to the second gear. The clearance between the second gear and its circlip should be 0.0039-0.0098 in. (0.10-0.25mm). Circlips of various sizes are available.
  10.  
  11. Fit the spacer spring and third gear.
  12.  
  13. Heat the needle bearing inner race to about 212°F and press it on with the third gear.
  14.  
  15. Install the circlip.
  16.  

Differential Details

Before removing the differential, the transaxle gears must be removed. Replacing and adjusting the differential requires numerous special tools and procedures. For this reason, these operations are best left to an authorized repair facility.

Differential specifications are as follows:



Backlash-0.0059-0.0098 in. (0.15-0.25mm)
 
Side bearing preload (new bearings)-16-19 inch lbs. (1.8-2.1 Nm)
 
Side bearing preload (used bearings)-2.5-6.1 inch lbs. (0.28-0.68 Nm)
 

 
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