Volkswagen Air Cooled 1949-1969 Repair Guide

Engine

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



The Volkswagen engine is mounted on the transaxle, which in turn is attached to the frame. In Type 1 models, there are four attaching points-two bolts and two studs--while on the type 3 there is an extra mounting point at the rear of the engine. Type 3 vehicles with automatic transaxles have front and rear engine and transaxle mounts. At the front, the gearbox is supported by the rear tubular crossmember; at the rear, a crossmember is bolted to the crankcase and mounted to the body at either end. When removing the engine from the car, it is recommended that the rear of the car be approximately three feet off the ground. The engine is removed by bringing it out from underneath the car. However, before raising the car, the following steps should be followed:

  1. Disconnect the negative cable from the battery and the cables from the generator. Disconnect the wiring from the regulator on type 1 models.
  2.  
  3. Remove the air cleaner from the engine, and the rear engine cover plate on type 1 models. Remove the throttle positioner.
  4.  
  5. Rotate the distributor (type 1 models) so that this part will be able to clear the rear cover plate.
  6.  

On 1967 and later models, the rear cover plate need not be removed, since the redesigned rear deck and compartment allow sufficient room for engine withdrawal from the car.

  1. Disconnect the throttle cable from the carburetor(s), and remove the electrical connections from the automatic choke, coil, electromagnetic cut-off jet, and oil pressure sending unit.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the fuel hose at the front engine cover plate and seal it to prevent leakage.
  4.  
  5. On type 3 models, remove the oil dipstick and the rubber boot between the oil filler and body.
  6.  
  7. Remove the cooling air intake bellows on type 3 models after loosening the clip that secures the unit.
  8.  
  9. Remove the warm air hose on type 3 models.
  10.  
  11. After disconnecting the appropriate electrical and control cables, remove the rear engine support (type 3 models) and raise the car off the ground.
  12.  
  13. After removing the flexible air hoses between the engine and heat exchangers, disconnect the heater flap cables, unscrew the two lower engine mounting nuts and slide a jack under the engine. Be sure that it is suitable for supporting the weight of the engine without placing undue strain on the components.
  14.  
  15. On type 1 automatic stick-shift models, disconnect the control valve cable and manifold vacuum hoses. Disconnect the ATF suction line and plug it with a 16X1.5mm cap.
  16.  
  17. On type 3 fully automatic models, disconnect the vacuum hose and kickdown cable.
  18.  
  19. On either model, remove the four 8mm bolts from the converter drive plate through the holes in the transaxle case. After removing the engine, hold the torque converter in place on the transaxle with a strap or a plastic wire tie.
  20.  
  21. On fuel injected type 3 models, the fuel pressure and return lines must be clamped off and disconnected, and the injection unit wiring disconnected.
  22.  
  23. Raise the jack until it just contacts the engine, and have an assistant hold the bolts of the two upper engine mounts so that you will be able to unscrew the nuts. If an assistant is not available at this stage, it is possible to wedge sockets into the proper places so that one man can do the job without having four hands.
  24.  
  25. When the engine mounts are disconnected and there are no remaining cables or controls linking the engine with the car, roll the engine backwards slightly so that the release plate will be able to clear the main drive shaft.
  26.  
  27. Lower the engine very slowly, and be sure that the clutch release plate does not contact the main drive shaft of the transmission.
  28.  

To install:

  1. Roughly speaking, engine installation is the reverse of the preceding operation, although it is important that some special precautions be taken:

    Before replacing the engine, the clutch plate must be centered, the clutch release bearing and release plate checked for wear, and a number of components greased or cleaned.
     
    The starter shaft bush should be lubricated with lithium grease, the needle bearing in the gland nut supplied with 1 gram of universal grease, and the main drive shaft splines lubricated with molydenum-disulphide powder applied with a clean cloth or brush.
     
    Before installing the engine, care must also be taken to ensure that the mating surfaces of the engine and transaxle are cleaned thoroughly.
     

  2.  
  3. The engine is then lifted into position and the engine rotated via the generator pulley so that the clutch plate hub will engage the transaxle shaft splines. In pushing the engine home, care must be taken to see that the gland nut needle bearing, clutch release bearing, and main drive shaft are not damaged.
  4.  
  5. After the engine is in position, put the lower engine mounting bolts through the holes in the flange of the transaxle case and press the engine against the flange so that proper and even contact is made.
  6.  
  7. Tighten the upper nuts first, then the lower ones. After this initial tightening, tighten all nuts evenly in this same sequence.
  8.  
  9. To avoid interference with the function of the automatic stick-shift clutch, take care to route the connecting hoses so that they are not kinked or jammed when installing the engine. This applies particularly to the small diameter pipe from the control valve to the carburetor venturi, which will work properly only if routed in the original production manner.
  10.  
  11. On the type 3 reinstallation, synthetic washers are used to raise the engine about 2-3mm when the rear engine mounting is attached and tightened. Use only enough washers in the rear mount so that the engine is lifted no more than 3mm when the mounting is tightened down. Care should be used when installing the rear air intake housing bellows of the type 3 engine, for this unit can be easily damaged through careless handling.
  12.  
  13. Reconnect cables and controls. Attach the thick lead to terminal D+ of the generator.
  14.  
  15. Adjust the accelerator cable with the engine at full throttle, and set the ignition timing.
  16.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1 The VW upright engine is compact and easy to remove as a complete unit

DISASSEMBLY & ASSEMBLY





Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2 When removing nuts, bolts and other parts, place them in a tray or other container


CAUTION
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water, or waterless hand cleaner should be used.

The disassembly of the type 3 engine is different from that of the other VW engines mainly in the removal of the engine cover plates and cooling ductwork. In tearing down a Volkswagen engine, the following is the recommended sequence of operations:

  1. Drain the engine oil.
  2.  
  3. Remove the hoses between the engine and the heat exchangers.
  4.  
  5. Remove the front engine cover plate.
  6.  
  7. Remove the muffler and the intake manifold, including the carburetor(s).
  8.  
  9. Remove the fan belt, the cooling air intake housing, the generator and the crankshaft pulley.
  10.  
  11. Remove the rear half of the fan housing, the fan, and the front half of the fan housing.
  12.  
  13. Remove the distributor and the fuel pump and take out the distributor drive pinion.
  14.  
  15. Remove the cooling air ductwork from the cylinder area.
  16.  
  17. Remove the oil cooler.
  18.  
  19. Remove the rocker arm shaft and the cylinder heads.
  20.  
  21. Remove the cylinders and pistons.
  22.  
  23. Remove the clutch assembly and flywheel.
  24.  
  25. Remove the oil pump and oil strainer.
  26.  
  27. Disassemble the crankcase and remove the camshaft, the crankshaft and the connecting rods.
  28.  

Assembly, generally speaking, is the reverse of the foregoing procedure. Detailed Removal and installation instructions follow.

The torque, capacity, tune-up, and clearance figures given in the text apply, generally, to the most common engines. However, since there are so many variations in production, it is always best to consult the applicable chart for the figure in question.

 
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