See Figures 1 and 2
The torsion bar front suspension system is found on Type 1 Beetles, Beetle Convertibles, Karmann Ghias, all Type 3 models and 1970-79 Type 2 models. All other models are equipped with either the strut front suspension system or the coil spring front suspension system, both of which are covered later in this section.
Each front wheel rotates on a ball joint mounted spindle. The spindle is suspended independently by a pair of torsion bars.
The principle of torsion bars is that of springing action taking place via twisting of the bars. When a front wheel goes up or down, the torsion bars are twisted, causing a downward or upward force in the opposite direction.
The supporting part of the Volkswagen front axle is the axle beam, which is two rigidly joined tubes attached to the frame with four screws. At each end of the tubes there is a side plate designed to provide additional strength and serve as the upper mounting point for the shock absorbers. Because the front axle is all-welded, it is replaced as a unit whenever damaged.