Volkswagen Cars 2000-05

Engine 1

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NOTE
Disconnecting the negative battery cable on some vehicles may interfere with the functions of the on-board computer systems and may require the computer to undergo a relearning process, once the negative battery cable is disconnected. Most vehicles are equipped with theft protected radios, which cannot be operated if power to the radio is interrupted. Before disconnecting the battery cables, obtain the security code for the radio.

Overhaul



Buy or Rebuild-

Now that you have determined that your engine is worn out, you must make some decisions. The question of whether or not an engine is worth rebuilding is largely a subjective matter and one of personal worth. Is the engine a popular one, or is it an obsolete model- Are parts available- Will it get acceptable gas mileage once it is rebuilt- Is the car it's being put into worth keeping- Would it be less expensive to buy a new engine, have your engine rebuilt by a pro, rebuild it yourself or buy a used engine from a salvage yard- Or would it be simpler and less expensive to buy another car- If you have considered all these matters and more, and have still decided to rebuild the engine, then it is time to decide how you will rebuild it.


NOTE
The editors at Chilton feel that most engine machining should be performed by a professional machine shop. Don't think of it as wasting money, rather, as an assurance that the job has been done right the first time. There are many expensive and specialized tools required to perform such tasks as boring and honing an engine block or having a valve job done on a cylinder head. Even inspecting the parts requires expensive micrometers and gauges to properly measure wear and clearances. Also, a machine shop can deliver to you clean, and ready to assemble parts, saving you time and aggravation. Your maximum savings will come from performing the removal, disassembly, assembly and installation of the engine and purchasing or renting only the tools required to perform the above tasks. Depending on the particular circumstances, you may save 40 to 60 percent of the cost doing these yourself.

A complete rebuild or overhaul of an engine involves replacing all of the moving parts (pistons, rods, crankshaft, camshaft, etc.) with new ones and machining the non-moving wearing surfaces of the block and heads. Unfortunately, this may not be cost effective. For instance, your crankshaft may have been damaged or worn, but it can be machined undersize for a minimal fee.

So, as you can see, you can replace everything inside the engine, but, it is wiser to replace only those parts which are really needed, and, if possible, repair the more expensive ones. Later in this section, we will break the engine down into its two main components: the cylinder head and the engine block. We will discuss each component, and the recommended parts to replace during a rebuild on each.

Now that you have determined that your engine is worn out, you must make some decisions. The question of whether or not an engine is worth rebuilding is largely a subjective matter and one of personal worth. Is the engine a popular one, or is it an obsolete model- Are parts available- Will it get acceptable gas mileage once it is rebuilt- Is the car it's being put into worth keeping- Would it be less expensive to buy a new engine, have your engine rebuilt by a pro, rebuild it yourself or buy a used engine from a salvage yard- Or would it be simpler and less expensive to buy another car- If you have considered all these matters and more, and have still decided to rebuild the engine, then it is time to decide how you will rebuild it.


NOTE
The editors at Chilton feel that most engine machining should be performed by a professional machine shop. Don't think of it as wasting money, rather, as an assurance that the job has been done right the first time. There are many expensive and specialized tools required to perform such tasks as boring and honing an engine block or having a valve job done on a cylinder head. Even inspecting the parts requires expensive micrometers and gauges to properly measure wear and clearances. Also, a machine shop can deliver to you clean, and ready to assemble parts, saving you time and aggravation. Your maximum savings will come from performing the removal, disassembly, assembly and installation of the engine and purchasing or renting only the tools required to perform the above tasks. Depending on the particular circumstances, you may save 40 to 60 percent of the cost doing these yourself.

A complete rebuild or overhaul of an engine involves replacing all of the moving parts (pistons, rods, crankshaft, camshaft, etc.) with new ones and machining the non-moving wearing surfaces of the block and heads. Unfortunately, this may not be cost effective. For instance, your crankshaft may have been damaged or worn, but it can be machined undersize for a minimal fee.

So, as you can see, you can replace everything inside the engine, but, it is wiser to replace only those parts which are really needed, and, if possible, repair the more expensive ones. Later in this section, we will break the engine down into its two main components: the cylinder head and the engine block. We will discuss each component, and the recommended parts to replace during a rebuild on each.

Cylinder Block Reconditioning


Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Exploded view of a 2.0L engine crankshaft, block, and bearings



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. VR6 engine block, crankshaft and bearings

A thorough overhaul or rebuild of an engine block would include replacing the pistons, rings, bearings, timing belt/chain assembly and oil pump. For OHV engines also include a new camshaft and lifters. The block would then have the cylinders bored and honed oversize (or if using removable cylinder sleeves, new sleeves installed) and the crankshaft would be cut undersize to provide new wearing surfaces and perfect clearances. However, your particular engine may not have everything worn out. What if only the piston rings have worn out and the clearances on everything else are still within factory specifications- Well, you could just replace the rings and put it back together, but this would be a very rare example. Chances are, if one component in your engine is worn, other components are sure to follow, and soon. At the very least, you should always replace the rings, bearings and oil pump. This is what is commonly called a "freshen up".



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Exploded view of a 2.0L engine crankshaft, block, and bearings



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. VR6 engine block, crankshaft and bearings



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. An exploded view of the 2.8L V6 engine block and related components

A thorough overhaul or rebuild of an engine block would include replacing the pistons, rings, bearings, timing belt/chain assembly and oil pump. For OHV engines also include a new camshaft and lifters. The block would then have the cylinders bored and honed oversize (or if using removable cylinder sleeves, new sleeves installed) and the crankshaft would be cut undersize to provide new wearing surfaces and perfect clearances.

However, your particular engine may not have everything worn out. What if only the piston rings have worn out and the clearances on everything else are still within factory specifications- Well, you could just replace the rings and put it back together, but this would be a very rare example. Chances are, if one component in your engine is worn, other components are sure to follow, and soon. At the very least, you should always replace the rings, bearings and oil pump. This is what is commonly called a 'freshen up'.

Assembly

Before you begin assembling the engine, first give yourself a clean, dirt free work area. Next, clean every engine component again. The key to a good assembly is cleanliness.

Mount the engine block into the engine stand and wash it one last time using water and detergent (dishwashing detergent works well). While washing it, scrub the cylinder bores with a soft bristle brush and thoroughly clean all of the oil passages. Completely dry the engine and spray the entire assembly down with an anti-rust solution such as WD-40® or similar product. Take a clean lint-free rag and wipe up any excess anti-rust solution from the bores, bearing saddles, etc. Repeat the final cleaning process on the crankshaft. Replace any freeze or oil galley plugs which were removed during disassembly.

  1. Before you begin assembling the engine, first give yourself a clean, dirt free work area. Next, clean every engine component again. The key to a good assembly is cleanliness.
  2.  
  3. Mount the engine block into the engine stand and wash it one last time using water and detergent (dishwashing detergent works well). While washing it, scrub the cylinder bores with a soft bristle brush and thoroughly clean all of the oil passages. Completely dry the engine and spray the entire assembly down with an anti-rust solution such as WD-40® or similar product.
  4.  
  5. Take a clean lint-free rag and wipe up any excess anti-rust solution from the bores, bearing saddles, etc. Repeat the final cleaning process on the crankshaft. Replace any freeze or oil galley plugs which were removed during disassembly.
  6.  

Crankshaft


Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. View of a VR6 engine block and crankshaft

  1. Remove the main bearing inserts from the block and bearing caps.
  2.  
  3. If the crankshaft main bearing journals have been refinished to a definite undersize, install the correct undersize bearing. Be sure that the bearing inserts and bearing bores are clean. Foreign material under inserts will distort bearing and cause failure.
  4.  
  5. Place the upper main bearing inserts in bores with tang in slot.
  6.  


NOTE
The oil holes in the bearing inserts must be aligned with the oil holes in the cylinder block.

  1. Install the lower main bearing inserts in bearing caps.
  2.  
  3. Clean the mating surfaces of block and rear main bearing cap.
  4.  
  5. Carefully lower the crankshaft into place. Be careful not to damage bearing surfaces.
  6.  
  7. Check the clearance of each main bearing by using the following procedure:
    1. Place a piece of Plastigage® or its equivalent, on bearing surface across full width of bearing cap and about 1 / 4 in. off center.
    2.  

  8.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Apply a strip of gauging material to the bearing journal, then install and torque the cap

  1. Install cap and tighten bolts to specifications. Do not turn crankshaft while Plastigage® is in place.
  2.  
  3. Remove the cap. Using the supplied Plastigage® scale, check width of Plastigage® at widest point to get maximum clearance. Difference between readings is taper of journal.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. After the cap is removed again, use the scale supplied with the gauging material to check the clearance

  1. If clearance exceeds specified limits, try a 0.001 in. or 0.002 in. undersize bearing in combination with the standard bearing. Bearing clearance must be within specified limits. If standard and 0.002 in. undersize bearing does not bring clearance within desired limits, refinish crankshaft journal, then install undersize bearings.
  2.  

  1. Install the rear main seal.
  2.  
  3. After the bearings have been fitted, apply a light coat of engine oil to the journals and bearings. Install the rear main bearing cap. Install all bearing caps except the thrust bearing cap. Be sure that main bearing caps are installed in original locations. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to specifications.
  4.  
  5. Install the thrust bearing cap with bolts finger-tight.
  6.  
  7. Pry the crankshaft forward against the thrust surface of upper half of bearing.
  8.  
  9. Hold the crankshaft forward and pry the thrust bearing cap to the rear. This aligns the thrust surfaces of both halves of the bearing.
  10.  
  11. Retain the forward pressure on the crankshaft. Tighten the cap bolts to specifications.
  12.  
  13. Measure the crankshaft end-play as follows:
  14.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. A dial gauge may be used to check crankshaft end-play

  1. Mount a dial gauge to the engine block and position the tip of the gauge to read from the crankshaft end.
  2.  
  3. Carefully pry the crankshaft toward the rear of the engine and hold it there while you zero the gauge.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Carefully pry the crankshaft back and forth while reading the dial gauge for end-play

  1. Carefully pry the crankshaft toward the front of the engine and read the gauge.
  2.  
  3. Confirm that the reading is within specifications. If not, install a new thrust bearing and repeat the procedure. If the reading is still out of specifications with a new bearing, have a machine shop inspect the thrust surfaces of the crankshaft, and if possible, repair it.
  4.  

  1. Rotate the crankshaft so as to position the first rod journal to the bottom of its stroke.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. View of a VR6 engine block and crankshaft

  1. Remove the main bearing inserts from the block and bearing caps.
  2.  
  3. If the crankshaft main bearing journals have been refinished to a definite undersize, install the correct undersize bearing. Be sure that the bearing inserts and bearing bores are clean. Foreign material under inserts will distort bearing and cause failure.
  4.  
  5. Place the upper main bearing inserts in bores with tang in slot.
  6.  


NOTE
The oil holes in the bearing inserts must be aligned with the oil holes in the cylinder block.

  1. Install the lower main bearing inserts in bearing caps.
  2.  
  3. Clean the mating surfaces of block and rear main bearing cap.
  4.  
  5. Carefully lower the crankshaft into place. Be careful not to damage bearing surfaces.
  6.  
  7. Check the clearance of each main bearing by using the following procedure:
  8.  
    1. Place a piece of Plastigage® or its equivalent, on bearing surface across full width of bearing cap and about 1 / 4 inch off center.
    2.  




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Apply a strip of gauging material to the bearing journal, then install and torque the cap

  1. Install cap and tighten bolts to specifications. Do NOT turn crankshaft while Plastigage® is in place.
  2.  
  3. Remove the cap. Using the supplied Plastigage® scale, check width of Plastigage® at widest point to get maximum clearance. Difference between readings is taper of journal.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. After the cap is removed again, use the scale supplied with the gauging material to check the clearance

  1. If clearance exceeds specified limits, try a 0.001 inch or 0.002 inch undersize bearing in combination with the standard bearing. Bearing clearance must be within specified limits. If standard and 0.002 inch undersize bearing does not bring clearance within desired limits, refinish crankshaft journal, then install undersize bearings.
  2.  

  1. Install the rear main seal.
  2.  
  3. After the bearings have been fitted, apply a light coat of engine oil to the journals and bearings. Install the rear main bearing cap. Install all bearing caps except the thrust bearing cap. Be sure that main bearing caps are installed in original locations. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to specifications.
  4.  
  5. Install the thrust bearing cap with bolts finger-tight.
  6.  
  7. Pry the crankshaft forward against the thrust surface of upper half of bearing.
  8.  
  9. Hold the crankshaft forward and pry the thrust bearing cap to the rear. This aligns the thrust surfaces of both halves of the bearing.
  10.  
  11. Retain the forward pressure on the crankshaft. Tighten the cap bolts to specifications.
  12.  
  13. Measure the crankshaft endplay as follows:
  14.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. A dial gauge may be used to check crankshaft endplay

  1. Mount a dial gauge to the engine block and position the tip of the gauge to read from the crankshaft end.
  2.  
  3. Carefully pry the crankshaft toward the rear of the engine and hold it there while you zero the gauge.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Carefully pry the crankshaft back and forth while reading the dial gauge for endplay

  1. Carefully pry the crankshaft toward the front of the engine and read the gauge.
  2.  
  3. Confirm that the reading is within specifications. If not, install a new thrust bearing and repeat the procedure. If the reading is still out of specifications with a new bearing, have a machine shop inspect the thrust surfaces of the crankshaft, and if possible, repair it.
  4.  

  1. Rotate the crankshaft so as to position the first rod journal to the bottom of its stroke.
  2.  

Cylinder Heads
  1. Install the cylinder head(s) using new gaskets.
  2.  
  3. Install the timing sprockets/gears and the belt/chain assemblies.
  4.  

  1. Install the cylinder head(s) using new gaskets.
  2.  
  3. Install the timing sprockets/gears and the belt/chain assemblies.
  4.  

Engine Covers & Components

Install the timing cover(s) and oil pan. Refer to your notes and drawings made prior to disassembly and install all of the components that were removed. Install the engine into the vehicle.

Install the timing cover(s) and oil pan. Refer to your notes and drawings made prior to disassembly and install all of the components that were removed. Install the engine into the vehicle.

Pistons & Connecting Rods
  1. Before installing the piston/connecting rod assembly, oil the pistons, piston rings and the cylinder walls with light engine oil. Install connecting rod bolt protectors or rubber hose onto the connecting rod bolts/studs. Also perform the following:
    1. Select the proper ring set for the size cylinder bore.
    2.  
    3. Position the ring in the bore in which it is going to be used.
    4.  
    5. Push the ring down into the bore area where normal ring wear is not encountered.
    6.  
    7. Use the head of the piston to position the ring in the bore so that the ring is square with the cylinder wall. Use caution to avoid damage to the ring or cylinder bore.
    8.  
    9. Measure the gap between the ends of the ring with a feeler gauge. Ring gap in a worn cylinder is normally greater than specification. If the ring gap is greater than the specified limits, try an oversize ring set.
    10.  

  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Checking the piston ring-to-ring groove side clearance using the ring and a feeler gauge

  1. Check the ring side clearance of the compression rings with a feeler gauge inserted between the ring and its lower land according to specification. The gauge should slide freely around the entire ring circumference without binding. Any wear that occurs will form a step at the inner portion of the lower land. If the lower lands have high steps, the piston should be replaced.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. The notch on the side of the bearing cap matches the tang on the bearing insert

  1. Unless new pistons are installed, be sure to install the pistons in the cylinders from which they were removed. The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one engine or cylinder to another, new bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be numbered to correspond with the new cylinder number. The notch on the piston head goes toward the front of the engine.
  2.  
  3. Install all of the rod bearing inserts into the rods and caps.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Most rings are marked to show which side of the ring should face up when installed to the piston

  1. Install the rings to the pistons. Install the oil control ring first, then the second compression ring and finally the top compression ring. Use a piston ring expander tool to aid in installation and to help reduce the chance of breakage.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Install the piston and rod assembly into the block using a ring compressor and the handle of a hammer

  1. Make sure the ring gaps are properly spaced around the circumference of the piston. Fit a piston ring compressor around the piston and slide the piston and connecting rod assembly down into the cylinder bore, pushing it in with the wooden hammer handle. Push the piston down until it is only slightly below the top of the cylinder bore. Guide the connecting rod onto the crankshaft bearing journal carefully, to avoid damaging the crankshaft.
  2.  
  3. Check the bearing clearance of all the rod bearings, fitting them to the crankshaft bearing journals. Follow the procedure in the crankshaft installation above.
  4.  
  5. After the bearings have been fitted, apply a light coating of assembly oil to the journals and bearings.
  6.  
  7. Turn the crankshaft until the appropriate bearing journal is at the bottom of its stroke, then push the piston assembly all the way down until the connecting rod bearing seats on the crankshaft journal. Be careful not to allow the bearing cap screws to strike the crankshaft bearing journals and damage them.
  8.  
  9. After the piston and connecting rod assemblies have been installed, check the connecting rod side clearance on each crankshaft journal.
  10.  
  11. Prime and install the oil pump and the oil pump intake tube.
  12.  
  13. Install the auxiliary/balance shaft(s)/assembly(ies).
  14.  

  1. Before installing the piston/connecting rod assembly, oil the pistons, piston rings and the cylinder walls with light engine oil. Install connecting rod bolt protectors or rubber hose onto the connecting rod bolts/studs. Also perform the following:
  2.  
    1. Select the proper ring set for the size cylinder bore.
    2.  
    3. Position the ring in the bore in which it is going to be used.
    4.  
    5. Push the ring down into the bore area where normal ring wear is not encountered.
    6.  
    7. Use the head of the piston to position the ring in the bore so that the ring is square with the cylinder wall. Use caution to avoid damage to the ring or cylinder bore.
    8.  
    9. Measure the gap between the ends of the ring with a feeler gauge. Ring gap in a worn cylinder is normally greater than specification. If the ring gap is greater than the specified limits, try an oversize ring set.
    10.  




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Checking the piston ring-to-ring groove side clearance using the ring and a feeler gauge

  1. Check the ring side clearance of the compression rings with a feeler gauge inserted between the ring and its lower land according to specification. The gauge should slide freely around the entire ring circumference without binding. Any wear that occurs will form a step at the inner portion of the lower land. If the lower lands have high steps, the piston should be replaced.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. The notch on the side of the bearing cap matches the tang on the bearing insert

  1. Unless new pistons are installed, be sure to install the pistons in the cylinders from which they were removed. The numbers on the connecting rod and bearing cap must be on the same side when installed in the cylinder bore. If a connecting rod is ever transposed from one engine or cylinder to another, new bearings should be fitted and the connecting rod should be numbered to correspond with the new cylinder number. The notch on the piston head goes toward the front of the engine.
  2.  
  3. Install all of the rod bearing inserts into the rods and caps.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Most rings are marked to show which side of the ring should face up when installed to the piston

  1. Install the rings to the pistons. Install the oil control ring first, then the second compression ring and finally the top compression ring. Use a piston ring expander tool to aid in installation and to help reduce the chance of breakage.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Install the piston and rod assembly into the block using a ring compressor and the handle of a hammer

  1. Make sure the ring gaps are properly spaced around the circumference of the piston. Fit a piston ring compressor around the piston and slide the piston and connecting rod assembly down into the cylinder bore, pushing it in with the wooden hammer handle. Push the piston down until it is only slightly below the top of the cylinder bore. Guide the connecting rod onto the crankshaft bearing journal carefully, to avoid damaging the crankshaft.
  2.  
  3. Check the bearing clearance of all the rod bearings, fitting them to the crankshaft bearing journals. Follow the procedure in the crankshaft installation above.
  4.  
  5. After the bearings have been fitted, apply a light coating of assembly oil to the journals and bearings.
  6.  
  7. Turn the crankshaft until the appropriate bearing journal is at the bottom of its stroke, then push the piston assembly all the way down until the connecting rod bearing seats on the crankshaft journal. Be careful not to allow the bearing cap screws to strike the crankshaft bearing journals and damage them.
  8.  
  9. After the piston and connecting rod assemblies have been installed, check the connecting rod side clearance on each crankshaft journal.
  10.  
  11. Prime and install the oil pump and the oil pump intake tube.
  12.  
  13. Install the auxiliary and/or balance shaft(s).
  14.  

 
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