Volkswagen Cars 2000-05

Starter

Print

Removal & Installation




NOTE
On A1 and A2 platform vehicles equipped with 010 automatic transaxle, access to the starter motor is limited. Although not necessary, it is recommended that the intake and exhaust manifolds be removed to access the starter.

  1. For safety purposes, disconnect the battery ground cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and safely support the front of the vehicle with jackstands.
  4.  
  5. For A3 vehicles, use a floor jack (with a block of wood on the chock) to support the engine by the oil pan. Do NOT jack the car by the oil pan under any circumstances! The floor jack is ONLY to support the engine while the starter is being removed. The bolts that secure the starter to the transaxle are also used to secure the front engine mount to the transaxle.
  6.  
  7. If necessary, label the small wires before disconnecting them.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the large cable, which is the positive battery cable, from the solenoid.
  10.  
  11. On 010 transaxle-equipped vehicles, remove the bracket that secures the starter to the engine.
  12.  
  13. Remove the starter mounting bolts, while supporting the weight of the starter.
  14.  
  15. Pull the starter straight out from the transaxle.
  16.  

To install:


NOTE
On vehicles with a manual transaxle, there is a bushing where the starter shaft fits into the bell housing. If the shaft or bushing are worn or if the starter has been jamming, the bushing should be replaced. There is a special bushing removal tool available but a small inside bearing removal tool is usually sufficient.

  1. Install the starter into the transaxle.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the starter mounting bolts as follows:
    1. All vehicles except 010 transaxle:
    2.  



    M8 nut: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
     
    M10 nut and bolt: 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
     
    M12 bolt: 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm)
     
    010 transaxle only:
     

    1. Mounting flange bolt: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
    2.  
    3. Mounting bracket bolt: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
    4.  

  4.  
  5. Attach the electrical connections to the starter.
  6.  


NOTE
Be careful not to over tighten the battery cable connection. The metal is soft and the threads will strip easily.



Lower the vehicle from the jackstands.
 
Connect the negative battery cable.
 


NOTE
On A1 and A2 platform vehicles equipped with 010 automatic transaxle, access to the starter motor is limited. Although not necessary, it is recommended that the intake and exhaust manifolds be removed to access the starter.

  1. For safety purposes, disconnect the battery ground cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and safely support the front of the vehicle with jackstands.
  4.  
  5. For A3 vehicles, use a floor jack (with a block of wood on the chock) to support the engine by the oil pan. Do NOT jack the car by the oil pan under any circumstances! The floor jack is ONLY to support the engine while the starter is being removed. The bolts that secure the starter to the transaxle are also used to secure the front engine mount to the transaxle.
  6.  
  7. If necessary, label the small wires before disconnecting them.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the large cable, which is the positive battery cable, from the solenoid.
  10.  
  11. On 010 transaxle-equipped vehicles, remove the bracket that secures the starter to the engine.
  12.  
  13. Remove the starter mounting bolts, while supporting the weight of the starter.
  14.  
  15. Pull the starter straight out from the transaxle.
  16.  

To install:


NOTE
On vehicles with a manual transaxle, there is a bushing where the starter shaft fits into the bell housing. If the shaft or bushing are worn or if the starter has been jamming, the bushing should be replaced. There is a special bushing removal tool available but a small inside bearing removal tool is usually sufficient.

  1. Install the starter into the transaxle.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the starter mounting bolts as follows:
    1. All vehicles except 010 transaxle:
    2.  



    M8 nut: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
     
    M10 nut and bolt: 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
     
    M12 bolt: 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm)
     
    010 transaxle only:
     

    1. Mounting flange bolt: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
    2.  
    3. Mounting bracket bolt: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
    4.  

  4.  
  5. Attach the electrical connections to the starter.
  6.  


NOTE
Be careful not to over tighten the battery cable connection. The metal is soft and the threads will strip easily.



Lower the vehicle from the jackstands.
 
Connect the negative battery cable.
 



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. After the negative battery cable is disconnected, remove the wire terminals from the starter solenoid



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Remove the lower starter mounting bolts . . .



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. . . . followed by the upper bolt, then remove the starter from the transaxle housing



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Lower starter bolt locations-1994 2.0L, 2.0L ABA



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Remove the upper starter bolts



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Mark the location and length of each starter bolt



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Remove the starter



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Close up view of the starter drive gear



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. When the solenoid is energized the starter drive is pushed out and meshes with the flywheel to crank the engine

  1. Note the radio security code, and then disconnect the battery ground cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and safely support the front of the vehicle with jackstands.
  4.  
  5. If installed, remove the lower engine shield.
  6.  


NOTE
The engine must be supported on 1990-97 Passat models as the starter mounting bolts also support the engine-to-transmission mounting surface.

  1. If necessary, label the small wires before disconnecting them.
  2.  
  3. On 1990-97 Passat models:
  4.  
    1. To support the weight of the engine and transaxle, install the engine support Tool Nos. 10-222A and 10-222A/1, or use a floor jack (with a block of wood on the chock) to support the engine by the oil pan. Do NOT jack the car by the oil pan under any circumstances! The floor jack is ONLY to support the engine while the starter is being removed. This is necessary because the bolts that secure the starter to the transaxle are also used to secure the front engine mount to the transaxle.
    2.  
    3. Disconnect the large cable, which is the positive battery cable, from the solenoid.
    4.  
    5. If equipped, remove the bracket that secures the starter to the engine.
    6.  

  5. On Audi A4 and 1998-00 Passat models:
  6.  
    1. Release the number 50 electrical connector from the starter.
    2.  
    3. Then remove the nut for the large battery cable and remove the cable.
    4.  
    5. Loosen then remove the clamp that secures the heat shield to the starter.
    6.  
    7. Remove the fasteners securing the bracket at the front of the starter and remove the bracket.
    8.  

  7. Remove the starter mounting bolts, while supporting the weight of the starter.
  8.  
  9. Pull the starter straight out from the transaxle.
  10.  

To install:


NOTE
On vehicles with a manual transaxle, there is a bushing where the starter shaft fits into the bell housing. If the shaft or bushing is worn or if the starter has been jamming, the bushing should be replaced. There is a special bushing removal tool available but a small inside bearing removal tool is usually sufficient.

  1. Install the starter into the transaxle.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the related starter motor fasteners as follows:
  4.  


    Starter support bracket, M5 nut: 35 inch lbs. (4 Nm)
     
    Starter support bracket, M8: 16 ft. lbs. (22Nm)
     
    Battery cable to solenoid, M8 nut:10 ft. lbs. (13Nm)
     
    hydraulic hose support bracket, M8: 84 inch lbs. (10Nm)
     
    Starter mounting fasteners, M10: 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
     
    Starter mounting fasteners, M12: 48 ft. lbs. (65 Nm)
     

  5. The balance of the installation is in reverse order of removal.
  6.  


NOTE
Be careful not to over tighten the battery cable connection. The metal is soft and the threads will strip easily.

  1. Lower the vehicle from the jackstands.
  2.  
  3. Connect the negative battery cable and enter the radio security code.
  4.  

All Others


Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. After the negative battery cable is disconnected, remove the wire terminals from the starter solenoid



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Remove the lower starter mounting bolts . . .



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. . . . followed by the upper bolt, then remove the starter from the transaxle housing



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Lower starter bolt locations-1994 2.0L, 8 valve



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Remove the upper starter bolts



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Mark the location and length of each starter bolt



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Remove the starter



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Close up view of the starter drive gear



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. When the solenoid is energized the starter drive is pushed out and meshes with the flywheel to crank the engine


NOTE
On A1 and A2 platform vehicles equipped with 010 automatic transaxle, access to the starter motor is limited. Although not necessary, it is recommended that the intake and exhaust manifolds be removed to access the starter.

  1. For safety purposes, disconnect the battery ground cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and safely support the front of the vehicle with jackstands.
  4.  
  5. For A3 vehicles, use a floor jack (with a block of wood on the chock) to support the engine by the oil pan. Do NOT jack the car by the oil pan under any circumstances! The floor jack is ONLY to support the engine while the starter is being removed. The bolts that secure the starter to the transaxle are also used to secure the front engine mount to the transaxle.
  6.  
  7. If necessary, label the small wires before disconnecting them.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the large cable, which is the positive battery cable, from the solenoid.
  10.  
  11. On 010 transaxle-equipped vehicles, remove the bracket that secures the starter to the engine.
  12.  
  13. Remove the starter mounting bolts, while supporting the weight of the starter.
  14.  
  15. Pull the starter straight out from the transaxle.
  16.  

To install:


NOTE
On vehicles with a manual transaxle, there is a bushing where the starter shaft fits into the bell housing. If the shaft or bushing are worn or if the starter has been jamming, the bushing should be replaced. There is a special bushing removal tool available but a small inside bearing removal tool is usually sufficient.

  1. Install the starter into the transaxle.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the starter mounting bolts as follows:
    1. All vehicles except 010 transaxle:

      M8 nut: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
       
      M10 nut and bolt: 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
       
      M12 bolt: 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm)
       

    2.  
    3. 010 transaxle only:

      Mounting flange bolt: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
       
      Mounting bracket bolt: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
       

    4.  

  4.  
  5. Attach the electrical connections to the starter.
  6.  


NOTE
Be careful not to over tighten the battery cable connection. The metal is soft and the threads will strip easily.

  1. Lower the vehicle from the jackstands.
  2.  
  3. Connect the negative battery cable.
  4.  

Diesel Engines

NOTE
On A1 and A2 platform vehicles equipped with 010 automatic transaxle, access to the starter motor is limited. Although not necessary, it is recommended that the intake and exhaust manifolds be removed to access the starter.

  1. For safety purposes, disconnect the battery ground cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and safely support the front of the vehicle with jackstands.
  4.  
  5. For A3 vehicles, use a floor jack (with a block of wood on the chock) to support the engine by the oil pan. Do NOT jack the car by the oil pan under any circumstances! The floor jack is ONLY to support the engine while the starter is being removed. The bolts that secure the starter to the transaxle are also used to secure the front engine mount to the transaxle.
  6.  
  7. If necessary, label the small wires before disconnecting them.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the large cable, which is the positive battery cable, from the solenoid.
  10.  
  11. On 010 transaxle-equipped vehicles, remove the bracket that secures the starter to the engine.
  12.  
  13. Remove the starter mounting bolts, while supporting the weight of the starter.
  14.  
  15. Pull the starter straight out from the transaxle.
  16.  

To install:


NOTE
On vehicles with a manual transaxle, there is a bushing where the starter shaft fits into the bell housing. If the shaft or bushing are worn or if the starter has been jamming, the bushing should be replaced. There is a special bushing removal tool available but a small inside bearing removal tool is usually sufficient.

  1. Install the starter into the transaxle.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the starter mounting bolts as follows:
    1. All vehicles except 010 transaxle:

      M8 nut: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
       
      M10 nut and bolt: 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
       
      M12 bolt: 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm)
       

    2.  
    3. 010 transaxle only:

      Mounting flange bolt: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
       
      Mounting bracket bolt: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
       

    4.  

  4.  
  5. Attach the electrical connections to the starter.
    NOTE
    Be careful not to over tighten the battery cable connection. The metal is soft and the threads will strip easily.

  6.  
  7. Lower the vehicle from the jackstands.
  8.  
  9. Connect the negative battery cable.
  10.  

Gasoline Engines

NOTE
On A1 and A2 platform vehicles equipped with 010 automatic transaxle, access to the starter motor is limited. Although not necessary, it is recommended that the intake and exhaust manifolds be removed to access the starter.

  1. For safety purposes, disconnect the battery ground cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and safely support the front of the vehicle with jackstands.
  4.  
  5. On some vehicles (A3 vehicles, for example) may require the use of a floor jack (with a block of wood on the chock) to support the engine by the oil pan. Do NOT jack the car by the oil pan under any circumstances! The floor jack is ONLY to support the engine while the starter is being removed. The bolts that secure the starter to the transaxle are also used to secure the front engine mount to the transaxle.
  6.  
  7. If necessary, label the small wires before disconnecting them.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the large cable, which is the positive battery cable, from the solenoid.
  10.  
  11. If equipped, remove the bracket that secures the starter to the engine.
  12.  
  13. Remove the starter mounting bolts, while supporting the weight of the starter.
  14.  
  15. Pull the starter straight out from the transaxle.
  16.  

To install:


NOTE
On vehicles with a manual transaxle, there is a bushing where the starter shaft fits into the bell housing. If the shaft or bushing are worn or if the starter has been jamming, the bushing should be replaced. There is a special bushing removal tool available but a small inside bearing removal tool is usually sufficient.

  1. Install the starter into the transaxle.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the starter mounting bolts as follows:
    1. All vehicles except 010 transaxle:

      M8 nut: 89 inch lbs. (10 Nm)
       
      M10 nut and bolt: 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
       
      M12 bolt: 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm)
       

    2.  
    3. 010 transaxle only:

      Mounting flange bolt: 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
       
      Mounting bracket bolt: 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm)
       

    4.  

  4.  
  5. Attach the electrical connections to the starter.
    NOTE
    Be careful not to over tighten the battery cable connection. The metal is soft and the threads will strip easily.

  6.  
  7. Lower the vehicle from the jackstands.
  8.  
  9. Connect the negative battery cable.
  10.  

Testing & Troubleshooting



Feed Circuit Resistance Test

Before proceeding with this test, refer to the battery tests and starter feed circuit test. The following test will require a voltmeter, which is capable of accuracy to 0.1 volt.


CAUTION
The ignition system must be disabled to prevent engine start while performing the following tests.

  1. Disable the ignition system.
  2.  
  3. With all wiring harnesses and components (except for the coils) properly connected, perform the following:
  4.  
    1. Connect the negative ( - ) lead of the voltmeter to the negative battery post, and the positive ( + ) lead to the negative ( - ) battery cable clamp. Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the START position. Observe the voltmeter. If the voltage is detected, correct the poor contact between the cable clamp and post.
    2.  
    3. Connect the positive ( + ) lead of the voltmeter to the positive battery post, and the negative ( - ) to the positive battery cable clamp. Rotate and hold the ignition switch key in the START position. Observe the voltmeter. If voltage is detected, correct the poor contact between the cable clamp and post.
    4.  
    5. Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the negative battery terminal, and positive lead to the engine block near the battery cable attaching point. Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the START position. If the voltage reads above 0.2 volt, correct the poor contact at ground cable attaching point. If the voltage reading is still above 0.2 volt after correcting the poor contact, replace the negative ground cable with a new one.
    6.  

  5. Refer to removal and installation procedures to gain access to the starter motor and solenoid connections. Perform the following steps:
  6.  
    1. Connect the positive ( + ) voltmeter lead to the starter motor housing and the negative ( - ) lead to the negative battery terminal. Hold the ignition switch key in the START position. If the voltage reads above 0.2 volt, correct the poor starter to engine ground.
    2.  
    3. Connect the positive ( + ) voltmeter lead to the positive battery terminal, and the negative lead to the battery cable terminal on the starter solenoid. Rotate and hold the ignition key in the START position. If the voltage reads above 0.2 volt, correct poor contact at the battery cable to the solenoid connection. If the reading is still above 0.2 volt after correcting the poor contacts, replace the positive battery cable with a new one.
    4.  
    5. If the resistance tests did not detect feed circuit failures, refer to the starter solenoid test.
    6.  


Feed Circuit Test

CAUTION
The ignition system must be disabled to prevent engine start while performing the following tests.

  1. Connect a volt-ampere tester (multimeter) to the battery terminals.
  2.  
  3. Disable the ignition system.
  4.  
  5. Verify that all lights and accessories are off, and the transmission shift selector is in Park (automatic) or Neutral (manual). Set the parking brake.
  6.  
  7. Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the START position. Observe the volt-ampere tester:
  8.  


    If the voltage reads above 9.6 volts, and the amperage draw reads above 250 amps, go to the starter feed circuit resistance test (following this test).
     
    If the voltage reads 12.4 volts or greater and the amperage reads 0-10 amps, refer to the starter solenoid and relay tests.
     



WARNING
Do NOT overheat the starter motor or draw the battery voltage below 9.6 volts during cranking operations.

  1. After the starting system problems have been corrected, verify the battery state of charge and charge the battery if necessary. Disconnect all of the testing equipment and connect the ignition coil cable or ignition coil connector. Start the vehicle several times to assure the problem was corrected.
  2.  

Starter/Ground Cable Test

When performing these tests, it is important that the voltmeter be connected to the terminals, not the cables themselves.

Before testing, assure that the ignition control module (if equipped) is disconnected, the parking brake is set, the transmission is in Park (automatic) or Neutral (manual), and the battery is fully charged and in good condition.

  1. Check voltage between the positive battery post and the center of the B+ terminal on the starter solenoid stud.
  2.  
  3. Check voltage between the negative battery post and the engine block.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the ignition coil wire from the distributor cap and connect a suitable jumper wire between the coil cable and a good body ground.
  6.  
  7. Have an assistant crank the engine and measure voltage again. Voltage drop should not exceed 0.5 volts.
  8.  
  9. If voltage drop is greater than 0.5 volts, clean metal surfaces. Apply a thick layer of silicone grease. Install a new cadmium plated bolt and star washer on the battery terminal and a new brass nut on the starter solenoid. Retest and replace cable not within specifications.
  10.  


NOTE
Many automotive parts stores have starter bench testers available for use by customers. A starter motor bench test is one of the most definitive methods in determining the condition of a starter motor.

Testing Preparation

NOTE
The air temperature should be between 59-100°F (15-38°C) before any testing.

The starting system consists of an ignition switch, starter relay, neutral safety switch, wiring harness, battery, and a starter motor with an integral solenoid. These components form two separate circuits: a high amperage circuit that feeds the starter motor up to 300 or more amps, and a control circuit that operates on less than 20 amps.

Before commencing with the starting system diagnostics, verify:



The battery posts and terminals are clean.
 
The alternator drive belt tension and condition is correct.
 
The battery state-of-charge is correct.
 
The battery cable connections at the starter and engine block are clean and free from corrosion.
 
The wiring harness connectors and terminals are clean and free from corrosion.
 
Proper circuit grounding.
 

Voltage Drop Test

NOTE
The battery must be in good condition and fully charged prior to performing this test.

  1. Disable the ignition system by unplugging the coil pack. Verify that the vehicle will not start.
  2.  
  3. Connect a voltmeter between the positive terminal of the battery and the starter B+ circuit.
  4.  
  5. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage on the meter.
  6.  
  7. If voltage reads 0.5 volts or more, there is high resistance in the starter cables or the cable ground, repair as necessary. If the voltage reading is ok proceed to the next step.
  8.  
  9. Connect a voltmeter between the positive terminal of the battery and the starter M circuit.
  10.  
  11. Turn the ignition key to the START position and note the voltage on the meter.
  12.  
  13. If voltage reads 0.5 volts or more, there is high resistance in the starter. Repair or replace the starter as necessary.
  14.  


NOTE
Many automotive parts stores have starter bench testers available for use by customers. A starter bench test is the most definitive way to determine the condition of your starter.

 
label.common.footer.alt.autozoneLogo