Volvo 240/740/760/780/940/960 1990-1998

Cylinder Head

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



2.3L 4-Cylinder Engine

See Figures 1 and 2

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Drain the engine oil.
  4.  
  5. Remove the overflow tank cap and drain the coolant.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the upper radiator hose.
  8.  
  9. Remove the distributor cap and wires.
  10.  
  11. Remove the PCV hoses.
  12.  
  13. Remove the EGR valve and vacuum pump.
  14.  
  15. Remove the air pump, if equipped, and air injection manifold.
  16.  
  17. Disconnect and remove all hoses to the turbocharger, if equipped. Plug all open hoses and holes immediately.
  18.  
  19. Remove the exhaust manifold and header pipe bracket.
  20.  
  21. Remove the intake manifold.
  22.  
  23. Remove the fuel injectors.
  24.  
  25. Remove the valve cover.
  26.  
  27. Remove the fan and shroud.
  28.  
  29. Set the engine to TDC of the No. 1 cylinder.
  30.  
  31. Remove the timing belt
  32.  
  33. Loosen the cylinder head bolts by reversing the torque sequence.
  34.  
  35. Remove the cylinder head.
  36.  

The cylinder head should be cleaned and inspected prior to installation. For general cylinder head inspection and overhaul procedures, refer to Engine Reconditioning later in this section.

To install:
  1. Check the position of the crankshaft. No. 1 piston should be at TDC. Check the position of the camshaft for cylinder No. 1. Both lobes should be in such a position that if the head were installed, the valves would be closed.
  2.  
  3. Install the cylinder head gasket and the cylinder head.
  4.  
  5. Coat a new O-ring for the water pump with coolant and install it in place.
  6.  
  7. Apply a light coat of oil to the head bolts and install.
  8.  
  9. Tighten the head bolts in three steps using the proper sequence.
    1. Step 1-Tighten all bolts to 14 ft. lbs. (20 Nm).
    2.  
    3. Step 2-Tighten all bolts to 43 ft. lbs. (60 Nm).
    4.  
    5. Step 3-Angle tighten all bolts an additional 90 degrees.
    6.  

  10.  
  11. Install the timing belt.
  12.  
  13. Install the shroud and fan.
  14.  
  15. Install the drive belts and pulleys.
  16.  
  17. Install the intake manifold, fuel injection system, throttle cable and valve covers.
  18.  
  19. Install the exhaust manifold and header pipe.
  20.  
  21. Install the air pump assembly.
  22.  
  23. If equipped with a turbocharger, install the turbocharger and related parts.
  24.  
  25. Install the EGR valve, vacuum pump, PCV hoses, distributor cap and wires, and the overflow tank.
  26.  
  27. Connect the negative battery cable.
  28.  
  29. Fill the radiator with coolant, check the engine oil and transmission fluid.
  30.  
  31. Start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperature.
  32.  
  33. Check the timing.
  34.  



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Fig. Fig. 1: Positioning the cylinder head and gasket on the engine block. Check that the water pump O-ring sits correctly in the groove



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Fig. Fig. 2: Cylinder head bolt torque sequence for the 2.3L 4-cylinder engines

2.8L 6-Cylinder Engine

See Figures 3, 4 and 5

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Drain the engine oil.
  4.  
  5. Drain the coolant.
  6.  
  7. Remove the air cleaner assembly and all attaching hoses.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the throttle cable. On automatic transmission equipped vehicles, disconnect the kickdown cable.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect the EGR vacuum hose and remove the pipe between the EGR valve and manifold.
  12.  
  13. Remove the oil filler cap and cover the hole with a rag.
  14.  
  15. Disconnect the PCV pipe(s) from the intake manifold.
  16.  
  17. Remove the front section of the intake manifold.
  18.  
  19. Unplug the electrical connector and fuel line at the cold start injector.
  20.  
  21. Remove the vacuum hose, both fuel lines. and the electrical connector from the control pressure regulator.
  22.  
  23. Remove the hose, pipe and electrical connector from the auxiliary air valve.
  24.  
  25. Remove the auxiliary air valve.
  26.  
  27. Remove the electrical connector from the fuel distributor.
  28.  
  29. Remove the wire loom from the intake manifolds.
  30.  
  31. Remove the spark plug wires.
  32.  
  33. Turn the engine to TDC of the No. 1 cylinder by aligning the notch on the distributor with the rotor.
  34.  
  35. Disconnect the fuel injectors from their holders.
  36.  
  37. Disconnect the distributor vacuum hose, carbon filter hose and diverter valve hose from the intake manifold.
  38.  
  39. Disconnect the power brake hose and heater hose at the intake manifold.
  40.  
  41. Disconnect the throttle control link from it pulley.
  42.  
  43. If equipped with an EGR vacuum amplifier, disconnect the wires from the throttle micro-switch and solenoid valve.
  44.  
  45. At the firewall, disconnect the fuel lines from the fuel filter and return line.
  46.  
  47. Remove the 2 attaching screws and lift out the fuel distributor and throttle housing assembly.
  48.  
  49. If not equipped with an EGR vacuum amplifier, disconnect the EGR valve hose from under the throttle housing.
  50.  
  51. Remove the cold start injector, rubber ring and pipe.
  52.  
  53. Remove the 4 retaining bolts and lift off the intake manifold.
  54.  
  55. Remove the rubber rings.
  56.  
  57. Remove the splash guard under the engine.
  58.  
  59. If removing the left cylinder head, remove the air pump from its bracket.
  60.  
  61. If removing the right cylinder head, disconnect the upper radiator hose.
  62.  
  63. On air conditioned vehicles, remove the air conditioning compressor and secure it aside. Do not disconnect the refrigerant lines.
  64.  
  65. Disconnect the distributor leads and remove the distributor.
  66.  
  67. Remove the EGR valve, bracket and pipe.
  68.  
  69. At the firewall, Remove the electrical connectors at the relays.
  70.  
  71. On air conditioned vehicles, remove the rear compressor bracket.
  72.  
  73. Disconnect the coolant hose(s) from the water pump to the cylinder head(s). If removing the left cylinder head disconnect the lower radiator hose at the water pump.
  74.  
  75. Disconnect the air injection system supply hose from the applicable cylinder head. Separate the air manifold at the rear of the engine. If removing the left cylinder head, remove the backfire valve and air hose.
  76.  
  77. Remove the valve cover(s).
  78.  
  79. On the left cylinder head, remove the Allen head screw and 4 upper bolts to the timing gear cover.
  80.  
  81. On the right cylinder head, remove the 4 upper bolts to the timing gear cover and the front cover plate.
  82.  
  83. From under the vehicle, remove the exhaust pipe clamps for both header pipes.
  84.  
  85. If removing the right cylinder head, remove the retainer bracket bolts and pull the dipstick tube out of the crankcase.
  86.  
  87. Remove the applicable exhaust manifold(s).
  88.  
  89. Remove the cover plate at the rear of the cylinder head.
  90.  
  91. Rotate the camshaft sprocket, for the applicable cylinder head, into position so the large sprocket hole aligns with the rocker arm shaft. With the camshaft in this position, loosen the cylinder head bolts, in sequence, same sequence as tightening, and remove the rocker arm and shaft assembly.
  92.  
  93. Loosen the camshaft retaining fork bolt, directly in back of sprocket, and slide the fork away from the camshaft.
  94.  
  95. Next, it is necessary to hold the cam chain stretched during camshaft removal. Otherwise, the chain tensioner will automatically take up the slack, making it impossible to reinstall the sprocket on the cam without removing the timing chain cover to loosen the tensioner device. To accomplish this, a sprocket retainer tool 999 5104 or equivalent is installed over the sprocket with 2 bolts in the top of the timing chain cover. A bolt is then screwed into the sprocket to hold it in place.
  96.  
  97. Remove the camshaft sprocket center bolt and push the camshaft to the rear, so it clears the sprocket.
  98.  
  99. Remove the cylinder head.
  100.  

Do not remove the cylinder head by pulling straight up. Instead, lever the head off by inserting 2 spare head bolts into the front and rear inboard cylinder head bolt holes and pulling toward the applicable wheel housing. Otherwise, the cylinder liners may be pulled up, breaking the lower liner seal and leaking coolant into the crankcase. If any do pull up, new liner seals must be used and the crankcase completely drained. If the head(s) seem stuck, gently tap around the edges of the head(s) with a rubber mallet, to break the joint.

  1. Remove the head gasket.
  2.  
  3. Clean the contact surfaces with a plastic scraper and lacquer thinner.
  4.  
  5. If the head is going to be off for any length of time, install liner holders tool 999 5093 or 2 strips of thick stock steel with holes for the head bolts, so the liners stay pressed down against their seals. Install the holders width-wise between the middle 4 head bolt holes.
  6.  

To install:
  1. If the dowels at the outboard corners of the block have slipped down, use a pair of needle-nose pliers to retrieve them. Prop them up with an 1 / 8 inch (3mm). Remember to keep the timing chain taunt during cylinder head installation.
  2.  
  3. Remove the liner holders and install the head gaskets. The left and right head gaskets are different, ensure the correct one is installed.
  4.  
  5. Install the cylinder head.
  6.  
  7. Install the camshaft and remove the timing chain retainer tool.
  8.  
  9. Install the head bolts finger-tight after lubricating with oil.
  10.  
  11. On 1990 asbestos-free gasket, with fixed-washer bolts, tighten all bolts in stages as follows:
    1. Tighten the bolts to 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm).
    2.  
    3. Loosen bolts, tighten it to 30 ft. lbs. (40 Nm).
    4.  
    5. Angle-tighten to 160-180 degrees.
    6.  

  12.  
  13. Except 1990 asbestos-free gasket, with fixed-washer bolts, tighten all bolts in stages as follows:
    1. Tighten bolts to 43 ft. lbs. (60 Nm).
    2.  
    3. Loosen bolt 1, then tighten it to 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm).
    4.  
    5. Angle-tighten to 106 degrees, using special tool 5098 or equivalent.
    6.  
    7. Repeat this for remaining bolts in sequence shown. Loosen and tighten each bolt in turn.
    8.  

  14.  

After the engine has been warmed-up, angle-tighten each bolt a further 45 degrees.

  1. Install the camshaft center bolt and tighten to 52-66 ft. lbs. (70-89 Nm).
  2.  
  3. Install the timing gear case and rear cylinder head covers.
  4.  
  5. Check and adjust the valve lash.
  6.  
  7. After adjusting valve lash, turn the engine to TDC on No. 1 piston.
  8.  
  9. Install the valve covers, air injection system, exhaust pipes and manifolds.
  10.  
  11. Install all coolant hoses, install the air conditioner compressor brackets, distributor, EGR valve, cold start injector using a new gasket, and intake manifold.
  12.  
  13. Install the vacuum pump and lower splash shield.
  14.  
  15. Fasten all electrical connections previously removed.
  16.  
  17. Install the throttle linkage, fuel injectors and all fuel injection system hoses, lines and electrical connections.
  18.  
  19. Connect the negative battery cable.
  20.  
  21. Fill the radiator with coolant, check the engine and transmission oil.
  22.  
  23. Start the engine and allow it to reach operating temperature.
  24.  
  25. Adjust the timing and check for leaks.
  26.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: The engine is at TDC of the No. 1 cylinder when the notch on the distributor aligns with the rotor



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Fig. Fig. 4: The cylinder liners must be installed before the cylinder head



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Fig. Fig. 5: 2.8L 6-cylinder engine cylinder head bolt tightening sequence

2.9L 6-Cylinder Engine

See Figure 6

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Drain the engine oil.
  4.  
  5. Drain the cooling system.
  6.  
  7. Remove the front exhaust pipe, heat shield and exhaust manifold(s).
  8.  
  9. Remove the coolant pipe bolts.
  10.  
  11. Set the engine to TDC of the No. 1 cylinder.
  12.  
  13. Remove the timing belt.
  14.  
  15. Remove the transmission mounting plate bolt.
  16.  
  17. Remove the air mass meter and intake hose.
  18.  
  19. Remove the throttle pulley cover, throttle cable and cable bracket.
  20.  
  21. Disconnect the throttle switch lead and vacuum hoses at throttle housing and cruise control servo.
  22.  
  23. Remove the intake manifold outer section.
  24.  
  25. Mark the positions and remove the ignition coils.
  26.  
  27. Mark the camshaft pulleys (intake and exhaust sides) and remove the pulleys, using holding tool 5199 or equivalent.
  28.  
  29. Remove the camshaft sensor, ground terminals and temperature sensor connector.
  30.  
  31. Remove the coolant hose at rear.
  32.  
  33. Carefully tap the top half of the cylinder head upwards, using a soft mallet.
  34.  
  35. Tap the joint lugs and camshaft front ends.
  36.  
  37. Remove the camshafts.
  38.  
  39. Remove the cylinder head bolts, starting at the outside and working inwards.
  40.  
  41. Lift the cylinder head from the engine.
  42.  
  43. Remove the gasket.
  44.  
  45. Clean and inspect the cylinder head and block mating surface.
  46.  

To install:
  1. Align the crankshaft timing mark by removing the starter motor and installing the crankshaft locking tool 5451 or equivalent. Turn the crankshaft until it is stopped by the tool.
  2.  
  3. Fit a new cylinder head gasket and install the bottom half of the cylinder head.
  4.  
  5. Oil the cylinder head bolts; install and tighten in sequence as follows:
    1. Stage 1-15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
    2.  
    3. Stage 2-44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
    4.  
    5. Stage 3-angle tighten 130 degrees
    6.  

  6.  
  7. Install new O-rings in the spark plug wells and oil the camshaft bearing seats.
  8.  
  9. Apply sealing compound (Part No. 1161059-9 or equivalent) to the upper section of the cylinder head.
  10.  

Do not allow any compound to penetrate the coolant or oil passages.

  1. Install the camshaft.
  2.  
  3. Place the upper section of the cylinder head into position.
  4.  
  5. Install the press tools (5454 or equivalent) and tighten against the lower section.
  6.  
  7. Install the bolts, working from the inside outwards. Tighten to 13 ft. lbs. (17 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Remove the tools.
  10.  
  11. Grease the camshaft front seal and tap the seal into place.
  12.  
  13. Place the upper timing cover into position.
  14.  
  15. Install the camshaft pulleys while aligning the timing marks.
  16.  
  17. Temporarily install and tighten the pulley mounting bolts.
  18.  
  19. Remove the timing cover and install the mounting plate bolt.
  20.  
  21. Install the timing belt.
  22.  
  23. Loosen the camshaft pulley bolts and withdraw the tensioner locking pin.
  24.  
  25. Insert the remaining camshaft pulley bolt.
  26.  
  27. Hold the pulley using the counterhold tool 5199 or equivalent and tighten all bolts alternately to 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm).
  28.  
  29. Remove the crankshaft locking tool.
  30.  
  31. Install the protective plug and install the starter motor.
  32.  
  33. Install the upper timing cover.
  34.  
  35. Check that the timing marks on the crankshaft and camshaft pulleys are correctly aligned.
  36.  
  37. Install the camshaft sensor, ground terminals and temperature sensor connector.
  38.  
  39. Install the coolant hose at rear.
  40.  
  41. Install the remaining components.
  42.  
  43. Change the engine oil.
  44.  
  45. Fill the cooling system.
  46.  
  47. Connect the negative battery cable.
  48.  
  49. Start the engine and check for leaks.
  50.  
  51. Recheck the cooling system level.
  52.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 6: 2.9L 6-cylinder engine cylinder head bolt tightening sequence

2.3L and 2.4L 5-Cylinder Engines

See Figures 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Raise and safely support vehicle.
  4.  
  5. Remove the splash guard below the engine.
  6.  
  7. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the exhaust pipe from the manifold.
  10.  
  11. Remove the exhaust manifold.
  12.  
  13. Set the engine to TDC of the No. 1 cylinder.
  14.  
  15. Remove the timing belt.
  16.  
  17. Disconnect the fuel distribution manifold and lift it and the injectors off to one side. Use 999-5533 holders or equivalent to separate them.
  18.  
  19. Disconnect the two ground straps from the engine.
  20.  

Make sure that the injectors and needles are not damaged.

  1. Remove the engine cooling fan.
  2.  
  3. Remove the intake manifold.
  4.  
  5. Remove the upper radiator hose from thermostat housing.
  6.  
  7. Remove the camshaft sprockets. Mark them intake or exhaust.
  8.  
  9. Remove the inner timing cover bolt.
  10.  
  11. Remove the air cleaner and hoses.
  12.  
  13. Remove the camshaft position sensor and damper.
  14.  
  15. Remove the distributor cap, wiring and rotor.
  16.  
  17. Remove the extension arm and brackets.
  18.  
  19. Working inwards from each end, loosen the bolts on the upper half of the cylinder head.
  20.  
  21. Gently tap the upper half with a soft mallet on the edges and front of the camshafts.
  22.  
  23. Remove the bolts and upper half of the cylinder head.
  24.  
  25. Mark the camshafts and remove.
  26.  
  27. Remove the coolant pipe bolts.
  28.  
  29. Remove the cylinder head bolts working outward.
  30.  
  31. Remove the lower portion of the cylinder head and head gasket.
  32.  
  33. Clean all mating surfaces thoroughly.
  34.  


WARNING
Do not use a metal scraper. Use a soft putty knife and gasket solvent cleaner with an exhaust fan. The surfaces must be totally clean to assure a tight seal.

To install:
  1. Align the crankshaft timing marks.
  2.  
  3. Install crankshaft locking tool 999-5451 or equivalent and turn the crankshaft counterclockwise until it stops.
  4.  
  5. Install a new cylinder head gasket and the lower cylinder head.
  6.  
  7. Apply a small amount of oil to the bolts.
  8.  
  9. Tighten the lower cylinder head in three stages, starting on the inside and working outward as follows:
    1. 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm)
    2.  
    3. 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm)
    4.  
    5. Angle tighten an additional 130° using an angle gauge
    6.  

  10.  
  11. Install the coolant pipe using a new gasket.
  12.  
  13. Replace the O-rings in the spark plug wells.
  14.  
  15. Remove No. 1 and No. 5 spark plugs.
  16.  
  17. Using a roller, apply liquid gasket 161-059-9 or equivalent to the upper cylinder head.
  18.  

Make sure that no liquid gasket gets into the oil passages. Only a thin coating is required.

  1. Install the camshafts and lock them in place using tools 999-5453 (front) and 999-5452 (rear) or equivalents.
  2.  
  3. Install the upper cylinder head.
  4.  
  5. Pull the head down using press tools 999-5453 or 5454 (2) or equivalents.
  6.  
  7. Tighten the upper half working from the inside outward. Tighten to 13 ft. lbs. (17 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Remove tools 999-5453 and 999-5454 or equivalents.
  10.  
  11. Install the camshaft seals using an appropriate seal driver.
  12.  
  13. Mount the upper timing cover.
  14.  
  15. Install the camshaft sprockets and line up the camshaft timing marks.
  16.  
  17. Install two camshaft sprocket bolts furthest from the timing mark and tighten until they are just touching the sprocket.
  18.  
  19. Remove the upper timing cover.
  20.  
  21. Make sure that the remaining camshaft sprocket bolt hole is centered.
  22.  
  23. Install the tensioner pulley lever and tighten to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  24.  
  25. Install the idler pulley and tighten to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  26.  
  27. Compress the tensioner by placing in a suitable vise. Tighten the vise slowly and in small increments, stopping every 1 / 4 turn. Install a lock pin 2mm in diameter (a 2mm Allen wrench also will work) in the piston. If the tensioner leaks, has no resistance or will not compress, replace it.
  28.  
  29. Install the timing belt.
  30.  
  31. Install the third camshaft sprocket bolt and tighten the bolts to 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm).
  32.  
  33. Remove the tensioner lock pin.
  34.  
  35. Remove the crankshaft locking tool from the flywheel end of the block and install the plug in the hole.
  36.  
  37. Install the starter motor.
  38.  
  39. Remove the camshaft locking tool 999-5452 or its equivalent.
  40.  
  41. Turn the crankshaft two complete revolutions and check that the timing marks are lined up.
  42.  
  43. Install the rear camshaft seal using driver 999-5450 or equivalent.
  44.  
  45. Install the upper timing cover.
  46.  
  47. Install the remaining engine components
  48.  
  49. Connect the negative battery cable.
  50.  
  51. Change the engine oil.
  52.  
  53. Fill the cooling system.
  54.  
  55. Start the engine and run it until the thermostat opens.
  56.  
  57. Bleed the cooling system.
  58.  
  59. Check the engine for leaks.
  60.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 7: Remove camshafts to access the cylinder head bolts



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Fig. Fig. 8: Loosen the cylinder head bolts starting from the inside and working outward



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Fig. Fig. 9: Remove the bolts from the cylinder head; if necessary, use a magnet to extract them



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Fig. Fig. 10: Carefully lift the cylinder head off of the engine block



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Fig. Fig. 11: After the head is removed, inspect the block for damage, cracks, and obvious wear



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Fig. Fig. 12: Remove and replace the O-rings around the spark plug holes



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Fig. Fig. 13: Remove the head gasket ...



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Fig. Fig. 14: ... and thoroughly clean the cylinder head



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Fig. Fig. 15: View of the combustion chamber, including the intake (larger) valves, exhaust (smaller) valves, and spark plug electrodes



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Fig. Fig. 16: Carefully place the cylinder head onto the engine block



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Fig. Fig. 17: Tighten the cylinder head bolts in proper sequence to specification using a torque wrench



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Fig. Fig. 18: A torque angle gauge can be helpful when angle-tightening the head bolts



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Fig. Fig. 19: 2.3L and 2.4L 5-cylinder engine head bolt tightening sequence

 
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