Volvo Cars 1999-05

Timing Belt

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Removal & Installation




NOTE
The radio may have a coded theft protection circuit. Obtain the code before disconnecting the battery, removing the radio fuse, or removing the radio.


CAUTION
Timing belt maintenance is extremely important. All Hyundai models use interference-type non-freewheeling engines. Should the timing belt break in these engines, the valves in the cylinder head will come in contact with the pistons, causing major engine damage. The recommended replacement interval for timing belts is 60,000 miles.


CAUTION
On models with an air bag, wait at least 90 seconds from the time that the ignition switch is turned to the LOCK position and the battery is disconnected before performing any further work.

2.3L And 2.4L 5-Cylinder Engines
  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Remove the coolant expansion tank and place it on top of the engine.
  4.  
  5. Remove the spark plug cover and drive belts.
  6.  
  7. Remove the timing belt cover.
  8.  
  9. Wait five minutes after aligning marks, then install Volvo Gauge 998-8500 between the exhaust camshaft and water pump. Read the gauge using a mirror, while still installed. For 23mm belts, the tension should be 2.7-4.0 units.
    NOTE
    If the belt tension is incorrect, the tensioner must be replaced.

  10.  
  11. Remove the upper tensioner bolt and loosen the lower bolt, turning the tensioner to free up the pulley.
  12.  
  13. Remove the lower bolt and the tensioner. Remove the timing belt.
  14.  

To install:

  1. Turn all the pulleys listening for bearing noise. Check to see that the contact surfaces are clean and smooth. Remove the tensioner pulley lever and idler pulley, lubricate the contact surfaces and bearing with grease. If the tensioner pulley lever or idler is seized, replace it.
  2.  
  3. Install the tensioner pulley lever and idler pulley and tighten to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  4.  
  5. Compress the tensioner with Volvo tool 999-5456 and insert a 0.079 in. (2.0mm) lockpin in the piston. If the tensioner leaks, has no resistance, or will not compress, replace it. Install the tensioner and tighten to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
  6.  
  7. Install the timing belt in the following order:
    1. Around the crankshaft sprocket.
    2.  
    3. Around the right idler pulley
    4.  
    5. Around the camshaft sprockets
    6.  
    7. Around the water pump
    8.  
    9. Onto the tensioner pulley
    10.  

  8.  
  9. Pull the lockpin out from the tensioner and install the upper timing cover. Turn the crankshaft two complete revolutions and check to see that the timing marks on the crankshaft and camshaft pulleys are aligned.
  10.  
  11. Install the timing belt covers and the fuel line clips.
  12.  
  13. Install the accessory belts.
  14.  
  15. Install the vibration damper guard and the inner fender well.
  16.  
  17. Install the spark plug cover and any remaining components.

    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Before removing or installing the timing belt, align the timing marks as indicated-Volvo 2.3L 5 cylinder, 2.4L and 2.9L engines

    Before removing or installing the timing belt, align the timing marks as indicated-Volvo 2.3L 5 cylinder, 2.4L and 2.9L engines
  18.  

2.9L 6-Cylinder Engines
  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Remove the drive belts.
  4.  
  5. Remove the timing belt cover.
  6.  
  7. Remove the splash guard, vibration damper guard and ignition coil cover.
  8.  
  9. Rotate the crankshaft clockwise, until the timing marks on the camshaft pulleys and timing belt mounting plate and crankshaft pulley/oil pump housing are aligned.
  10.  
  11. Remove the tensioner upper mounting bolts. Loosen the tensioner lower mounting bolt and twist the tensioner to free the plunger. Remove the lower mounting bolt and remove the tensioner.
  12.  
  13. Remove the timing belt.
    NOTE
    Do not rotate the crankshaft while the timing belt is removed.

  14.  
  15. Check the tensioner and idler pulleys, as follows:
    1. Spin the pulleys and listen for bearing noise.
    2.  
    3. Check that the pulley surfaces in contact with the belt are clean and smooth.
    4.  
    5. Check the tensioner pulley arm and idler pulley mountings.
    6.  
    7. Tighten the tensioner pulley arm to 30 ft. lbs. (40 Nm) and the idler pulley to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
    8.  
    9. Compress the tensioner using tool 5456. Mount the tensioner in the tool and tighten the center nut fully. Wait until compression has taken place and insert a 2mm locking pin in the plunger.
      NOTE
      The tensioner must be replaced if leakage is observed or the plunger offers no resistance when depressed or cannot be depressed.

    10.  

  16.  

To install:

  1. Place the belt around the crankshaft pulley and right-side idler. Place the belt over the camshaft pulleys. Position the belt around the water pump and press over the tensioner pulley.
  2.  
  3. Insert the tensioner mounting bolts. Tighten to 18 ft. lbs. (25 Nm).
    NOTE
    The lever bushing must be greased every time the belt is replace or the pulley is removed. Service the bushing, using the following procedure:

  4.  
  5. Remove the locking pin from the tensioner. Install the front timing belt cover as follows:
    1. Remove the lever mounting bolt, tensioner pulley and sleeve.
    2.  
    3. Grease the surfaces of the bushing, bolt and sleeve, using Volvo Part No. 1161246-2.
    4.  
    5. Install the sleeve, tensioner pulley and lever mounting bolt.
    6.  
    7. Tighten the bolt to 30 ft. lbs. (40 Nm).
    8.  

  6.  
  7. Turn the crankshaft two revolutions and check that the timing marks on the crankshaft and camshaft pulleys are correctly aligned.
  8.  
  9. Install the remaining components.
  10.  
  11. Connect the negative battery lead, start and check the engine operation.
  12.  

Inspection




NOTE
For manufacturers recommended service interval, refer to the maintenance interval chart located in this manual.

The average replacement interval for a timing belt is approximately 60,000 miles (96,000km). If, however, the timing belt is inspected earlier or more frequently than suggested, and shows signs of wear or defects, the belt should be replaced at that time.


WARNING
Never allow antifreeze, oil or solvents to come into with a timing belt. If this occurs immediately wash the solution from the timing belt. Also, never excessive bend or twist the timing belt; this can damage the belt so that its lifetime is severely shortened.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Never bend or twist a timing belt excessively, and do not allow solvents, antifreeze, gasoline, acid or oil to come into contact with the belt

Never bend or twist a timing belt excessively, and do not allow solvents, antifreeze, gasoline, acid or oil to come into contact with the belt

Inspect both sides of the timing belt. Replace the belt with a new one if any of the following conditions exist:



Hardening of the rubber-back side is glossy without resilience and leaves no indentation when pressed with a fingernail
 
Cracks on the rubber backing
 
Cracks or peeling of the canvas backing
 
Cracks on rib root
 
Cracks on belt sides
 
Missing teeth or chunks of teeth
 
Abnormal wear of belt sides-the sides are normal if they are sharp, as if cut by a knife
 

If none of these conditions exist, the belt does not need replacement unless it is at the recommended interval. The belt MUST be replaced at the recommended interval.


WARNING
On interference engines, it is very important to replace the timing belt at the recommended intervals, otherwise expensive engine damage will likely result if the belt fails.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Broken tooth may be due to a damaged pulley

Broken tooth may be due to a damaged pulley

Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Back surface worn or cracked from a possible overheated engine or interference with the belt cover

Back surface worn or cracked from a possible overheated engine or interference with the belt cover

Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Side wear from improper installation

Side wear from improper installation

Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Worn teeth from excessive belt tension, camshaft or distributor not turning properly, or fluid leaking on the belt

Worn teeth from excessive belt tension, camshaft or distributor not turning properly, or fluid leaking on the belt

General Information



Timing belts are typically only used on overhead camshaft engines. Timing belts are used to synchronize the crankshaft with the camshaft, similar to a timing chain on an overhead valve (pushrod) engine. Unlike a timing belt, a timing chain will normally last the life of the engine without needing service or replacement. Timing belts use raised teeth to mesh with sprockets to operate the valvetrain of an overhead camshaft engine.

Whenever a vehicle with an unknown service history comes into your repair facility or is recently purchased, here are some points that should be asked to help prevent costly engine damage:



Does the owner know if, or when the belt was replaced-
 
If the vehicle purchased is used, or the condition and mileage of the last timing belt replacement are unknown, it is recommended to inspect, replace or at least inform the owner that the vehicle is equipped with a timing belt.
 
Note the mileage of the vehicle. The average replacement interval for a timing belt is approximately 60,000 miles (96,000 km).
 

Interference Engines

Engines, chain-or belt-driven, can be classified as either free-running or interference, depending on what would happen if the piston-to-valve timing were disrupted. A free-running engine is designed with enough clearance between the pistons and valves to allow the crankshaft to rotate (pistons still moving) while the camshaft stays in one position (several valves fully open). If this condition occurs normally, no internal engine damage will result. In an interference engine, there is not enough clearance between the pistons and valves to allow the crankshaft to turn without the camshaft being in time.

An interference engine can suffer extensive internal damage if a timing belt fails. The piston design does not allow clearance for the valve to be fully open and the piston to be at the top of its stroke. If the belt fails, the piston will collide with the valve and will bend or break the valve, damage the piston, and/or bend a connecting rod. When this type of failure occurs, the engine will need to be replaced or disassembled for further internal inspection; either choice costing many times that of replacing the timing belt.

 
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