Volvo Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1970-1989 Repair Guide

Engine

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figure 1



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: With the hood position outlined, use a socket to remove the hood bolts-an assistant will be needed

B20 and B30 Engines

See Figures 2 and 3

All Volvo engines and transmissions are removed as a unit. In most cases, a good chain hoist will suffice. Do not attempt to lift the engine with the chain wrapped around either the oil filter or the distributor. Lifting eyes may be fabricated from heavy gauge steel or angle iron.

  1. Scribe the outline of the hinges on the hood and remove the hood.
  2.  


CAUTION
When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Drain the oil from the crankcase. Open the drain plug on the right-hand side of the engine block, disconnect the lower radiator hose at the radiator, and drain the cooling system. On Volvos with automatic transmission, disconnect and plug the transmission cooler lines.
  2.  


CAUTION
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water, or waterless hand cleaner should be used.

  1. Remove the expansion tank, radiator cover plate, upper radiator hose, radiator, and fan shroud, if so equipped.
  2.  
  3. Remove the negative lead from the battery.
  4.  
  5. Remove and label the electric cables for the starter, the coil high tension wire, the distributor lead, alternator wires, water and oil temperature sensors, and the lead for the oil pressure sensor, if so equipped.
  6.  
  7. Remove and label the vacuum hoses for the distributor advance, and the power brake booster, if so equipped. Remove the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) hoses, and the oil pressure gauge hose at the pipe connection, if so equipped.
    1. On electric fuel injected models, remove the air cleaner and intake hoses; pressure sensor hose from the inlet duct; the plug contacts for the temperature sensor, cold start valve, throttle valve switch, fuel injectors, and distributor impulse unit. Label all lines and hoses. In addition, remove the ground wire from the inlet duct, the throttle cable bracket from the inlet duct, the throttle cable from the throttle valve switch, the cold start valve fuel hose from the distribution pipe, the fuel return line from the pressure regulator, and the fuel inlet line from the distribution pipe. Remove the injectors by turning the lockrings counterclockwise and lifting them out of their bayonet fittings. The injectors should then be fitted with protective covers and plugs to prevent dirt from entering.
    2.  
    3. On continuous (air-flow controlled) fuel injected models, disconnect the rubber hose to the control pressure regulator, the plastic hose from the pressure regulator to the fuel distributor, the hose at the cold start injector, the fuel filter hose, and the fuel return hose at the fuel distributor. Remove the pipe connecting the air cleaner and the intake manifold. Label all lines and hoses. Disconnect the electrical leads from the cold start injector, control pressure regulator, auxiliary air valve, coolant temperature sensor and the thermal time switch (engine side). Disconnect the ground wire for the control pressure regulator. Disconnect and plug the four fuel hoses at the injectors. Disconnect the throttle cable from the throttle and intake manifold. Disconnect the brake booster vacuum hose. Remove the thermal time switch.
    4.  
    5. On carbureted models, remove the air cleaner, air intake hoses, and preheating plate. Also disconnect and plug the inlet hose to the fuel pump, disconnect the choke linkage, and remove the throttle control shaft from the pedal shaft, intermediate shaft, and bracket.
    6.  

  8.  
  9. Disconnect the heater pipes from all models. Remove the exhaust pipe flange nuts and disconnect the exhaust pipe from the manifold. Remove the EGR valve pipe from the manifold. On models equipped with power steering, remove the steering pump bolts and place the pump and reservoir to one side.
  10.  
  11. On Volvos with manual transmission, place the gearshift in neutral and remove the shifter lever. On Volvos with automatic transmission, place the selector in PARK, disconnect the control rod from the selector lever, and the ground cable from the start inhibitor switch.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the wires for the backup lights and overdrive, if so equipped. Remove the speedometer drive cable from the transmission. Remove the clamp for the exhaust manifold and the clamp for the automatic transmission filler tube, if so equipped.
  14.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2: Front lifting eye installed on a B20 engine-Volvo special tool shown



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Rear lifting eye installed on a B20 engine-Volvo special tool shown

  1. Jack up the vehicle and place two jackstands under the front jack attachments and two more in front of the rear jack attachments.
  2.  
  3. Place a hydraulic jack under the transmission (use a block of wood to protect the transmission from damage). On manual transmission cars, remove the return spring from the throw-out fork, and disconnect the clutch cable.
  4.  
  5. Separate the transmission (or overdrive) from the front universal joint by unbolting the flange. Unbolt the rear crossmember.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the negative ground cable from the engine.
  8.  
  9. Remove the rear crossmember and rear engine mounts. Remove the lower nuts from the front engine mounts.
  10.  
  11. Install the lifting eyes and lifting crossbar. The lifting eyes are attached by 3 / 8 in. x 1 3 / 4 in. x 1 in. bolts. The engine is removed by raising its front and lowering its back while pulling forward until it clears the front crossmember, then leveling it and raising the complete unit. Lift out the engine and set it on an engine stand or rack.
  12.  

To install:
  1. Install the lifting apparatus on the engine. Make sure that the jackstands are located beneath the front jack attachments and in from of the rear jack attachments. Place the hydraulic jack beneath the transmission tunnel.
  2.  
  3. Carefully lower the engine into the engine compartment. Place the hydraulic jack under the transmission and guide the unit into place. Be careful not to damage the oil filter, or oil pressure sending unit against the exhaust pipe. Be careful not to damage the distributor against the steering column.
  4.  
  5. Tighten the nuts for the front engine mounts.
  6.  
  7. Connect the wires for the back-up lights, start inhibitor switch (automatic transmission), and overdrive, it so equipped.
  8.  
  9. Install the brackets for the exhaust manifold and the automatic transmission filler tube. Install the rear engine mounts and rear crossmember, then tighten the nuts.
  10.  
  11. Remove the hydraulic jack from the transmission and the lifting apparatus from the engine. Connect the negative ground cable to the engine.
  12.  
  13. Connect the front universal joint to the transmission (or overdrive) flange. Connect the speedometer drive cable.
  14.  
  15. On manual transmission cars, connect the clutch cable and install the return spring. Adjust clutch free-play. See Drive Train . On automatic transmission cars, connect the control rod to the selector lever, and the ground cable to the start inhibitor switch.
  16.  
  17. Connect the exhaust pipe to the exhaust manifold with new gaskets and tighten the nuts. Connect the EGR valve pipe.
  18.  
  19. Remove the jackstands from the jack attachments and lower the vehicle.
  20.  
  21. Connect the heater hoses. On models with power steering, install the pump and reservoir to the engine block and adjust the drive belt tension.
    1. On continuous (air-flow controlled) fuel injected models, install the thermal time switch and connect the hose for the brake booster. Install the throttle cable and connect the four fuel hoses to the injectors. Connect the control pressure regulator ground wire and the cold start injector, control pressure regulator, auxiliary air valve, temperature sensor, and thermal time switch leads. Connect the fuel hoses to the control pressure regulator and fuel distributor. Connect the hoses to the fuel filter, cold start injector, and the fuel return hose to the fuel distributor. Install the pipe between the air filter and the intake manifold.
    2.  
    3. On electronic fuel injected models, place the injectors in their bayonet fittings with new rubber seals, and turn them clockwise to install. In addition, connect the fuel inlet line and the cold start valve hose to the distribution pipe and return line from the pressure regulator. Install the ground wire and the throttle cable bracket to the inlet duct, and connect the throttle cable. Connect the plug contact for the temperature sensor, cold start valve, throttle valve switch, fuel injectors, and distributor impulse. Install the pressure sensor vacuum hose, air cleaner, and intake hoses.
    4.  

  22.  
  23. On all models, connect the positive crankcase ventilation hoses, and the distributor vacuum advance hose. Connect the vacuum hose for the power brake booster, and the oil pressure gauge hose at the pipe connection, if so equipped.
  24.  
  25. Install the electric cables for the starter, the coil high tension wire, the distributor lead, alternator wires, water and oil temperature sensors, and the lead for the oil pressure sensor, if so equipped.
  26.  
  27. Connect the positive lead to the battery.
  28.  
  29. Install the radiator and fan shroud, if so equipped, and the radiator cover plate. Install the expansion tank, the upper and lower radiator hoses, and, on automatic transmission cars, the transmission cooler lines. Make sure that the cooler lines clear the engine mounts and brake tubes by a generous 3 / 4 in. (20mm)
  30.  
  31. Fill the crankcase and cooling system.
  32.  
  33. Install the hood. Install the gearshift lever.
  34.  
  35. Start the engine and check for leaks.
  36.  

B21 and B23/B230 Series Engines

All wires and hoses should be labled at the time of removal. The amount of time saved during re-assembly makes the extra effort well worthwhile.

  1. On cars equipped with manual transmission, remove the four retaining clips and lift up the shifter boot. Then, remove the snapring for the shifter.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the negative cable first, then remove the battery.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the windshield washer hose, engine compartment light wire and remove the hood.
  6.  
  7. Remove the overflow tank cap. Drain the cooling system by disconnecting the lower radiator hose and opening the engine drain cock (beneath the exhaust manifold).
  8.  


CAUTION
When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Remove the upper and lower radiator hoses. Disconnect the overflow hoses at the radiator. Disconnect PCV hose at the cylinder head.
  2.  
  3. On cars equipped with automatic transmission, disconnect the oil cooler lines at the radiator.
  4.  
  5. Remove the radiator and fan shroud.
  6.  
  7. Remove the air cleaner assembly and hose.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the hoses at the air pump. Remove the air pump and drive belt.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect the vacuum pump hoses and remove the vacuum pump. Disconnect the power brake booster vacuum hose.
  12.  
  13. Remove the power steering pump, drive belt and bracket. Position to one side.
  14.  
  15. On cars equipped with air conditioning, remove the crankshaft pulley (5mm Allen wrench), and compressor drive belt. Then install the pulley again for reference. Remove the air conditioning wire connector and the compressor from its bracket and position to one side. Remove the bracket. Note that you are simply unbolting and moving various air conditioning components; it IS NOT necessary to discharge the system.
  16.  
  17. Disconnect the vacuum hoses from the engine. Disconnect the carbon canister hoses.
  18.  
  19. Disconnect the distributor wire, high tension lead, starter cables, and the clutch cable clamp.
  20.  
  21. Disconnect the wiring harness at the voltage regulator. Disconnect the throttle cable at the pulley; and the wire for the compressor at the intake manifold solenoid.
  22.  
  23. Remove the gas cap. Disconnect the fuel lines at the filter and return pipe.
  24.  
  25. At the firewall, disconnect the electrical connectors for the ballast resistor, and relays. Disconnect the heater hoses.
  26.  
  27. Disconnect the micro-switch at the intake manifold, and all remaining harness leads to the engine.
  28.  
  29. Drain the crankcase.
  30.  


CAUTION
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water, or waterless hand cleaner should be used.

  1. Remove the exhaust manifold flange retaining nuts. Loosen the exhaust pipe clamp bolts and remove the bracket for the front exhaust pipe mount.
  2.  
  3. On cars equipped with automatic transmission, place the gear selector lever in PARK and disconnect the gear shift control rod from the transmission.
  4.  
  5. On manual transmission cars, disconnect the clutch cable. Then loosen the setscrew, drive out the pivot pin, and remove the shifter from the control rod.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the speedometer and the driveshaft from the transmission.
  8.  
  9. On overdrive equipped models, disconnect the control wire from the shifter.
  10.  
  11. Jack up the front of the car and place jack stands beneath the reinforced box member areas to the rear of each front jacking attachment. Then, using a floor jack and a wooden block, support the weight of the engine beneath the transmission.
  12.  
  13. Remove the bolts for the rear transmission mount. Remove the transmission support crossmember.
  14.  
  15. Lift out the engine and support on suitable rack or stand.
  16.  

To install:
  1. After lifting the motor into position within the car, reinstall the rear transmission mount and secure the bolts. Lower or adjust the jack as necessary to position the motor on the front mounts.
  2.  
  3. Attach the speedometer cable and driveshaft to the transmission. If equipped with overdrive, reconnect the control wire from the shifter.
  4.  
  5. On manual transmission cars, attach the shifter to the control rod. Install the pivot pin, tighten the set-screw, and hook up the clutch cable.
  6.  
  7. On cars with automatic transmission, reconnect the gear shift control rod.
  8.  
  9. Install and tighten the front motor mount bolts.
  10.  
  11. Install the bracket for the front exhaust pipe mount. Install and tighten the exhaust manifold flange retaining nuts. Tighten the exhaust pipe clamp bolts.
  12.  
  13. Beginning with the larger, easily identified harnesses, reconnect electrical circuits at the firewall and the engine. Check the firewall area for ballast resistor, and relays. Check also for correct hook ups at the voltage regulator, distributor and starter. Smaller harnesses and single wires also run to the micro-switch at the intake manifold and the AC solenoid on the intake manifold.
  14.  
  15. Connect and secure the heater hoses.
  16.  
  17. Re-attach the fuel lines at the filter and return pipe; reinstall the gas cap.
  18.  
  19. Connect the throttle cable at the pulley. Install the clutch cable clamp if so equipped.
  20.  
  21. Connect all engine vacuum hoses and connect the charcoal cannister.
  22.  
  23. On cars equipped with air conditioning, reinstall the compressor bracket and the compressor. Reconnect the compressor wiring. Once again, remove the crankshaft pulley, install the AC belt and reinstall the pulley in its correct location. Adjust the AC belt to the correct tension.
  24.  
  25. Reinstall the power steering pump, bracket and belt. Adjust the belt to the proper tension.
  26.  
  27. Attach the vacuum pump and its hoses. Connect the power brake booster vacuum hose.
  28.  
  29. Reattach the air pump, connect the hoses and install the belt. Set the belt to the correct tension.
  30.  
  31. Install the air cleaner assembly and hoses.
  32.  
  33. Reinstall the radiator and fan shroud. On cars with automatic transmission, connect the transmission cooler lines to the radiator.
  34.  
  35. Connect the upper and lower radiator hoses, attach the overflow line and install the overflow tank cap. If not already done, close the draincocks on the engine block.
  36.  
  37. Refill oil and coolant to the proper levels. Connect the PCV hose to the cylinder head.
  38.  
  39. Reinstall the hood. Connect the wire for the underhood light and the windshield washer hoses.
  40.  
  41. Install and reconnect the battery.
  42.  
  43. On manual transmission cars, reinstall the shifter and its snap ring. Secure the shifter boot and its four retaining clips.
  44.  
  45. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, loose nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the engine area.
  46.  
  47. Start the engine, allow it to run at idle and check for leaks. Make needed adjustments to throttle cable, clutch, and idle speed as necessary. Check ALL fluid levels and top off as needed.
  48.  

B234 Engine
  1. Disconnect the battery, negative cable first.
  2.  
  3. Detach the ground connection at the top of the side frame rail.
  4.  
  5. Release the bolted joint at the exhaust manifold front bracket.
  6.  
  7. Attach the sling or lifting equipment to the rear of the motor and support the motor from above. Release any wiring harnesses from their clips and place the wiring out of the way of the lifting gear.
  8.  
  9. Remove the splash guard under the engine, drain the engine oil and remove the air intake duct.
  10.  


CAUTION
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water, or waterless hand cleaner should be used.

  1. Undo the wiring clips on the front crossmember and right frame rail. Release the battery from the clips and work the wiring free of the roll bar.
  2.  
  3. If the vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, remove the compressor from its mount and position it out of the way. Do not disconnect any lines or hoses on the compressor.
  4.  
  5. Remove the bottom nut on the left engine mount.
  6.  
  7. On manual transmission cars, remove the clutch slave cylinder and position out of the way. Be careful of the rubber boot; it retains the piston within the cylinder.
  8.  
  9. Separate the front and rear universal joints. Unbolt the center support bearing and withdraw the driveshaft towards the rear of the car.
  10.  
  11. Cut the rear cable tie holding the transmission wiring and separate the connectors.
  12.  
  13. For cars with manual transmission, the gear lever is removed by removing the locking bolt, removing the pivot pin between the lever and the selector rod and removing the circlip from the lever sleeve. Push the shift lever up and remove the bushings. For cars with automatic transmissions, the selector lever is disconnected by removing the clips from the joints between the lever and the selector rod. Withdraw the arm from the mounting.
  14.  
  15. Release the bolted joint at the front of the catalytic converter and release the oxygen sensor wire from the rear clip.
  16.  
  17. Remove the front exhaust pipe by removing the bolts at its joint to the exhaust manifold.
  18.  
  19. If equipped with automatic transmission, disconnect the oil lines at the transmission and plug the lines.
  20.  
  21. Remove the transmission crossmember. As soon as it is removed, position a floor jack below the transmission to support it.
  22.  

The following steps are in the upper engine area. It may be helpful to temporarily remove the hoist equipment for access. The hoist will need to be reinstalled later in the removal.

  1. Remove the upper heat shield from the exhaust manifold. Remove the air hose from the lower heat shield.
  2.  
  3. Remove the top nut from the right motor mount.
  4.  
  5. Open the draincock on the right side of the engine block and drain the coolant into a container.
  6.  
  7. Label and remove the wiring from the distributor cap. Remove the cap and rotor and disconnect the braided engine ground wire.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the wire to terminal 1 on the coil. Separate the wiring connectors on the right shock tower and release the cable clips on the firewall. Free the wiring from the clips.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect the heater hoses on the left firewall.
  12.  
  13. Release the fuel line connection at the left firewall and attend to any fuel spillage immediately. Plug the fuel lines.
  14.  
  15. Disengage the wiring connector on the left side of the firewall and free the wires from the clips.
  16.  
  17. Disengage the air mass meter, its wiring and the hoses connected to the air intake.
  18.  
  19. Release the throttle cable from the pulley.
  20.  
  21. Remove the vacuum hose to the brake booster from the intake manifold. Remove the evaporation hose from the intake manifold and the return line from the fuel distributor.
  22.  
  23. At the left shock tower, release the engine wiring harness from its clips and disconnect the wiring connectors. Remove the power steering reservoir from its clips.
  24.  
  25. Disconnect the coolant hoses at the thermostat housing and at the water pump.
  26.  
  27. Remove the drive belts.
  28.  
  29. Remove the radiator fan, the fan shroud and the drive pulley.
  30.  
  31. Remove the power steering pump from its mount. Place the pump on paper or rags atop the left shock tower. Do not disconnect any hoses from the pump.
  32.  
  33. If the lifting equipment was removed earlier, reconnect it.
  34.  
  35. Check the surroundings of the engine and transmission unit. With the exception of the jack and the motor mounts, there should be nothing connecting the engine/trans assembly to the body of the car. Take slight tension on the hoist and check that the engine is balanced. Reposition the lift points if the engine is not balanced.
  36.  
  37. Lift out the engine and the gearbox, being very careful of the radiator and surrounding components. Support the engine on appropriate stands.
  38.  
  39. When reinstalling, check the position and security of the hoist equipment. Lift the engine and gearbox into place in the body of the car.
  40.  
  41. Guide the engine mounts into place and support the transmission on the floor jack.
  42.  
  43. Replace the transmission crossmember and make sure the wiring for the oxygen sensor runs above the crossmember. Remove the floor jack when the crossmember is secure. The engine hoisting equipment may also be removed.
  44.  
  45. Use a new gasket and attach the exhaust pipe to the manifold. Attach the wire to the oxygen sensor.
  46.  
  47. Reconnect the shifting mechanism to the transmission.
  48.  
  49. Reconnect the transmission wiring and secure the harness with new wire ties.
  50.  
  51. Install the driveshaft. Tighten the front and rear universal joints and attach the center support bearing.
  52.  
  53. On manual transmission car connect the clutch slave cylinder. On automatic transmissions, connect the oil cooler lines.
  54.  
  55. Install the lower nut for the left motor mount. On cars with air conditioning, remount the compressor on its brackets.
  56.  
  57. Track the wiring between the anti-roll bar and the front crossmember. Install the cable clips on the crossmember and right-side frame rail. Install the splash guard under the car. Reconnect the wiring to the ground connection on the right frame rail.
  58.  
  59. Install the nut on the top of the right engine mount. Install the upper heat shield on the manifold and the air tube to the lower heat shield.
  60.  
  61. Reconnect the coolant hoses. The bottom hose connects to the water pump and the upper hose to the thermostat housing.
  62.  


WARNING
Note the marking on the upper hose. The hose must run at least one inch away from the alternator belt.

  1. Remount the power steering pump. Install its belt (and the air conditioning belt if so equipped) and adjust to the correct tension.
  2.  
  3. Install the fan, pulley and shroud. Secure the wiring below the fan with new wire ties. Install the drive belt and adjust to the correct tension.
  4.  
  5. Reconnect the rear wiring harnesses on the firewall. Plug all connectors carefully and secure harnesses within the clips. Don't forget the wire to terminal 1 on the coil.
  6.  
  7. Reinstall the distributor rotor, cap and wires. Connect the braided engine ground cable.
  8.  
  9. Reconnect the wiring at the left shock tower. Make sure the wiring is secure in its clips. Install the power steering reservoir.
  10.  
  11. At the intake manifold, connect the vacuum line to the brake booster, the evaporation line and the return line for the fuel distributor.
  12.  
  13. At the left side of the firewall, attach the heater hoses and connect the fuel line.
  14.  
  15. Reattach the throttle cable to the pulley.
  16.  
  17. Install the air mass meter with its hoses and connections.
  18.  
  19. Fill the engine with proper coolant, set the heater to its hottest setting and check the system for leaks.
  20.  
  21. Install the engine oil.
  22.  
  23. Reconnect the battery leads (positive first) and the protective cap on the terminals.
  24.  
  25. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, loose nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the engine area.
  26.  
  27. Start the engine and check for leaks. This engine may be somewhat noisy when started; the noise will disappear as the tappets fill with oil.
  28.  

B27F, B28F and B280F Engines

See Figures 4 and 5

All wires and hoses should be labeled at the time of removal. The amount of time saved during reassembly makes the extra effort well worthwhile.

  1. On cars equipped with manual transmission, remove the shifter assembly. From underneath, loosen the setscrew and drive out pivot pin. Pull up the boot, remove the reverse pawl bracket and snap ring for the shifter, and lift out the shifter.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 4: Exploded view of the gear shifter mechanism

  1. Disconnect the negative cable first, then remove the battery.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the windshield washer hose and engine compartment light wire. Scribe the outline of the hood hinges on the hood and remove the hood.
  4.  
  5. Remove the air cleaner assembly. On B28, remove the intake air preheating assembly.
  6.  
  7. Remove the splash guard under the engine.
  8.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 5: Exploded view of components that must be removed for engine removal-760 shown, others similar

  1. Drain the cooling system by disconnecting the lower radiator hose and opening the drain cocks on both sides of the cylinder block.
  2.  


CAUTION
When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Remove the overflow tank cap. Remove the upper and lower radiator hoses, and disconnect the overflow hoses at the radiator.
  2.  
  3. On cars equipped with automatic transmission, disconnect the transmission cooler lines at the radiator.
  4.  
  5. Remove the radiator, fan shroud and grille.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect heater hoses, power brake hose at the intake manifold and the vacuum pump hose at the pump. Remove the vacuum pump and O-ring in the valve cover. Remove the gas cap.
  8.  


CAUTION
The fuel system retains high pressure. Observe no smoking/no open flame rules. Discharge pressure slowly. Be prepared to contain spillage.

  1. At the firewall, disconnect the fuel lines at the filter and the return pipe. Disengage the relay connectors and all other wire connectors. Disconnect the distributor wires.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the evaporative control carbon canister hoses and the vacuum hose at the EGR valve.
  4.  
  5. Disengage the voltage regulator wire connector.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the throttle cable (and kickdown cable on automatic transmission cars), the vacuum amplifier hose at the T-pipe, and the hose at the wax thermostat.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the air pump hose at the backfire valve, the solenoid valve wire, and the micro-switch wire.
  10.  
  11. Remove the exhaust manifold flange retaining nuts (both sides). On the B28, disconnect the exhaust downpipe above the catalytic converter and remove it after disconnecting the oxygen sensor.
  12.  
  13. On cars equipped with air conditioning, remove the compressor and drive belt, and place it to one side. Note that you are simply unbolting and moving various AC components; it IS NOT necessary to discharge the system. Do not disconnect the refrigerant hoses.
  14.  
  15. Drain the crankcase.
  16.  


CAUTION
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water, or waterless hand cleaner should be used.

  1. Remove the power steering pump, drive belt, and bracket. Position to one side.
  2.  
  3. From underneath, remove the retaining nuts for the front motor mounts.
    1. On B27 California models equipped with a catalytic converter, remove the front exhaust pipe.
    2.  
    3. On B27 49 states models, remove the front exhaust pipe hangers and clamps and allow the system to hang.
    4.  
    5. On the B28 and B280, disconnect the exhaust system clamp from the transmission and allow exhaust to hang.
    6.  

  4.  
  5. On cars equipped with automatic transmission, place the shift lever in PARK. Disconnect the shift control lever at the transmission.
  6.  
  7. On manual transmission cars, disconnect the clutch slave cylinder from the bell housing. Leave the cylinder connected to its hoses and secure the cylinder out of the way.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the speedometer cable and driveshaft at the transmission.
  10.  
  11. Jack up the front of the car and place jack stands beneath the reinforced box member area to the rear of each front jacking attachment. Using a floor jack and a thick, wide wooden block, support the weight of the engine beneath the oil pan.
  12.  
  13. Remove the bolts for the rear transmission mount. Remove the transmission support crossmember.
  14.  
  15. Lift out the engine and transmission.
  16.  
  17. Support the engine on a suitable rack or stand.
  18.  

To install:
  1. Lower the engine and transmission into the car. Support the weight of the engine with the floor jack and a thick, wide piece of wood under the oil pan.
  2.  
  3. Replace the transmission crossmember; install and tighten the bolts.
  4.  
  5. At the transmission, connect the speedometer cable and driveshaft.
  6.  
  7. On manual transmission cars, reattach and secure the clutch slave cylinder. On automatic transmissions, reconnect the shift control lever.
  8.  
  9. Install and secure exhaust system pieces as necessary. Check for proper placement of all brackets, mounts and clamps. Check for interference between exhaust pipes and bodywork.
  10.  
  11. Install the front motor mount retaining nuts.
  12.  
  13. Install the power steering pump, bracket, and drive belt. Adjust the belt to the proper tension.
  14.  
  15. If equipped with air conditioning, reinstall the compressor and drive belt. Adjust the belt to the proper tension.
  16.  
  17. Reconnect the exhaust manifold flange retaining nuts on both sides of the motor and and secure. On B28/B280, reconnect the oxygen sensor.
  18.  
  19. Re-attach the air pump hose to the backfire valve, connect the solenoid valve wire, and the wire to the micro-switch.
  20.  
  21. Reconnect the hose to the wax thermostat, the vacuum amplifier hose and the throttle cable. On automatic transmission cars, reconnect the kick-down cable.
  22.  
  23. Attach the wiring to the voltage regulator and replace the hoses to the carbon canister. Install the vacuum hose to the EGR valve.
  24.  
  25. At the firewall, connect the wiring to all relays and components, beginning with the larger harnesses first. Reinstall the distributor wiring.
  26.  
  27. Connect and secure all fuel lines at the filter and the return pipe. These are high pressure lines; make sure the fittings are tight and will not leak. Reinstall the gas cap.
  28.  
  29. Reinstall the vacuum pump and O-ring, and the pump hose. Connect the heater hoses; connect the power brake hose to the intake manifold.
  30.  
  31. Install the radiator, fan shroud and grille. On cars with automatic transmission, reconnect the transmission cooler lines to the radiator.
  32.  
  33. Install the upper and lower radiator hoses, the overflow hoses and replace the overflow tank cap. If not already done, close the drain cocks on both sides of the engine.
  34.  
  35. Attach the under-engine splash guard. Reinstall the air cleaner assembly, and, on B28/B280, the intake air preheating assembly.
  36.  
  37. Remount the hood and attach the washer lines and under hood light wire.
  38.  
  39. Add oil and coolant to specified levels.
  40.  
  41. Reinstall the battery. Secure the battery hold-down clamp and the wiring terminals.
  42.  
  43. On cars with manual transmissions, reinstall the shifter with particular attention to the snapring and the setscrew which locks the pivot pin.
  44.  
  45. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, loose nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the engine area.
  46.  
  47. Start the engine, allow it to run at idle and check for leaks. Make needed adjustments to throttle cable, clutch, and idle speed as necessary. Check ALL fluid levels and top off as needed.
  48.  

D24 and D24T Engines

See Figures 6 and 7

Cleanliness is extremely important when working on diesel fuel systems. Wipe off all line joints before disconnecting and plug open lines immediately. If drained fuel is to be re-used, collect in clean container and cap immediately.

All wires and hoses should be labled at the time of removal. The amount of time saved during reassembly makes the extra effort well worthwhile.

  1. Matchmark and remove the hood.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the negative battery terminal.
  4.  
  5. Drain the radiator coolant.
  6.  


CAUTION
When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Remove the four clips and pull up the rubber boot on the shift lever.
  2.  
  3. Disengage the back-up light and overdrive connector if so equipped.
  4.  
  5. Remove the bracket for the reverse inhibitor.
  6.  
  7. Release the lock ring on the shift lever.
  8.  
  9. Move the lock ring, rubber ring, and plastic journal up on the lever.
  10.  

On cars with automatic transmissions place the shift lever in P before disconnecting.

  1. Disconnect the top and bottom radiator hoses.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the lower hose at the cold start device, and drain the coolant into a suitable container.
  4.  
  5. On vehicles with automatic transmissions, remove the cooling lines from the radiator.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the expansion tank hose.
  8.  
  9. Unbolt and remove the grille, the radiator and the fan shroud.
  10.  
  11. Disengage the electrical connections at the firewall.
  12.  
  13. Remove the heater hoses at the control valve.
  14.  
  15. Disconnect the hose from the vacuum pump.
  16.  
  17. Disconnect the accelerator cable from the pulley and bracket. On automatic transmission-equipped cars, disconnect the kickdown cable.
  18.  
  19. Disconnect the vacuum line to the brake booster.
  20.  
  21. Disconnect the fuel supply line at the filter and the return line at the injection pump.
  22.  

Thoroughly clean all connections prior to disconnecting them.

  1. Plug all fuel lines to prevent dirt from entering them.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the wires at the main terminal.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the glow plug relay.
  6.  
  7. Remove the relay retaining screws and hang the relay and the wire bundle on the engine.
  8.  
  9. Remove the power steering pump and brackets, and use a piece of wire to tie it out of the way. It is not necessary to disconnect the hoses from the pump, but DO NOT allow the pump to hang by its hoses. If so equipped, detach the air conditioner compressor from its mounts and tie it out of the way. DO NOT disconnect any hoses to the compressor and DO NOT allow the compressor to hang by its hoses.
  10.  
  11. Remove the starter wires and the battery ground strap.
  12.  
  13. Remove the fan, spacer, pulley and drive belts.
  14.  
  15. Remove the air cleaner and all necessary hoses.
  16.  
  17. Disconnect the alternator wires.
  18.  
  19. Disconnect the exhaust pipe at the front exhaust manifold.
  20.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 6: Disconnect the exhaust pipe and bracket as shown

  1. Drain the engine oil.
  2.  


CAUTION
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water, or waterless hand cleaner should be used.

  1. Disconnect the exhaust pipe at the rear exhaust manifold.
  2.  
  3. On D24T models, remove the inlet hose from the turbo pipe, and the snapring from the turbo intake pipe. Remove the compressor intake pipe and plug the hole immediately with a clean rag. Disconnect the oil return pipe bolts, and move the return pipe aside. Plug the hoses. Remove the oil delivery pipe from the turbo unit, and plug the hoses. Remove the compressor and exhaust pipes from the turbo unit, and remove the turbocharger.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the clutch cable, return spring, vibration damper, and rubber buffer.
  6.  
  7. Pull out the clutch cable from the clutch lever and housing.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the speedometer from the transmission.
  10.  

On cars with automatic transmissions disconnect the gear shift control rod from the transmission.

  1. Disconnect the shift lever and push it up into the car.
  2.  
  3. Remove the driveshaft from the transmission.
  4.  
  5. Support the transmission with a jack and remove the rear crossmember.
  6.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 7: Remove the retaining nuts from the left and right engine mounts

  1. Remove the engine mounts.
    1. Left side: Remove the nuts from the front axle member.
    2.  
    3. Right side: Remove the lower nut from the rubber pad.
    4.  

  2.  
  3. Gently put tension on your engine removal hoist.
  4.  
  5. Remove the left engine mount assembly.
  6.  
  7. Tilt the engine and remove it using the proper lifting device.
  8.  
  9. Support the engine on a suitable rack or stand.
  10.  

To install:
  1. After positioning the engine in the car, attach the left engine mount to the block, gently lower the engine to its final position and secure both the left and right side engine mount nuts.
  2.  
  3. With the transmission resting on the jack, install the rear transmission crossmember.
  4.  
  5. Reconnect the driveshaft to the transmission. On automatic transmissions, reconnect the gear shift control rod to the transmission. On manual shift cars, reconnect the clutch cable to the lever and housing, remembering to install the return spring, vibration damper and buffer. Reconnect the speedometer cable.
  6.  
  7. On D24T models, reinstall the turbocharger unit, using new gaskets. Install the compressor and exhaust pipes. Remove the plugs from the lines and attach the oil delivery and oil return lines to the turbo unit. Remove the plugs and install the compressor intake pipe and air inlet hose.
  8.  
  9. Connect the exhaust pipes to the front and rear exhaust manifolds.
  10.  
  11. Connect the wiring to the alternator.
  12.  
  13. Replace the air cleaner assembly and its hoses and ductwork.
  14.  
  15. Install the fan, spacer, pulley and drive belts. Adjust the belts as necessary.
  16.  
  17. Connect the wiring to the starter and the battery ground strap.
  18.  
  19. Remount the power steering pump and brackets and, if equipped, the air conditioner compressor. Install the belts and adjust to the proper tension. Check the hoses for proper routing; make sure there is no possibility of the hoses rubbing on anything nearby.
  20.  
  21. Reinstall the glow plug relay at the firewall and connect its wiring. Attach the wiring at the main terminal.
  22.  
  23. Remove the plugs from the fuel delivery and return lines and connect them to the proper ports. Maintain extreme cleanliness throughout this operation.
  24.  
  25. Reconnect to vacuum line to the brake booster.
  26.  
  27. Attach the throttle cable to the pulley and bracket. Reattach the kickdown cable on cars with automatic transmissions.
  28.  
  29. Reconnect the hose to the vacuum pump. Attach and secure the heater hoses at the control valve.
  30.  
  31. Reconnect the electrical harnesses and wires at the firewall. Begin with the larger harnesses first.
  32.  
  33. Reinstall the radiator, fan shroud and grille. Connect the expansion tank hose. If equipped with automatic transmission, reconnect the oil cooler lines at the radiator.
  34.  
  35. Attach and secure the upper and lower radiator hoses and the lower hose to the cold start device.
  36.  
  37. Reinstall the shift lever assembly and reverse inhibitor. Connect the wiring for the reverse lights and, if equipped, the overdrive. Replace the shifter boot and secure with the four clips.
  38.  
  39. Reconnect the negative battery cable. Install the hood and connect the underhood light and the washer lines.
  40.  
  41. Install oil and coolant to specified levels.
  42.  
  43. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, loose nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the engine area.
  44.  
  45. Start the engine, allow it to run at idle and check for leaks. Make needed adjustments to throttle cable, clutch, and idle speed as necessary. Check ALL fluid levels and top off as needed.
  46.  

 
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