Volvo Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1970-1989 Repair Guide

Timing Belt

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



B21, B23 and B230 Engines

See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

  1. Remove the timing belt cover as outlined previously.
  2.  
  3. To remove the tension from the belt, loosen the nut for the tensioner and press the idler roller back. The tension spring can be locked in this position by inserting the shank end of a 3 / 32 (3mm) drill bit through the pusher rod.
  4.  
  5. Remove the six retaining bolts and the crankshaft pulley.
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  7. Remove the belt, taking care not to bend it at any sharp angles. The belt should be replaced routinely at 45,000 mile intervals, or anytime it becomes oil soaked or frayed.
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Fig. Fig. 1: Align the crankshaft and camshaft marks prior to removing the timing belt-B230F engines



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Fig. Fig. 2: View of the timing belt prior to removal-B21FT engine



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Fig. Fig. 3: If you need the room, the fuel injector lines may be moved aside by unbolting their hold-down clamp



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Fig. Fig. 4: Loosen the tensioner-you may hold the tensioner in place by inserting a 3/32 in. (3mm) dowel pin or drill bit in the pusher rod



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Fig. Fig. 5: Remove the timing belt once tension is released



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Fig. Fig. 6: This belt is ready for the trash-replace the belt if damaged or if it is near the end of its recommended life

  1. If the crankshaft, idler shaft, or camshaft were disturbed while the belt was off, align each shaft with its corresponding index mark (to assure proper valve timing and ignition timing) as follows:
    1. Rotate the crankshaft so that the notch in the crankshaft gear belt guide aligns with the embossed mark on the front cover (12 o'clock position).
    2.  
    3. Rotate the idler shaft so that the dot on the idler shaft drive sprocket aligns with the notch on the timing belt rear cover (four o'clock position).
    4.  
    5. Rotate the camshaft so that the notch in the camshaft sprocket inner belt guide aligns with the notch in the forward edge of the valve cover (12 o'clock position).
    6.  

  2.  
  3. Install the timing belt (don't use any sharp tools) over the sprockets, and then over the tensioner roller. Loosen the tensioner nut and let the spring tension automatically take up the slack. Tighten the tensioner nut to 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm).
  4.  
  5. Rotate the crankshaft one full revolution clockwise, and make sure the timing marks still align.
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  7. Reverse Steps 1-3 to install.
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B234 Engine

The B234 engine has two belts, one driving the camshafts and one driving the balance shafts. The camshaft belt may be removed separately; the balance shaft belt requires removal of the cam belt. During reassembly, the EXACT placement of the belts and pulleys must be observed.

  1. Remove the negative battery cable and the alternator belt.
  2.  
  3. Remove the radiator fan, its pulley and the fan shroud.
  4.  
  5. Remove the drive belts for the power steering belts and the air conditioning compressor.
  6.  
  7. Beginning with the top cover, remove the retaining bolts and remove the timing belt covers.
  8.  
  9. Turn the engine to TDC on cylinder 1. Make sure the marks on the cam pulleys align with the marks on the backing plate and that the marking on the belt guide plate (on the crankshaft) is opposite the TDC mark on the engine block.
  10.  
  11. Remove the protective cap over the timing belt tensioner locknut. Loosen the lock nut, compress the tensioner (so as to release tension on the belts) and retighten the locknut, holding the tensioner in place.
  12.  
  13. Remove the timing belt from the camshafts. Do not crease or fold the belt.
  14.  


WARNING
The camshafts and the crankshaft MUST NOT be moved when the belt is removed.

  1. Check the tensioner by spinning it (counterclockwise) and listening for any bearing noise within. Check also that the belt contact surface is clean and smooth. In the same fashion, check the timing belt idler pulleys. Make sure the are tightened to 18.5 ft. lbs. (25 Nm). If the balance shaft belt is to be removed:
    1. Remove the balance shaft belt idler pulley from the engine.
    2.  
    3. Loosen the locknut on the tensioner and remove the belt. Slide the belt under the crankshaft pulley assembly. Check the tensioner and idler wheels carefully for any sign of contamination; check the ends of the shafts for any sign of oil leakage.
    4.  
    5. Check the position of the balance shafts and the crankshaft after belt removal. The balance shaft markings on the pulleys should align with the markings on the backing plate and the crankshaft marking should still be aligned with the TDC mark on the engine block.
    6.  
    7. When refitting the balance shaft belt, observe that the belt has colored dots on it. These marks assist in the critical placement of the belt. The yellow dot will align the right (lower) shaft, the blue dot will align on the crank and the other yellow dot will match to the upper (left) balance shaft.
    8.  
    9. Carefully work the belt in under the crankshaft pulley. Make sure the blue dot is opposite the bottom (TDC) marking on the belt guide plate at the bottom of the crankshaft. Fit the belt around the left (upper) balance shaft pulley, making sure the yellow mark is opposite the mark on the pulley. Install the belt around the right (lower) balance shaft pulley and again check that the mark on the belt aligns with the mark on the pulley.
    10.  
    11. Work the belt around the tensioner. Double check that all the markings are still aligned.
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    13. Set the belt tension by inserting an Allen key into the adjusting hole in the tensioner. Turn the crankshaft carefully through a few degrees on either side of TDC to check that the belt has properly engaged the pulleys. Return the crank to the TDC position and set the adjusting hole just below the 3 o'clock position when tightening the adjusting bolt. Use the Allen wrench (in the adjusting hole) as a counter hold and tighten the locking bolt to 30 ft. lbs. (40 Nm).
    14.  
    15. Use Volvo tool 998 8500 to check the tension of the belt. Install the gauge over the position of the removed idler pulley. The tension must be 1-4 units on the scale or the belt must be readjusted.
    16.  

  2.  
  3. Reinstall the camshaft belt by aligning the double line marking on the belt with the top marking on the belt guide plate at the top of the crankshaft. Stretch the belt around the crank pulley and place it over the tensioner and the right side idler. Place the belt on the camshaft pulleys. The single line marks on the belt should align exactly with the pulley markings. Route the belt around the oil pump drive pulley and press the belt onto the left side idler.
  4.  
  5. Check that all the markings align and that the engine is still positioned at TDC for cylinder 1.
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  7. Loosen the tensioner locknut.
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  9. Turn the crankshaft clockwise. The cam pulleys should rotate one full turn until the marks again align with the marks on the backing plate.
  10.  


WARNING
The engine must not be rotated counterclockwise during this procedure.

  1. Smoothly rotate the crankshaft further clockwise until the cam pulley markings are 1 1 / 2 teeth beyond the marks on the backing plate. Tighten the tensioner locknut.
  2.  
  3. Check the tension on the balance shaft belt; it should now be 3.8 units on the scale. If the tension is too low, adjust the tensioner clockwise. If the tension is too high, repeat Step 8g above.
  4.  
  5. Check the belt guide for the balance shaft belt and make sure it is properly seated. Install the center timing belt cover (the one that covers the tensioner) the fan shroud, fan pulley and fan. Install all the drive belts and connect the battery cable.
  6.  
  7. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, loose nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the engine area.
  8.  
  9. Start the engine and allow it to run until the thermostat opens.
  10.  


CAUTION
The upper and lower timing belt covers are still removed. The belt and pulleys are exposed and moving at high speed.

  1. Shut the motor off and bring the motor to TDC on cylinder No. 1.
  2.  
  3. Check the tension of the camshaft belt. Position the gauge between the right (exhaust) cam pulley and the idler. Belt tension must be 5.3-5.7 units on the scale. If the belt needs adjustment, remove the rubber cap over the tensioner locknut (cap is located on the timing belt cover) and loosen the locknut.
    1. Insert a prytool between the tensioner wheel and the spring carrier pin to hold the tensioner. If the belt needs to be tightened, move the roller to adjust the tension to 6.0 units on the scale. If the belt is too tight, adjust to obtain a reading of 5.0 units on the gauge. Tighten the tensioner locknut.
    2.  
    3. Rotate the crankshaft so that the cam pulleys move through one full revolution and recheck the tension on the camshaft belt. It should now be 5.3-5.7 units on the scale. Install the plastic plug over the tensioner bolt.
    4.  
    5. Final check the tension on the balance shaft belt by fitting the gauge and turning the tensioner clockwise. Only small movements are needed. After any needed readjustments, rotate the crankshaft clockwise through one full revolution and recheck the balance shaft belt. The tension should now be on the final specification of 4.7-5.1 units.
    6.  
    7. Install the idler pulley for the balance shaft belt. Reinstall the upper and lower timing belt covers.
    8.  

  4.  
  5. Start the engine and final check performance.
  6.  

D24 and D24T Diesel Engines

See Figure 7

When replacing both the front and rear camshaft belts at the recommended 75,000 mile (120,773 km) interval, you must also replace the front idler pulley.

Due to the number of special tools needed to perform this operation, it is recommended that timing belt removal and installation be performed by a competent garage. However, if you have access to the required special tools, the procedure is given below.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Drain the coolant and remove the splash guard from under the engine.
  4.  


CAUTION
When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old.

  1. Disconnect the lower radiator hose and remove the expansion tank cap.
  2.  
  3. Remove the radiator, the cooling fan with spacer and pulley, the fan belt and the drive belt for power steering pump.
  4.  
  5. Remove the valve cover and the front and rear timing belt covers.
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  7. Set No. 1 cylinder on top dead center of its compression stroke and align the flywheel timing mark at 0.
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  9. Using special wrench 5187 to hold the vibration damper, remove the damper center bolt with wrench 5188. It may be necessary to turn the engine slightly to permit wrench 5187 to rest on the cooling fan journal. After the center bolt is removed, use wrench 5187 to put No. 1 cylinder on TDC again.
  10.  



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Fig. Fig. 7: Set the diesel No.1 cylinder to TDC-note position of the cam lobes and flywheel pointer

  1. Remove the four bolts and remove the vibration damper. You may have to tap it to free it from the crankshaft gear.
  2.  
  3. Remove the lower timing belt shield, release the retaining bolts for the coolant pump and loosen and remove the belt.
  4.  
  5. Remove the idler pulley center bolt and remove the idler pulley using puller 5202. Tap a new idler pulley into place and install its center bolt.
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  7. Use wrench 5199 to hold the rear gear and use wrench 5201 to remove its center bolt. Remove the rear camshaft gear and remove the cover gasket.
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  9. Install gauge 5190 in the groove on the camshaft rear end to lock the camshaft in position. Position a 0.008 in. (0.2mm) feeler blade under the left side of the gauge to compensate for clearances in the timing gears.
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  11. Remove the front camshaft gear bolt using tool No. 5199 to hold the gear in position. Do not allow the camshaft to turn. Tap the gear loose.
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  13. After checking to make sure that the flywheel mark is still at 0 and that the camshaft has not moved, install the new belt and the camshaft front gear. Make sure the belt fits securely on the gears. Install the center bolt on the camshaft front gear finger-tight. The camshaft gear must be able to rotate by itself. The camshaft must not be rotated.
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  15. Install the lower belt shield and vibration damper. The damper fits only one way. Tighten the damper attaching bolts to 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm).
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  17. Install the crankshaft center bolt after applying sealer to the threads and contact surfaces. Use wrench 5187 to hold the vibration damper. It can rest on the cooling fan journal. Use wrench 5188 to tighten the center bolt to 255 ft. lbs. (345 Nm).
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This torque applies only if tool No. 5188 is used. If only a torque wrench is used, tighten to 330 ft. lbs. (447 Nm).

  1. Verify that No. 1 cylinder is still at TDC.
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  3. Using the cooling pump movement, adjust the belt tension. Install belt tension gauge 5197 on the belt. Set the gauge to 12.5. Adjust belt tension with the water pump until the mark on the plunger is flush with the gauge sleeve.
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  5. Press heavily on the belt with your hand and once again check the belt tension. Adjust if necessary.
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  7. Using wrench 5199 to hold the gear, tighten the front gear center bolt to 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm).Make sure the camshaft does not rotate.
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  9. Remove the feeler gauge and the lock gauge at the rear of the engine.
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  11. Set the injection pump timing as instructed in Fuel System .
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  13. Reinstall the front and rear timing gear covers. Reinstall the valve cover.
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  15. Install the fan with its spacer and pulley. Tighten the fan bolts to 7 ft. lbs. (9 Nm).
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  17. Install the belts for the fan and power steering pump. Adjust the belts to the proper tension.
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  19. Reinstall the radiator. Connect the hoses to the radiator and the hose to the cold start device. Refill the coolant system with a 50-50 mixture of antifreeze and water.
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  21. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, loose nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the engine area.
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  23. Reconnect the negative battery cable. Start the engine and check for leaks.
  24.  
  25. Disconnect the upper hose to the cold start device. Place a collecting pan or jug beneath the hose and hold the hose level with the top edge of the expansion tank. Allow the engine to come to normal operating temperature with the cap off the expansion tank. Add coolant as necessary as the engine warms up.
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  27. When the coolant level is stable and no air is coming from the disconnected hose, shut the engine off. Reconnect the upper hose to the cold start device, top up the coolant in the expansion tank and put the cap back on the tank.
  28.  

 
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