Volvo Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1970-1989 Repair Guide

Turbocharger

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



B21FT and B23FT Engines

See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Due to the complexity and close tolerances involved with the turbocharger unit, we recommend that any service other than removal and installation be performed by an experienced turbo technician. It should also be mentioned that the turbocharger unit has other controls mounted on it. These devices control various pressures developed by the turbocharger. DO NOT attempt to alter or adjust the linkages or settings; severe and immediate damage to the engine may occur if the turbo air flow is altered.



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Fig. Fig. 1: Component location for the common turbocharger system

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the expansion tank and its retainer.
  4.  
  5. Remove preheater hose to the air cleaner. Remove the pipe and rubber bellows between the air/fuel control unit and the turbocharger unit. Pull out the crankcase ventilation hose from the pipe.
  6.  
  7. Remove the pipe and pipe connector between the turbocharger unit and the intake. Cover the turbocharger intake and outlet ports to keep dirt out of the system.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the exhaust pipe and secure it out of the way.
  10.  



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Fig. Fig. 2: Disconnect the turbocharger from the exhaust system on the flange indicated by the arrows

  1. Disconnect the spark plug wires at the plugs.
  2.  
  3. Remove the upper heat shield. Remove the brace between the turbocharger unit and the manifold.
  4.  
  5. Remove the lower heat shield by removing the one retaining screw underneath the manifold.
  6.  



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Fig. Fig. 3: Unbolt the exhaust system-to-turbo flange (it is recommended that the intake bellows and pipe be removed first)

  1. Remove the oil pipe clamp, the retaining screws on the turbo unit and the pipe connection screw in the cylinder block under the manifold. DO NOT allow any dirt to enter the oilways.
  2.  
  3. Remove the manifold retaining screws and washers. Let one nut remain in place to keep the manifold in position.
  4.  
  5. Remove the oil delivery pipe. Cover the opening on the turbo unit.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the air/fuel control unit by loosening the clamps. Move the unit with the lower section of the air cleaner up to the right side wheel housing. Place a cover over the wheel housing as protection.
  8.  
  9. Remove the air filter.
  10.  
  11. Remove the remaining nut and washer on the manifold. Lift the assembly forward and up. Remove the manifold gaskets. Disconnect the return oil pipe O-ring from the cylinder block.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the turbocharger unit from the manifold.
  14.  
  15. When reinstalling, be sure to use a new gasket for the exhaust manifold and a new O-ring to the return oil pipe. Keep everything clean during assembly, and use extreme care in keeping dirt out of the various turbo inlet and outlet pipes and hoses. Remember to remove the plugs from various ports and lines before reassembly.
  16.  
  17. Assemble the turbocharger to the exhaust manifold. Tighten the four bolts in the sequence shown. Use a three step tightening procedure:
  18.  



Step 1: 7 ft. lbs. (10 Nm)
 
Step 2: 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm)
 
Step 3: Tighten the bolts an additional 120°
 

  1. Install the turbo and manifold assembly onto the engine. The designation UT or the word OUT on the new gaskets should face away from the engine.
  2.  
  3. Lightly grease a new O-ring and install it on the oil return pipe. Lift the pipe into position by guiding it through the hole in the cylinder block. Make sure the O-ring seats properly.
  4.  
  5. Install one washer and nut to hold the manifold and turbocharger in place.
  6.  
  7. Install the air/fuel control unit and the air filter.
  8.  
  9. Fill the turbocharger oil inlet port with oil. This will pre-lube the compressor when the engine is first started.
  10.  
  11. Install the oil delivery pipe and make the connection finger-tight. Make sure no dirt enters the pipe or clings to fittings.
  12.  
  13. Install manifold washers and nuts. Don't forget to install the lifting eye (hook). Tighten the manifold retaining bolts to 18 ft. lbs. (24 Nm). Using new seals, connect the oil delivery pipe to the turbocharger. Install the pipe-clamp for the oil delivery pipe and tighten connection(s) for this pipe.
  14.  
  15. Install the upper and lower heat shields, install the brace between the manifold and the turbocharger, and reconnect the spark plug wiring.
  16.  
  17. Connect the exhaust pipe.
  18.  
  19. Attach the pipe and rubber bellows between the air/fuel control unit and the turbocharger. Reconnect the PCV hose and the pre-heat hose to the air cleaner. Install the intake pipe between the turbocharger and the intake manifold. Double check all hoses for proper positioning and tightened clamps.
  20.  
  21. Replace the expansion tank and its retainer. Connect the negative battery cable.
  22.  
  23. IMPORTANT: Disconnect the wire (usually brown) at terminal No. 15 of the ignition coil. Use the ignition key to run the starter for about 30 seconds; the engine will turn but will not start. This circulates the oil within the turbocharger, insuring proper lubrication when the engine is started. With the ignition key off, reconnect the wire to terminal 15 on the coil.
  24.  



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Fig. Fig. 4: On gasoline engines, fill the turbocharger oil inlet port with oil when reassembling



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Fig. Fig. 5: To prelube the turbocharger by cranking the engine, FIRST disconnect terminal No. 15 on the coil

  1. Start the engine and allow it to idle for at least 30 seconds before increasing engine speed.
  2.  

D24T Engine
  1. Remove the negative battery cable.
  2.  
  3. Remove the inlet hose from the turbo pipe.
  4.  
  5. Remove the complete air cleaner assembly, and the preheater hoses.
  6.  
  7. Remove the snapring from the turbocharger intake pipe, and remove the compressor intake pipe. Plug the hose immediately.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the bolts securing the oil return pipe to the turbo unit. Move the pipe aside, and plug the holes immediately.
  10.  
  11. Remove the oil delivery pipe from the turbocharger and plug the holes.
  12.  
  13. Press or slide the compressor pipe into the intake manifold. Remove the exhaust pipe from the turbocharger.
  14.  
  15. Jack up the car, and place stands safely underneath. Remove the exhaust pipe from the transmission support bracket and disassemble the joint. Remove the exhaust pipe.
  16.  
  17. Remove the turbocharger securing nuts, and lower the front end of the turbo unit. Remove the turbocharger and then remove the compressor pipe.
  18.  
  19. If the turbocharger is replaced complete, transfer the necessary parts to the new unit. Always use new gaskets.
  20.  
  21. During installation, make sure all hoses are connected without the addition of any dirt into the system. This is crucial to the life of the turbocharger and the engine. Mount the turbocharger onto the manifold. Use new nuts (no gasket is required) and tighten the nuts to 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm). Slide the compressor intake pipe down onto the turbocharger.
  22.  
  23. Remember to remove all plugs and line covers. Attach the oil delivery pipe, the oil return pipe (with a new seal) and the exhaust pipe with a new gasket.
  24.  
  25. Under the car, attach the exhaust pipes and secure the brackets at the transmission.
  26.  
  27. Install the turbocharger intake pipe. Apply oil to the inside of the tube and to the O-ring; install it on the outer groove of the turbocharger.
  28.  
  29. Reconnect the hose for the safety valve.
  30.  
  31. Reinstall the air cleaner with the intake and pre-heat hoses. Connect the negative battery cable.
  32.  

 
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