Volvo Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1970-1989 Repair Guide

Spindle (Stub Axle)

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION




CAUTION
This procedure requires removal of the brakes. Brake pads and shoes may contain asbestos, which has been determined to a cancer causing agent. Never clean the brake surfaces with compressed air! Avoid inhaling and dust from brake surfaces! When cleaning brakes, use commercially available brake cleaning fluids.

The use of the correct special tools or their equivalent is REQUIRED for this procedure.

1800 Series
  1. Loosen the wheel nuts, elevate the car and safely support it with jackstands under the lower control arms.
  2.  
  3. Plug the vent hole in the brake fluid reservoir to prevent spillage and leakage.
  4.  
  5. Remove the wheels. Disconnect the brake hose at its joint to the metal pipe. Catch any spilled fluid and plug the open lines.
  6.  
  7. Remove the attaching bolts and remove the brake caliper. Note the position of any shims in the mounting.
  8.  
  9. Remove the grease cap. Remove the cotter pin, the castle nut and mount a hub puller onto the disc.
  10.  
  11. Pull the hub off. The outer bearing will come off with it; the inner bearing may stay on the stub axle. If it does, simply use a bearing puller of the correct size to remove the bearing from the axle.
  12.  
  13. Remove the four bolts and separate the splash shield, retainer and steering arm from the knuckle.
  14.  
  15. Loosen and remove the upper and lower ball joints.
  16.  
  17. Lift out the stub axle and steering knuckle assembly.
  18.  

To install:
  1. Since the wheel bearings have been removed and exposed, they should be cleaned and repacked before reinstallation. When reassembling, fit the stub axle into position and and attach the upper and lower ball joints.
  2.  
  3. Assemble and connect the retainer, steering arm and splash shield to the steering knuckle/stub axle assembly.
  4.  
  5. Place the inner bearing in position within the hub. Using the correct sized drift, install the inner seal.
  6.  
  7. Install the hub onto the stub axle and fit the outer bearing in place. Install the washer and castle nut.
  8.  
  9. Adjust the front wheel bearings by spinning the hub and simultaneously tightening the center nut to 50 ft. lbs. (68 Nm). Then loosen the center nut two flats on the center nut. If the nut recess (groove) doesn't line up with the cotter pin hole, loosen the nut just a bit until it aligns. Install a new cotter pin and check that the hub spins freely without excess sideplay.
  10.  
  11. Install the brake disc on the hub.
  12.  
  13. Fill the grease cap half full with bearing grease and install the cap.
  14.  
  15. Reinstall the caliper, observing shim placement as noted during removal.
  16.  
  17. Remove the plugs and connect the brake lines.
  18.  
  19. Bleed the brakes and remove the plug from the reservoir vent hole.
  20.  
  21. Install the wheel and lower the vehicle to the ground. Final tighten the wheel lugs.
  22.  

140 and 160 Series
  1. Safely elevate and support the car on jackstands. Remove the front wheel.
  2.  
  3. Remove the front brake caliper; use stiff wire and hang the caliper out of the way.
  4.  
  5. Remove the grease cap. Remove the cotter pin, the castle nut and mount a hub puller onto the disc.
  6.  
  7. Pull the hub off. The outer bearing will come off with it; the inner bearing may stay on the stub axle. If this happens, simply use a bearing puller of the correct size to remove the bearing race from the axle.
  8.  
  9. Use a ball joint separator and remove the steering rod from the steering arm. Volvo tool 2294 is recommended.
  10.  
  11. Loosen, but do not remove, the nuts for the ball joints. Tap on the housing with a hammer until the ball joint shafts loosen in their mounts.
  12.  
  13. Use a floor jack and elevate the control arm slightly. Remove the nuts for the ball joints and remove the steering knuckle/stub axle assembly.
  14.  

To install:
  1. Since the wheel bearings have been removed and exposed, they should be cleaned and repacked before reinstallation. When reassembling, fit the stub axle into position and and attach the upper and lower ball joints.
  2.  
  3. Attach the steering rod onto the steering arm.
  4.  
  5. Place the inner bearing in position within the hub. Using the correct sized drift, install the inner seal.
  6.  
  7. Install the hub onto the stub axle and fit the outer bearing in place. Install the washer and castle nut.
  8.  
  9. Adjust the front wheel bearings by spinning the hub and simultaneously tightening the center nut to 50 ft. lbs. (68 Nm). Then loosen the center nut two flats on the center nut. If the nut recess (groove) doesn't line up with the cotter pin hole, loosen the nut just a bit until it aligns. Install a new cotter pin and check that the hub spins freely without excess sideplay.
  10.  
  11. Install the brake disc on the hub.
  12.  
  13. Fill the grease cap half full with bearing grease and install the cap.
  14.  
  15. Reinstall the caliper.
  16.  
  17. Install the wheel and lower the vehicle to the ground. Final tighten the wheel lugs.
  18.  

200 Series

CAUTION
This procedure requires removal of the brakes. Brake pads and shoes may contain asbestos, which has been determined to a cancer causing agent. Never clean the brake surfaces with compressed air! Avoid inhaling and dust from brake surfaces! When cleaning brakes, use commercially available brake cleaning fluids.

The use of the correct special tools or their equivalent is REQUIRED for this procedure. To remove the spring, a coil spring compressor must be used. Under no circumstances should you attempt to lower and disassemble the strut assembly without the proper spring compressor. Serious injury could result.

  1. Loosen the wheel nuts, elevate the car and safely support it with jackstands under jack points or frame.
  2.  
  3. Plug the vent hole in the brake fluid reservoir to prevent spillage and leakage.
  4.  
  5. Remove the wheels. Disconnect the brake line bracket but don't disconnect the hoses.
  6.  
  7. Remove the attaching bolts and remove the brake caliper. Note the position of any shims in the mounting. Use wire to support the caliper out of the way.
  8.  
  9. Remove the grease cap. Remove the cotter pin, the castle nut and mount a hub puller onto the disc.
  10.  
  11. Pull the hub off. The outer bearing and disc will come off with it; the inner bearing may stay on the stub axle. If this happens, simply use a bearing puller of the correct size to remove the bearing from the axle.
  12.  
  13. Place a floor jack beneath the control arm to support it but do not locate it under the lower ball joint.
  14.  
  15. Install the spring compressor on the spring directly beneath the upper mount. Make sure that at least 3 coils of the spring are between the tool attachment points. Tighten the tool and compress the spring.
  16.  
  17. Using a ball joint puller, disconnect the steering rod from the steering arm.
  18.  
  19. Disconnect the stabilizer bar at the upper link.
  20.  
  21. Open the hood and remove the cover from the top of the strut assembly upper mount. Mark the position of the upper mounts relative to their holes.
  22.  
  23. While keeping the strut from turning, loosen and remove the nut for the upper strut mount.
  24.  
  25. Before lowering the strut assembly, wire or tie the strut to some stationary component (or use a holding fixture such as Volvo No. 5045) to prevent the strut from traveling down too far. Lower the jack supporting the lower arm and allow the strut to tilt out at about a 60° angle. At this angle, the top of the strut assembly should just protrude past the wheel well, allowing removal of the strut components from the top. Take great care to control the descent of the strut and prevent damage to the fender.
  26.  
  27. Lift off the spring seat, rubber bumper, and the shock absorber protector. Remove the coil spring and compressor assembly from the strut.
  28.  
  29. If the same spring is to be reused, it may be left within the compressor and put aside until reassembly.
  30.  
  31. While keeping the strut outer tube from turning, remove the upper shock absorber retaining nut.
  32.  
  33. Pull the shock absorber unit out of the outer tube (casing).
  34.  

On some models, gas type shock absorbers are used. A special tool (such as Volvo No. 5173 or similar) must be used to remove and install the unit.

  1. Remove the lower ball joint nut and mount. Please consult the section in this section for "Lower Ball Joint Removal and Installation" for specific instructions regarding early or later production cars.
  2.  
  3. With the lower ball joint disconnected, the strut assembly may be removed from the car. It is a one piece assembly consisting of the shock absorber tube, the lower spring seat and the spindle (stub axle). The components are not individually replaceable; any failure requires a complete replacement unit.
  4.  

To install:
  1. Position the new unit and install the lower ball joint, following the correct procedure for early or late production cars. Support the upper part of the assembly as before to prevent damage.
  2.  
  3. Install the shock absorber unit into the outer tube and install the retaining nut. You can stop the outer tube from turning with the nut by holding the tube at the weld with a pair of locking pliers.
  4.  
  5. Pull the shock absorber shaft to its uppermost position.
  6.  
  7. Position the spring and compressor on the strut assembly. Make sure the spring end is properly aligned with the lower mount.
  8.  
  9. Install the rubber bumper and the shock absorber protector. Position the spring seat on the spring, making sure it is aligned with the spring.
  10.  
  11. Carefully lift and guide the strut assembly into its upper attachment in the spring tower. Connect the stabilizer bar to the stabilizer link.
  12.  
  13. Guide the shock absorber spindle into the upper attachment and raise the jack beneath the lower control arm. Install the washer and nut on top of the shock absorber spindle. Position the upper mount according to marks made during removal. Tighten the upper mounting bolts. The smaller outer nuts should be tightened to 15-25 ft. lbs. (20-34 Nm). The large center nut should be tightened to 90-100 ft. lbs. (122-135 Nm).
  14.  
  15. Install the cover.
  16.  
  17. Attach the brake line bracket to its mount. Make sure that the brake lines sit properly in their mounts. Tighten the nut holding the stabilizer bar to the link. Connect the steering rod at the steering arm.
  18.  
  19. Slowly release the coil spring compressor, allow the spring to seat and remove the compressor.
  20.  
  21. Inspect the front wheel bearings as outlined under "Front Wheel Bearings Removal and Installation" in this section. Repack the bearings if necessary and always replace the seals.
  22.  
  23. Place the inner bearing in position within the hub. Using the correct sized drift, install the inner seal.
  24.  
  25. Install the hub onto the stub axle and fit the outer bearing in place. Install the washer and castle nut.
  26.  
  27. Adjust the front wheel bearings by spinning the hub and simultaneously tightening the center nut to 50 ft. lbs. (68 Nm). Then loosen the center nut two flats on the center nut. If the nut recess (groove) doesn't line up with the cotter pin hole, loosen the nut just a bit until it aligns. Install a new cotter pin and check that the hub spins freely without excess sideplay.
  28.  
  29. Install the brake disc on the hub.
  30.  
  31. Fill the grease cap half full with bearing grease and install the cap.
  32.  
  33. Reinstall the caliper, observing shim placement as noted during removal.
  34.  
  35. Reinstall the brake hose mounting bracket. Check that the brake lines are not stretched or kinked.
  36.  
  37. Remove the jack from under the control arm. Remove the plug from the reservoir vent hole.
  38.  
  39. Install the wheel and lower the vehicle to the ground. Final tighten the wheel lugs.
  40.  

700 Series

See Figure 1

  1. Safely elevate and support the front end. Remove the wheel.
  2.  
  3. Loosen the retaining bolts and remove the brake caliper. Hang the caliper out of the way with a piece of stiff wire.
  4.  
  5. Pry off the grease cap. Remove the cotter pin and castle nut.
  6.  
  7. Remove the brake disc. The outer bearing will come off with the disc. Use a bearing puller to remove the inner bearing from the spindle if it is difficult to remove.
  8.  

On 1988-89 760 and 780 cars with Multi-link rear suspension, the brake disc will be a separate item. Removing the disc will expose the hub locknut, which must be removed. Both wheel bearings are found inside the hub.

  1. Position a jack under the lower control arm to support it, but don't place it under the lower ball joint.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the front hub and stub axle assembly (including the strut assembly)-700 series with multi-link suspension

  1. Install the spring compressor on the spring directly beneath the upper mount. Make sure that at least 3 coils of the spring are between the tool attachment points. Tighten the tool and compress the spring.
  2.  
  3. Using a ball joint puller, disconnect the steering rod from the steering arm.
  4.  
  5. Disconnect the stabilizer bar at the upper link.
  6.  
  7. Remove the bolt holding the brake line bracket to the fender well.
  8.  
  9. Open the hood and remove the cover from the top of the strut assembly upper mount. Mark the position of the upper mounts relative to their holes.
  10.  
  11. While keeping the strut from turning, loosen and remove the nut for the upper strut mount.
  12.  
  13. Before lowering the strut assembly, wire or tie the strut to some stationary component (or use a holding fixture such as Volvo No. 5045) to prevent the strut from traveling down too far and causing damage. Lower the jack supporting the lower arm and allow the strut to tilt out at about a 60° angle. At this angle, the top of the strut assembly should just protrude past the wheel well, allowing removal of the strut components from the top. Take great care to control the descent of the strut and prevent damage to the fender.
  14.  
  15. Lift off the spring seat, rubber bumper, and the shock absorber protector. Remove the upper spring mount from the shaft. If the same spring is to be reinstalled, it may be left within the compressor and put aside.
  16.  
  17. While keeping the strut outer tube from turning, remove the upper shock absorber retaining nut.
  18.  
  19. Pull the shock absorber unit out of the outer tube (casing).
  20.  

On some models, gas type shock absorbers are used. A special tool (such as Volvo No. 5173 or similar) must be used to remove and install the unit.

  1. Remove the cotter pin for the lower ball joint stud, and remove the nut.
  2.  
  3. Using a ball joint separator, press out the ball joint from the control arm. Make sure the puller is located directly in line with the stud, and that the rubber grease boot is not damaged by the puller.
  4.  
  5. Remove the bolts holding the ball joint to the spring strut. Press the control arm down and remove the ball joint.
  6.  
  7. With the lower ball joint disconnected, the strut assembly may be removed from the car. It is a one piece assembly consisting of the shock absorber tube, the lower spring seat and the spindle (stub axle). The components are not individually replaceable; any failure requires a complete replacement unit.
  8.  

To install:
  1. Position the new unit and install the lower ball joint. tighten the retaining nut to 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm). Support the upper part of the assembly as before to prevent damage.
  2.  
  3. Install the shock absorber unit into the outer tube and install the retaining nut. You can stop the outer tube from turning with the nut by holding the tube at the weld with a pair of locking pliers.
  4.  
  5. Pull the shock absorber shaft to its uppermost position.
  6.  
  7. Position the spring and compressor on the strut assembly. Install the upper spring mount. Make sure the spring end is properly aligned with the lower mount.
  8.  

Make sure that the compressor bolts face as they did during removal.

  1. Install the rubber bumper and the shock absorber protector. Position the spring seat on the spring, making sure it is aligned with the spring.
  2.  
  3. Carefully lift and guide the strut assembly into its upper attachment in the spring tower. Connect the stabilizer bar to the stabilizer link.
  4.  
  5. Guide the shock absorber spindle into the upper attachment and raise the jack beneath the lower control arm. Install the washer and nut on top of the shock absorber spindle. Position the upper mount according to marks made during removal. Tighten the upper mounting bolts. The smaller outer nuts should be tightened to 15-25 ft. lbs. (20-34 Nm). The large center nut should be tightened to 90-100 ft. lbs. (122-135 Nm). Install the cover.
  6.  
  7. Attach the brake line bracket to its mount. Make sure that the brake lines sit properly in their mounts. Tighten the nut holding the stabilizer bar to the link. Connect the steering rod at the steering arm.
  8.  
  9. Slowly release the coil spring compressor and remove it from the car.
  10.  
  11. Inspect the front wheel bearings as outlined under "Front Wheel Bearings-Removal and Installation" in this section. Repack the bearings if necessary and always replace the seals.
  12.  
  13. Place the inner bearing in position within the hub or disc. Using the correct sized drift, install the inner seal.
  14.  
  15. Install the disc, the outer bearing and the castle nut. For 1988-89 760 and 780 with Multi-link rear suspension, install the hub and with a NEW locknut. Do not reuse the old nut; bearing damage may result. Tighten the new nut to 74 ft. lbs (100 Nm) PLUS an additional 45° of rotation.
  16.  
  17. Install the brake caliper. Volvo recommends the use of new retaining bolts. The bolts should be tightened to 74 ft. lbs. (100 Nm).
  18.  
  19. Adjust the front wheel bearing by spinning the disc several times and then tightening the nut to 42 ft. lbs. (57 Nm). Loosen the nut 1 / 2 turn, then retighten to one ft. lb. This is just enough to hold the bearing in place but not enough to develop any side loading.
  20.  
  21. Install a new cotter pin. If the hole in the spindle doesn't align with the castle nut, tighten the nut just until the hole and slot align.
  22.  
  23. Install the grease cap. Install the wheel.
  24.  
  25. Lower the car to the ground and tighten the wheel to 63 ft. lbs. (85 Nm).
  26.  

 
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