Volvo Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1970-1989 Repair Guide

Transmission

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REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



The transmission assembly may be removed with the engine installed in the vehicle.

140 Series and 1975 240 Series
  1. If possible, support the engine with a hoist or support apparatus such as Volvo tool No. 2727. The purpose of supporting the rear of the engine is to prevent damage to the fan, radiator or front engine mounts by limiting the downward travel of the engine when the transmission crossmember is removed. If no lifting apparatus is available, place a jack with a protective wooden block beneath the engine oil pan. Do not place the jack under the flywheel (clutch) housing.
  2.  
  3. Lift up the gearshift boot, unscrew the protective cover, and remove the gear shift lever from the transmission.
  4.  
  5. Safely elevate the car at a height which will allow removal of the transmission. Remove the drain plug from the transmission and drain the oil.
  6.  
  7. Slowly loosen the nuts for the transmission crossmember. Make sure that the supporting apparatus or the jack supports the rear of the engine in place.Remove the crossmember. Disconnect the front universal joint from the transmission (or overdrive) output shaft flange. Disconnect the speedometer cable. Disconnect the rear engine mount and the exhaust pipe bracket.
  8.  
  9. Allow the rear of the engine to drop 0.8 in. (2mm). Disconnect the back-up light wires, and the wires for the overdrive, if so equipped.
  10.  
  11. Remove the four bolts which retain the transmission to the flywheel (clutch) housing. It may be necessary to use a universal (swivel) joint on the wrench to gain access to the two upper bolts.
  12.  


WARNING
The transmission is heavy! Support its weight with a second jack or hoist before removing. Do not allow the transmission to hang partially removed on the shaft.

  1. To remove the transmission, pull it straight out to the rear. While the transmission is removed, inspect the condition of the clutch and the throwout bearing. Replace the throwout bearing if it is scored or if it has been emitting metal-to-metal noises.
  2.  


WARNING
The transmission is heavy! Support its weight with a second jack or hoist before removing. Do not allow the transmission to hang partially removed on the shaft.

To install:
  1. When reinstalling, be careful to install two guide pins in the flywheel (clutch) housing. This will aid in aligning the transmission input shaft with the clutch spline when the transmission is being fitted to the flywheel housing. The transmission must be supported on the jack and pushed straight in to the clutch assembly. Again, do not allow the transmission to hang partially installed; the input shaft may bend.
  2.  
  3. Install two of the transmission retaining bolts. After two transmission-to-flywheel housing bolts are installed, the guide pins may be removed and the remaining two bolts installed. Torque the transmission-to-flywheel housing bolts to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm). Fill the transmission with oil to the proper level.
  4.  
  5. Reconnect the wiring for the overdrive unit and/or the reverse lights. Elevate the rear of the engine about 0.8 in. (2mm) until it is in its original position.
  6.  
  7. Reinstall the exhaust pipe bracket, the rear engine mount and reconnect the speedometer cable. Attach the driveshaft to the transmission or overdrive unit.
  8.  
  9. Reattach the support crossmember. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, improperly tightened nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the work area.
  10.  
  11. Lower the car from its stands. Inside the car, reinstall the shift lever mechanism, the protective cover and the shifter boot.
  12.  
  13. Remove the hoist or support apparatus from the engine area.
  14.  

164 Models
  1. If possible, support the engine with a hoist or support apparatus such as Volvo tool No. 2727. The purpose of supporting the rear of the engine is to prevent damage to the fan, radiator, or front engine mounts by limiting the downward travel of the engine when the transmission crossmember is removed. If no lifting apparatus is available, place a jack with a protective wooden block beneath the engine oil pan. Do not place the jack under the flywheel (clutch) housing.
  2.  
  3. Lift up the gearshift boot, unscrew the protective cover, and remove the gear shift lever from the transmission.
  4.  
  5. Safely elevate the car at a height which will allow removal of the transmission. Remove the drain plug from the transmission and drain the oil.
  6.  
  7. Remove the upper radiator bolts and the exhaust manifold flange nuts. Disconnect the negative battery cable, the throttle shaft and clutch cable from the flywheel (clutch) housing.
  8.  
  9. Slowly loosen the nuts for the transmission support crossmember. Making sure that the rear of the engine remains supported, remove the crossmember.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect the exhaust pipe bracket and the speedometer cable. Disconnect the front universal joint from the transmission (or overdrive) output shaft flange.
  12.  
  13. Lower the rear of the engine approximately 1.8 in. (46mm). Disconnect the back-up light wires and the wires for the overdrive, if so equipped.
  14.  


WARNING
The transmission is heavy. Support its weight with a second jack or hoist before removing. Do not allow the transmission to hang partially removed on the shaft.

  1. Place a hydraulic floor jack beneath the transmission. Remove the bolts which retain the transmission and flywheel (clutch) housing assembly to the engine. Leave the starter connected but position it to one side. Remove the transmission by pulling it straight to the rear.
  2.  
  3. Prior to assembly, inspect the condition of the clutch and the throwout bearing. Replace the bearing if it is scored or noisy in operation.
  4.  
  5. When reassembling, do not allow the gearbox to hang on the shaft partially installed. Support the transmission on the jack and slide it straight forward into the flywheel assembly. Install the retaining bolts and torque them to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm).
  6.  
  7. Reattach the starter if necessary. Fill the transmission oil to the proper level. Reconnect the overdrive and/or reverse light wiring.
  8.  
  9. Elevate the rear of the engine until it is in its original position.
  10.  
  11. Reinstall the exhaust pipe bracket and reconnect the speedometer cable. Attach the driveshaft to the transmission or overdrive unit.
  12.  
  13. Reattach the support crossmember. Reconnect the clutch cable, the throttle shaft and the negative battery cable.
  14.  
  15. Replace the upper radiator bolts and the exhaust manifold flange nuts. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, improperly tightened nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the work area.
  16.  
  17. Lower the car from its stands. Inside the car, reinstall the shift lever mechanism, the protective cover and the shifter boot.
  18.  
  19. Remove the hoist or support apparatus from the engine area.
  20.  

1800 Series
WITH M41 TRANSMISSION
  1. Remove the storage console from the transmission tunnel. Lift up the shifter boot, unscrew the protective cover and remove the gear shift lever.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Remove the radiator attaching bolts.
  4.  
  5. Jack up the vehicle sufficiently to allow removal of the transmission. Install jackstands. Remove the lower drain plug and drain the transmission oil.
  6.  
  7. Remove the bolts which retain the driveshaft to the flange, and remove the attaching bolts for the support bearings. Pull the driveshaft approximately 1 / 2 in. (13mm) to the rear.
  8.  
  9. Place a jack, with a protective wooden block, beneath the oil pan of the engine.
  10.  
  11. Disconnect the exhaust pipe bracket and the speedometer. Remove the rear engine mount. Slowly loosen the nuts for the transmission support crossmember making sure that the jack supports the rear of the engine.
  12.  
  13. Lower the engine approximately 0.8 in. (2mm). Disconnect the electric cables from the transmission.
  14.  


WARNING
The transmission is heavy. Support its weight with a second jack or hoist before removing. Do not allow the transmission to hang partially removed on the shaft.

  1. Remove the four bolts which secure the transmission to the flywheel (clutch) housing. It may be necessary to use a universal joint to gain access to the two upper bolts. Support the weight of the transmission with another jack and pull the unit straight out to the rear.
  2.  
  3. To remove the transmission, pull it straight out to the rear. While the transmission is removed, inspect the condition of the clutch and the throwout bearing. Replace the throwout bearing if it is scored or if it has been emitting metal-to-metal noises.
  4.  
  5. When reinstalling, be careful to install two guide pins in the flywheel (clutch) housing. This will aid in aligning the transmission input shaft with the clutch spline when the transmission is being fitted to the flywheel housing. The transmission must be supported on the jack and pushed straight in to the clutch assembly. Again, do not allow the transmission to hang partially installed; the input shaft may bend.
  6.  
  7. Install two of the transmission retaining bolts. After two transmission-to-flywheel housing bolts are installed, the guide pins may be removed and the remaining two bolts installed. Torque the transmission-to-flywheel housing bolts to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm). Fill the transmission with oil to the proper level.
  8.  
  9. Reconnect the wiring for the overdrive unit and/or the reverse lights. Elevate the rear of the engine about 0.8 in. (2mm) until it is in its original position.
  10.  
  11. Reinstall the exhaust pipe bracket, the rear engine mount and reconnect the speedometer cable. Attach the driveshaft to the transmission or overdrive unit.
  12.  
  13. Reattach the support crossmember. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, improperly tightened nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the work area.
  14.  
  15. Lower the car from its stands. Inside the car, reinstall the shift lever mechanism, the protective cover and the shifter boot.
  16.  
  17. Reinstall the radiator attaching bolts and connect the negative battery cable.
  18.  

WITH M410 TRANSMISSION
  1. Disconnect the upper and lower radiator hoses and drain the cooling system. Disconnect the heater hoses and the air intake hose. Pull up the rubber boot, unscrew the protective cover and remove the gearshift lever.
  2.  
  3. Raise the vehicle sufficiently to remove the transmission, and install jackstands. Disconnect the driveshaft, exhaust pipe bracket, clutch cable, and the electrical wires for the backup light and the overdrive.
  4.  
  5. Place a hydraulic floor jack beneath the transmission, and remove the transmission support crossmember.
  6.  
  7. Place a protective wooden block between the rear of the engine and the firewall. Lower the jack and the rear of the engine until the engine contacts the wooden block.
  8.  


WARNING
The transmission is heavy! Support its weight with a second jack or hoist before removing. Do not allow the transmission to hang partially removed on the shaft.

  1. Remove the bolts which secure the flywheel (clutch) housing to the engine. Leave the starter connected but position it to one side. Remove the transmission by pulling it straight to the rear.
  2.  
  3. Prior to installation, inspect the condition of the clutch and throwout bearing. Replace the bearing if it is scored or has been noisy in operation.
  4.  
  5. After reinstalling the transmission, tighten the mounting bolts to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm). Secure the starter to the bellhousing. Fill the transmission with oil to the proper level.
  6.  
  7. Raise the motor to its proper position and support it on the jack until the transmission crossmember is in place. Once secure, remove the block of wood from the firewall area.
  8.  
  9. Reattach the driveshaft, the exhaust pipe bracket, the clutch cable and the wiring for the overdrive and the reverse lights.
  10.  
  11. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, improperly tightened nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the work area. Lower the vehicle to the ground.
  12.  
  13. Reinstall the heater hoses, the air intake and the upper and lower radiator hoses. Fill the cooling system with the proper amount of fluid.
  14.  
  15. Inside the car, install the shifter mechanism, the protective cover and the shift boot.
  16.  

1976 and Later 200 Series without M46 or M47
  1. Disconnect the battery. At the firewall, disconnect the back-up light connector.
  2.  
  3. Jack up the front of the car and install jackstands. Under the car, loosen the setscrew and drive out the pin for the shifter rod. Disconnect the shift lever from the rod.
  4.  
  5. Inside the car, pull up the shift boot. Remove the fork for the reverse gear detent. Remove the snapring and lift up the shifter. If overdrive-equipped, disconnect the engaging switch wire.
  6.  
  7. On 240 Series and 1980 and later GL and DL models, disconnect the clutch cable and return spring at the fork. On 260 Series and 1980 and later GLE, Diesel, GT and Coupe models, remove the bolts retaining the slave cylinder to the flywheel housing and tie the cylinder back out of the way (do not disconnect any hoses).
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the exhaust pipe bracket(s) from the flywheel cover. Remove the oil pan splash guard.
  10.  
  11. Using a floor jack and a block of wood, support the engine beneath the oil pan. Remove the transmission support crossmember.
  12.  
  13. Disconnect the driveshaft. Disconnect the speedometer cable. If so equipped, disconnect the overdrive wire.
  14.  
  15. Remove the starter retaining bolts and pull the starter free of the flywheel housing. Leave the starter wiring connected and secure the starter out of the way.
  16.  


WARNING
The transmission is heavy. Support its weight with a second jack or hoist before removing. Do not allow the transmission to hang partially removed on the shaft.

  1. Support the transmission using another floor jack. Remove the flywheel (bell) housing-to-engine bolts and remove the transmission by pulling it straight back.
  2.  
  3. Inspect the condition of the clutch and throwout bearing. Replace the bearing if it is scored or has been noisy in operation.
  4.  
  5. After reinstalling the transmission, tighten the mounting bolts to 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm). Secure the starter to the bellhousing. Fill the transmission with oil to the proper level.
  6.  
  7. Connect the drive shaft, the speedometer cable and if necessary, the overdrive wiring.
  8.  
  9. Reinstall the transmission cross member. When secure, remove the jack from beneath the engine. Replace the splash guard and attach the exhaust bracket to the bell housing.
  10.  
  11. Depending on the model, either reconnect the clutch cable and return spring to the fork or remount the hydraulic clutch cylinder to the bell housing.
  12.  
  13. Inside the car, connect the shifter and the reverse gear detent fork. Connect the wiring for the overdrive switch and install the shift boot and cover.
  14.  
  15. Under the car, connect the shifter rod to the shift lever. Don't forget to tighten the setscrew.
  16.  
  17. Connect the reverse light wiring and attach the negative battery cable.
  18.  

700 Series and 1976 and Later 200 Series with M46 or M47

See Figures 1 through 14

  1. If possible, support the engine with a hoist or support apparatus such as Volvo tool No. 5006. The purpose of supporting the rear of the engine is to prevent damage to the fan, radiator or front engine mounts by limiting the downward travel of the engine when the transmission crossmember is removed. If no lifting apparatus is available, place a jack with a protective wooden block beneath the engine oil pan. Do not place the jack under the flywheel (clutch) housing.
  2.  
  3. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
  4.  
  5. Remove the ash tray and holder assembly. Remove the trim box around the gear shift lever.
  6.  
  7. Disconnect the shift lever cover from the floor. Remove the snapring at the base of the shift lever.
  8.  
  9. Jack up the car and safely support it with jackstands. From underneath the car, disconnect the gear shift rod at the gear shift lever. Remove the lock screw, and press out the pivot pin. Push up on the shift lever, and pull it up and out of the car.
  10.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Remove the (Allen) lock screw retaining the shift rod pivot pin (note the driveshaft has already been disconnected in this photo)



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Fig. Fig. 2: Use a punch to push out the pin and release the shift rod

  1. Matchmark the driveshaft and transmission flanges for later assembly. Disconnect the driveshaft from the transmission.
  2.  
  3. Separate the exhaust pipe at the joint under the car. Detach the bracket from the front end of the exhaust pipe (near the bend).
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Use the correct metric socket to unbolt the transmission crossmember

  1. Unbolt the transmission crossmember; at the same time, detach it from the rear support (rubber bushing).
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 4: Remove the rear support from the transmission (note the exhaust is still in place)

  1. Remove the rear support from the transmission.
  2.  

On B200 and B230 engines, lower the engine until1/2inch remains between the distributor cap and the firewall.

  1. Tag and disengage the electrical connectors from the overdrive, back-up light connector and the solenoid.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 5: Tag and disengage the electrical connectors from the overdrive, back-up light connector and the solenoid (shown)

  1. Cut the plastic clamp at the gear shift assembly from the wiring harness.
  2.  
  3. Remove the starter motor retaining bolts. On models with the B28 family of V6 engines, remove the cover plate under the bellhousing and the cover plate from the other starter motor opening.
  4.  
  5. On B28F models (hydraulic clutch), remove the slave cylinder from the bellhousing and upper bolts holding the bellhousing. On D24T models, (mechanical clutch), detach the clutch cable from the release fork and the bellhousing. Remove the upper retaining bolts from the bell housing.
  6.  


WARNING
The transmission is heavy. Support its weight with a second jack



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 6: Use a suitable transmission or floor jack to support the transmission while you are working

  1. Remove the clutch cable from the release fork and the bellhousing. Remove the upper retaining bolts from the bell housing.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 7: Remove the retaining clip to release the clutch cable (it may be necessary to loosen the adjuster first)



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Fig. Fig. 8: Remove the clutch cable end from its seat, then support it out of the way of the transmission


WARNING
The transmission is heavy. Support its weight with a second jack or hoist before removing. Do not allow the transmission to hang partially removed on the shaft.

  1. Place a transmission jack or a hydraulic floor jack underneath the gearbox so that the transmission is resting on the jack pad.
  2.  

It is very helpful to have another person steadying and guiding the transmission on the jack as it is lowered.

  1. Remove the lower bolts holding the bellhousing, and carefully lower the transmission a few inches as you roll it back so the input shaft will clear.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 9: Remove all the lower bolts holding the bellhousing

  1. Stop the jack and make sure all wires and linkage are disconnected, then lower the transmission the rest of the way.
  2.  



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Fig. Fig. 10: Remove this cast cover when ready to separate the transmission



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Fig. Fig. 11: Take care as you lower the transmission just a few inches, then roll it back so the input shaft will clear



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Fig. Fig. 12: Lower the transmission on the jack



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Fig. Fig. 13: Adjust the clutch cable for proper operation



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Fig. Fig. 14: Fasteners crucial to the transmission assembly and mounting-700 series

To install:
  1. When sliding the transmission into place, make sure the release bearing is correctly positioned in the shift fork, and that the input shaft is aligned in the clutch disc.
  2.  
  3. Install the upper bolts in the bellhousing. Raise the end of the gearbox and attach the gear carrier lever.
  4.  
  5. Attach the slave cylinder or clutch cable to its mounts. Adjust clutch clearance on D24T models to 0.04-0.12 in. (1-3mm) between the release fork and bearing.
  6.  

  1. Reinstall the starter motor. On B28 engines, reinstall the cover for the other starter hole.
  2.  
  3. Remount the gear lever carrier to the gearbox. Secure the connectors for the reverse lights, the solenoid and (on M46) the overdrive unit.
  4.  

  1. Replace the transmission crossmember. On B200/B230 engines, elevate the motor back to its normal position.
  2.  
  3. Tighten the exhaust pipe joint, attach its bracket and attach the gearshift rod to the gearshift lever.
  4.  
  5. Install and tighten the driveshaft. Refill the transmission with the proper amount of oil.
  6.  
  7. Connect the gearshift rod to the gear shift lever. Inside the car, mount and secure the shifter assembly.
  8.  
  9. Double check all installation items, paying particular attention to loose hoses or hanging wires, improperly tightened nuts, poor routing of hoses and wires (too tight or rubbing) and tools left in the work area.
  10.  
  11. Lower the car to the ground. Install the ashtray, interior trim and shifter boot.
  12.  
  13. Reconnect the negative battery cable.
  14.  

OVERHAUL



The procedures below refer to a manual gearbox which is removed from the car. If the unit has been removed with the overdrive attached, remove the overdrive unit before carrying out these procedures.


WARNING
The use of the correct special tools or their equivalent is REQUIRED for this procedure. Do not begin repairs unless equipped with bearing pullers, hub pullers, snapring pliers, and variously sized bearing drivers and installation tools. Access to a press will also be required.

M40/M41 Transmissions

See Figures 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19

  1. Mount the gearbox securely on the workbench or attach to a transmission stand.
  2.  
  3. Unscrew the bolts for the gearbox cover and remove the cover. Remove the spring and interlock (detent) balls for the shift rails.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 15: For each shift position, the line shows the direction of the engine's power through the gear clusters

  1. Remove the cover over the shift rails and remove the selector fork bolts.
  2.  
  3. Slide the selector fork backwards to the 1st gear position. Drive the retaining pin out slightly, but do not allow it to foul the 1st gear. Move the selector fork forward enough to allow the pin to pass in front of the gear. Drive the pin out completely and remove it.
  4.  
  5. Slide out the selector rails. Hold the forks so that they maintain position and do not jam the rails. Remove the forks.
  6.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 16: Use a gear puller to remove the front synchronizer-M40/M41 transmissions

  1. Remove the bolts for the rear cover. Turn the cover so that it does not lock the shaft for the idler and reverse gears. Drive out the shaft for the idler gear. The idler gear will fall to the bottom of the gearbox.
  2.  

The shaft must be driven out rearward.

  1. Pull out the mainshaft.
  2.  
  3. Remove the bolts and remove the cover over the input shaft. Gently pry out the oil seal from the cover.
  4.  
  5. Drive out the input shaft. It may be necessary to remove the circlip and press the bearing off the shaft.
  6.  
  7. Remove the idler gear from the bottom of the case. Using a puller of the correct size (Volvo No. 2878 or similar), remove the shaft for the reverse gear. When the shaft is free, remove the reverse gear and other parts from the case.
  8.  
  9. Disassemble the mainshaft as follows:
    1. If the transmission is equipped with overdrive, remove the circlip and press off the rotor for the overdrive oil pump. Remove the circlip for the mainshaft rear bearing. If not equipped with overdrive, counterhold the end flange and remove the flange nut.
    2.  
    3. Slide the engaging sleeve for 1st and 2nd gear forward. Place the shaft in a press and support it under 1st gear. Press out the shaft.
    4.  
    5. Remove the synchronizer, thrust washer, engaging sleeves, inserts and springs from the shaft. Take note of the order of assembly of the parts; make notes or diagrams to help you during reassembly.
    6.  
    7. Remove the snapring on the front of the shaft. Pull off the synchronizer hub and 3rd gear using a puller. Remove the thrust washer.
    8.  
    9. Remove the snapring, the thrust washer, 2nd gear, the synchronizer and spring.
    10.  
    11. Remove the oil seal from the rear cover and remove the speedometer gear. It may be necessary to remove the snaprings and press out the bearing.
    12.  

  10.  
  11. When disassembled check each gear carefully, looking for any signs of cracking or chipping particularly in the tooth areas. ANY sign of damage requires replacement of the gear. Check the synchronizers and selector sleeves for excessive blunting of points or edges. Inspect all the bearings for scoring or cracks on the balls or races. Inspect the shift rails for excessive wear at the indentations.
  12.  

To install:
  1. Reassemble the mainshaft. Press the bearing into the rear cover and fit the snapring. Use a snapring which fits securely into the groove; select a different thickness if the ring is loose in fit.
  2.  
  3. For a gearbox without overdrive:
    1. Place the speedometer gear on the bearing in the rear cover. Use a drift of the proper size and press in the oil seal.
    2.  
    3. Install the parts for the 1st and 2nd gear synchronizer on the mainshaft. Make sure the springs are installed correctly.
    4.  
    5. Install the synchronizer, 1st gear and the thrust washer. Place the rear cover on the shaft. Make sure that the speedometer gear is properly positioned.
    6.  
    7. Fit on the flange and use a sleeve to press on the cover and the flange. Using a counter hold on the flange, install the washer and nut for the flange and tighten the nut.
    8.  

  4.  
  5. For a gearbox with overdrive:
    1. Place the rear cover and bearing on a supporting sleeve. Install the thrust washer, 1st gear and synchronizer.
    2.  
    3. Press in the shaft. Select a snapring of the proper thickness and install it on the shaft.
    4.  
    5. Install the locking key, the rotor for the oil pump and the snapring.
    6.  

  6.  
  7. Install the synchronizer, 2nd gear and thrust washer onto the shaft. Again, select a circlip which fits snugly in the groove and install it.
  8.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 17: Install the synchronizer springs in the correct position upon reassembly-M40/M41 transmissions

  1. Install the thrust washer, 3rd gear and synchronizer on the shaft. Assemble the 3-4 synchronizer hub and install the snaprings. Install the synchronizer assembly on the mainshaft and select a snug fitting lockring to hold it in place.
  2.  
  3. After the mainshaft is assembled, install the reverse gear and shaft. The reverse shaft is mounted so that it projects 9 / 32 in. (7mm) outside the transmission case.
  4.  



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Fig. Fig. 18: The reverse shaft will project beyond the case. The dimension shown is 9/32 in. (7mm)

  1. Using a mandrel of the proper size (Volvo No. 2907 or similar), place the spacing washers and needles (24 in each bearing) in position. Use grease to hold the needles in position.
  2.  
  3. Using grease to hold them in place, attach the washers to the housing and guide them into position. (A centering plug such as Volvo No. 2908 is very helpful here.) Lay the idler gear in the bottom of the gear housing.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 19: Use a centering plug to install the idler gear-M40/M41 transmission. Volvo special tools shown

  1. Using a drift, press the bearing onto the input shaft. Lock it in place with a snapring. Again using grease to hold them in place, position the 14 bearing rollers in position in the input shaft. Press the input shaft into position in the housing and then press the oil seal into the cover.
  2.  
  3. Place the cover over the input shaft. Don't forget the O-rings for the bolts.
  4.  
  5. Place the mainshaft within the case. Turn the rear cover so that the counter shaft can be installed.
  6.  
  7. Gently turn the transmission upside down. Install the counter shaft from the rear and hold against the mandrel with your hand. Make sure the thrust washers (held in place by the grease) don't fall out of place. Install the idler gear.
  8.  
  9. If the transmission does not couple to an overdrive unit, install the rear cover. If an overdrive unit is used, install it with new hardware.
  10.  
  11. Reinstall the shift rails and forks. Move the selector fork over the rear position when installing the new lock pin. Install the cover over the shift rails.
  12.  

If the end caps at the front of the case were removed, they should be reinstalled. Note that the center cap should project about 0.16 in (4mm) beyond the housing.

  1. Install the interlock balls and springs. Install the gearbox cover.
  2.  
  3. Check the operation of the gearbox by testing each gear for smooth engagement and release.
  4.  

M400/M410 Transmissions

See Figures 20, 21, 22 and 23

  1. Mount the gearbox securely on the workbench or attach to a transmission stand.
  2.  
  3. Unscrew the bolts for the gearbox cover and remove the cover. Remove the spring and interlock (detent) balls for the shift forks.
  4.  
  5. Remove the bolts for the selector forks. Push the rails backwards and drive out the tensioning pin in the flange of the rails.
  6.  
  7. Hold the selector forks so they don't jam on the rails and remove the rails. Remove the selector forks.
  8.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 20: Use Volvo special tool 2985, or similar, to counterhold the mainshaft between the input shaft and front synchronizer

  1. Install a counterhold (Volvo No. 2985 or similar) between the input shaft and the front synchronizer. Remove the bolt and remove the mainshaft rear bearing
  2.  
  3. Remove the release bearing. Loosen the bolts and remove the cover for the input shaft. Then remove the bolts for the clutch casing and remove the casing.
  4.  
  5. Remove the circlip and, using a bearing puller (Volvo No. 2982 or similar), remove the bearing for the input shaft. Remove the counterhold device.
  6.  
  7. Turn the transmission upside down. Using a metal drift placed in the center hole, carefully drive the intermediate shaft forward until the front gear just touches the end of the housing. Now drive the intermediate shaft backwards until the rear bearing outer ring releases.
  8.  

The intermediate shaft may snag on the fitting for the reverse shaft. It may be necessary to guide the shaft to one side.

  1. Place the transmission in its normal upright position. Pull out the input shaft and remove the synchronizer. Remove the thrust washer from the rear end of the mainshaft. Fit a lifting tool (Volvo No. 2829 or similar) onto the mainshaft. Push the 1st-2nd engaging sleeve backwards and lift the mainshaft clear of the case.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 21: Use this Volvo tool to remove and carry the mainshaft assembly

  1. Lift the intermediate shaft. Using an appropriate drift, drive the outer ring for the intermediate shaft front bearing out of its mount. Pull off the inner rings-front and rear-with the appropriate pullers.
  2.  
  3. Using Volvo puller No. 2830 or similar, remove the reverse shaft and take out the reverse gear.
  4.  
  5. Drive out the sealing ring from the front and rear covers with a drift.
  6.  
  7. To disassemble the mainshaft:
    1. Remove the lifting tool and then remove 1st gear, the needle bearing and the synchronizer.
    2.  
    3. Remove the engaging sleeves for the synchronizers. Remove the circlips for the synchronizer hubs.
    4.  
    5. Place the shaft in a press and support it below the gears. Press off 2nd gear and the 1st-2nd synchronizing hub.
    6.  
    7. Reverse the shaft and again place it in the press, supported below the gear. Press off 3rd gear and the 3rd-4th synchronizer hub.
    8.  

  8.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 22: Use a press to disassemble the mainshaft-Volvo tool shown

  1. After the shaft is disassembled, clean all the parts in solvent. Examine the gears carefully for any signs of cracks or scoring, particularly in the tooth areas. Check the synchronizers for excessive wear, and examine the bearings closely for any sign of scoring or cracks.
  2.  
  3. To rebuild the mainshaft:
    1. Assemble the 1st-2nd and 3rd-4th synchronizers. Fit the snaprings correctly and place the resilient ring in the hub for the 3rd-4th synchronizer.
    2.  
    3. Use a small screwdriver to center the ring and install the cone into the synchronizer. Make sure the flanges fit properly into the grooves. Assemble the complete synchronizer and 3rd gear. Turning the gear will make it easier to fit the resilient ring in place.
    4.  
    5. Support the synchronizer and gear on a press. Insert the needle bearing and press in the mainshaft. Turn the gear during installation to check that the gear and needle bearing fit correctly. Select a circlip which is snug in the groove and install it.
    6.  
    7. Assemble the 1st-2nd synchronizer, cone, 2nd gear and needle bearing on the press. Make sure the gear ring on the engaging sleeve faces forward and that the flanges fit correctly within the grooves of the cone. Press in the mainshaft. While installing, turn 2nd gear to prevent binding. Select a circlip which is snug in the groove and install it.
    8.  
    9. Install 1st gear with its needle bearing and synchronizer onto the mainshaft. Install the lifting device.
    10.  

  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 23: Turn the gear to help make the flanges of the resilient ring fit correctly

  1. Using appropriate drifts, install the sealing rings into the front cover. Press the bearing onto the input shaft. Note that the ball holder should face inwards. Press the rear bearing inner ring onto the intermediate shaft.
  2.  
  3. Place the gear lever for the reverse shaft onto the bearing pin in the transmission housing. Install the reverse gear and shaft. The shaft should be level with the housing or a maximum of 0.08 in. (2mm) underneath.
  4.  
  5. Place the intermediate shaft in the bottom of the case. Install the mainshaft in the case; remove the lifting tool and fit the thrust washers onto the mainshaft.
  6.  
  7. Install the rear bearing onto the mainshaft. The ball holder should face inwards. Using a bearing press, set the bearing into the housing.
  8.  
  9. Install the needle bearing on the input shaft. Install the loose cone for the 3rd-4th synchronizer. Place it correctly so that the flanges fit into the grooves. Push the input shaft into the housing and onto the pin of the mainshaft.
  10.  
  11. Turn the transmission upside down. Press the front bearing inner ring onto the intermediate shaft with suitable bearing drivers. Drive in the outer rings until they are about 0.10 in. (2.5mm) above the face of the case.
  12.  
  13. Turn the transmission so that the front end is up and install the clutch casing and the front cover with new gaskets.
  14.  
  15. Turn the transmission so that the rear end is upward. Install the new gasket and place a 0.028 in. (0.7mm) shim on the rear bearing outer ring. Using either a dial indicator or other accurate means, determine the amount of vertical play (axial) in the intermediate shaft. If using the dial indicator, press down on the center of the shaft and turn it; set the dial to zero when the shaft is at its lowest point. Press the intermediate shaft upwards (a small screwdriver through the oil level hole does this easily) and turn it. Record the dial reading when the shaft is at its highest point.
  16.  
  17. Subtract 0.0024 in. (0.06mm) from the highest reading and select shims equal to this difference. Remove the measuring equipment and insert the shims; the thickest shim should be against the rear cover. Recheck the end play; final measurements should be 0.0012-0.004 in. (0.03-0.10mm).
  18.  
  19. Reinstall the selector forks, flanges and selector rails. Make sure the flange for the reverse gear fits properly in the gear lever. Install the retaining bolts and install new tensioning pins.
  20.  
  21. Install the intermediate flange and a new gasket. Install the overdrive unit if so equipped.
  22.  
  23. Place the interlocking balls and springs in position. Install the transmission cover with a new gasket. Install the speedometer gear and the clutch release bearing.
  24.  
  25. Check the operation of the gearbox by testing each gear for smooth engagement and release.
  26.  

M45/M46 and M47 Transmissions

See Figures 24 through 32

  1. Mount the gearbox securely on the workbench or attach to a transmission stand.
  2.  
  3. Unscrew the bolts for the gearbox cover and remove the cover. Remove the spring and interlock (detent) ball for the shift forks. Remove the reverse light switch and the overdrive switch (except M47).
  4.  
  5. Remove the selector plate assembly and the return spring. Remove the gasket and clean the gasket surface.
  6.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 24: Cutaway view of the M47 transmission-shown is power transfer in 5th gear

  1. Remove the glide washers for the selector plate assembly. Remove the locking pin for the shifter.
  2.  
  3. On M46 units, remove the overdrive unit.
  4.  
  5. Remove the gearshift carrier assembly.
  6.  
  7. Remove the sleeve for the gearshift rod joint. Tap out the rear pin in the gearshift rod, rotate the rod and remove the front pin. Remove the gearshift rod.
  8.  
  9. Unbolt and remove the intermediate housing; remove the gasket and shims.
  10.  
  11. Remove the gear selector rails, the shifter and the shift forks.
  12.  
  13. On M46 units, remove the eccentric for the overdrive oil pump by removing the lock ring and pulling off the eccentric. Catch the locking key as it falls clear.
  14.  
  15. Remove the lock ring and spacer for the mainshaft bearing.
  16.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 25: Eccentric for the overdrive oil pimp-Be sure to catch the small locking pin during removal

  1. Install a counterhold (Volvo No. 2985 or similar) between the input shaft and the front synchronizer. Remove the spacer ring and remove the mainshaft bearing. Remove the bearing thrust washer.
  2.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 26: Special Volvo tools are shown in place to facilitate the mainshaft bearing removal-note counterholding tool No. 2985 in the case

  1. Remove the clutch fork, spacer and release bearing. Then remove the bolts for the clutch casing (bell housing) and remove the casing.
  2.  
  3. Remove the outer races for the intermediate shaft bearings. On cast iron housings, tap the shaft backwards until the rear outer bearing race comes free. Then knock the shaft forward until the front outer race can be removed. On aluminum cases (How can you tell- Use a magnet!) tap the shaft only enough to expose the race, then affix a puller (Volvo No. 5177 or similar) and extract the race. Continued thumping on the shaft will crack the case. Don't risk it.
  4.  
  5. Pull out the input shaft and remove the 4th gear synchronizer ring.
  6.  
  7. Lift out the main shaft.
  8.  
  9. Lift out the intermediate shaft, and on M47 units, the intermediate shaft extension.
  10.  
  11. Using a punch, tap the reverse gear shaft backwards and remove the gear and shaft.
  12.  
  13. Remove the reverse gear shift fork and remove the seal for the selector rail.
  14.  
  15. Using a suitable puller, remove the intermediate shaft bearings from the shaft.
  16.  
  17. Remove 1st gear and its synchronizer ring from the mainshaft.
  18.  
  19. Remove the lock ring for the 1st-2nd synchronizer hub. Using a press, support the hub and press the hub and gear off the shaft.
  20.  
  21. Remove the lock ring for the 3rd-4th synchronizer hub. Using a press, support the hub and press the hub and gear off the shaft. On M47 units, remove the 5th gear synchronizer, hub and gear.
  22.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 27: Press out the synchronizer hub and gear-note the special tool properly supporting the assembly

  1. Remove the locking ring and spacer ring for the input shaft bearing.
  2.  
  3. Again using the press and supporting the bearing, remove the bearing on the input shaft.
  4.  
  5. Remove the rubber ring from the gearshift rod joint.
  6.  
  7. Remove the gearshift rod bushings and the bell housing seal.
  8.  
  9. Disconnect the synchronizer hubs by pushing the hubs out of the sleeves. Clean all parts in solvent and examine the gears carefully for any signs of cracks or scoring, particularly in the tooth areas. Check the synchronizers for excessive wear, and examine the bearings closely for any sign of scoring or cracks.
  10.  
  11. Begin reassembly by building up the synchronizer hubs. Position the hub in the sleeve so that slots align with the chamfered teeth within the sleeve. Insert the dogs (three in each synchro) and lock them in place with the springs.
  12.  
  13. Using the proper drivers, install the bell housing seal, position a new rubber ring in the shifter joint and install new bushings on the gearshift rod. Use grease to retain the rubber ring on the right side of the shifter rod.
  14.  
  15. Install a new seal for the selector rail in the case.
  16.  
  17. Using the press, assemble the 3rd gear and its synchronizer ring and install the assembly with the 3rd-4th synchronizer hub onto the main shaft. Repeat the procedure for the 2nd gear and synchronizer hub and install it with the 1st-2nd synchronizer onto the mainshaft. On M47 units, assemble 5th gear and its attendant synchronizer parts onto the intermediate shaft. Don't forget the locking rings (circlips) for each assembly.
  18.  
  19. Install the 1st gear and synchronizer ring onto the mainshaft.
  20.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 28: When installed correctly on the mainshaft, the first gear/synchronizer should look like this

  1. Using a drift of the correct size, install the two intermediate shaft bearings onto the shaft.
  2.  

The bearings for the small end of the intermediate shaft are different for diesel applications. Make sure you use the correct bearing for your application.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 29: Install the bearing on the intermediate shaft-Volvo special tool shown

  1. Install the bearing on the input shaft. Install the lock ring on the input shaft but DO NOT install the spacer ring at this time. It will be installed later in the procedure.
  2.  
  3. Follow this sub-procedure only if transmission case is aluminum:
    1. Position the intermediate shaft in its housing. Position the outer races for the intermediate shaft bearings in the case.
    2.  
    3. Install the bell housing with its gasket and torque its bolts to 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm).
    4.  
    5. Turn the transmission to a vertical position. Eliminate any play in the intermediate shaft bearings by tapping the bearing race until the clearance is gone and the shaft does not rotate easily.
    6.  
    7. Using an accurate metric depth gauge, measure the distance between the (intermediate shaft bearing) outer race and the rear surface of the case.
    8.  
    9. Calculate the thickness of shims for the intermediate shaft. Keep all your measurements and calculations in millimeters; replacement shims are not referenced in inch units. Start with the depth just measured--let's say 1.50mm--and add 0.25mm for the gasket thickness. (1.50 + 0.25 = 1.75mm ) The shaft free-play spec is 0.03-0.08mm, so add that to your total. (1.75 + 0.03 to 0.08 = 1.78 to 1.83mm). Since shims are available only in multiples of 5, we choose in our example shims totalling 1.80mm. Select the shims and set them aside; don't install them yet.
    10.  
    11. Since this was only for the purposes of preliminary measurement, remove the bellhousing and its gasket, remove the outer races for the intermediate shaft bearings and lift out the intermediate shaft.
    12.  

  4.  
  5. Install the reverse gear shifter and lock ring. Install reverse gear and its shaft.
  6.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 30: Use a metric depth gauge to take necessary measurements, then select the correct shim(s) based on your calculations

  1. Check and adjust the position of the reverse gear shaft in the case. It should be 0.002 in. (0.05mm) below the housing face.
  2.  
  3. Adjust the clearance between reverse gear and the shift fork. Correct clearance is 0.004-0.04 in. (0.1-1.0mm). Perform adjustments by tapping the shift fork pivot pin with a punch to move it.
  4.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 31: Move the mounting pin as necessary to adjust the clearance between reverse gear and its shift fork to 0.004-0.040 in. (0.10-1.00mm)

  1. Position the intermediate shaft (and its extension for M47) in the bottom of the transmission case.
  2.  
  3. Position the main shaft in its housing.
  4.  
  5. Put the thrust washer and bearing on the mainshaft. The bearing should have its positioning ring in place.
  6.  
  7. Using Volvo tool No. 2831 or similar, press the mainshaft bearing into position. Press so that reverse gear is loaded towards the center of the transmission. Make sure that gears do not contact each other and cause damage.
  8.  
  9. Install the lock ring for the mainshaft bearing.
  10.  
  11. For M46 units, place the locking key in the mainshaft keyway and install the overdrive oil pump eccentric and its locking ring.
  12.  
  13. Coat the bearing with grease and install the roller bearing into the input shaft.
  14.  
  15. Place the 4th gear synchronizer ring in the hub.
  16.  
  17. Attach the input shaft to the mainshaft and push it in all the way. Lift up the intermediate shaft so that the bearings are correctly positioned in the housing.
  18.  



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 32: Exploded view of the 5th gear components-M47 transmission

  1. Pull out the input shaft so that the spacer ring can be positioned on the bearing. Push the shaft back in; the spacer should lie against the housing.
  2.  
  3. Install the outer races for the intermediate shaft bearings. On units in aluminum cases, use a drift of the correct diameter.
  4.  
  5. Using a metric depth gauge, measure the distance between the front end of the input shaft bearing and the front surface of the case. Record this number. Now measure the distance between the surface of the bell housing and the bottom of the bearing case. The following calculation will compute the necessary thickness of the shims for the input shaft. Start with the distance from the bell housing surface to the bottom of the bearing seat--for example, let's say 5.60mm-and add to it the known thickness of the gasket, 0.25mm. (5.60 + 0.25 = 5.85). From the result, subtract the distance between the front of the input shaft bearing and the front of the case-for our example, 4.71mm. (5.85 - 4.71 = 1.04). Now subtract the allowable free-play in the shaft--0.01 to 0.15mm--to get the final shim thickness. (1.04 - 0.01 to 0.15 = 1.03 to 0.89). The nearest shim thickness to our need is 0.90mm.
  6.  
  7. Install the bell housing with its gasket; for aluminum cases, install the clutch fork and spacer. Tighten the bolts to 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm).
  8.  
  9. Install the clutch release (throwout) bearing.
  10.  
  11. Turn the transmission to a vertical position. For aluminum cased units, remove any free-play in the intermediate shaft by using a drift to tap the bearing race until the shaft has noticeable drag when turning. For units with iron cases, measure the distance between the outer race of the intermediate shaft bearing and the surface of the housing. To this measurement, add the known thickness of the gasket, 0.25mm. Subtract the allowable clearance, 0.025 to 0.10mm, and choose the shim or combination of shims closest to the total.
  12.  
  13. For both iron and aluminum cases, determine and select shims for the mainshaft in the following manner:
    1. Measure the distance between the front of the mainshaft bearing and the surface of the transmission case. Also measure the distance between the rear cover surface and the bottom of the bearing seat.
    2.  
    3. Beginning with the rear measurement (cover-to-bearing seat), add the known thickness of the gasket, 0.25mm.
    4.  
    5. From that total, subtract the front bearing-to-case surface measurement.
    6.  
    7. From that result, subtract the allowable clearance (free-play), 0.01 to 0.20mm. Select the shim closest to the total.
    8.  

  14.  
  15. Install the shift forks; make sure the lugs are in their correct position. Install the shifter and the gear selection rails.
  16.  
  17. Position the gasket and shim pack for the intermediate shaft. (For aluminum cases, this shim thickness was computed in step 35. For iron units, it was computed in step 53).
  18.  
  19. Position the mainshaft shim pack in the intermediate housing or, on M45, the rear cover.
  20.  
  21. Install the cover (M45) or the housing (M46), and secure with the two lower bolts finger tight. On M45 units, install the drive flange and tighten the bolts to 65-75 ft. lbs. (88-102 Nm)On M45, install the speedometer gear and O-ring at this time.
  22.  
  23. Install the gearshift rod and carrier. Tighten the bolts to 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm).
  24.  
  25. Install and tighten remaining bolts for rear cover or intermediate housing. Correct torque is 30 ft. lbs. (41 Nm).
  26.  
  27. Install the lock pin for the shifter, install the selector plate assembly and the return spring.
  28.  
  29. Install the gearshift lever (without its lockscrew and lockring) on the transmission. Hold the selector plate assembly with the palm of your hand and move the shifter through all the gears. Check for proper engagement and release of each gear. Make necessary corrections before proceeding. Remove the shifter.
  30.  
  31. Install the detent ball and spring; install a new gasket for the top cover.
  32.  
  33. Install the top cover and tighten the bolts to 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm).
  34.  
  35. Reinstall the overdrive switch, the reverse light switch and the wiring at the solenoid. The unit may be refilled with oil now or after installation in the car.
  36.  

 
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